Search results

1 – 10 of over 1000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part

Andrew Schmitz and Hartley Furtan

The U.S. 2002 Farm Bill provides sizeable direct and indirect subsidies to U.S. farmers, which has created increased competition in markets where the United States and…

Abstract

The U.S. 2002 Farm Bill provides sizeable direct and indirect subsidies to U.S. farmers, which has created increased competition in markets where the United States and Canada compete. Target prices were reintroduced and the overall level of U.S. Government support was increased. Canadian farmers will find it more difficult to compete in grains, oilseeds, and pulses. Government support in Canada for these crops is significantly below U.S. support. Canada and the United States have a significant two-way trade in agricultural products, including beef and pork. The outbreak of Mad Cow Disease in Canada in 2003 clearly illustrates the need for cooperation between the two countries.

Details

North American Economic and Financial Integration
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-094-4

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Pranav Chauhan, Arun K. Das, P.K. Nanda, Vishal Kumbhar and J.P. Yadav

Black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) is well known for its strong, hot, peppery taste and has many nutritional, pharmaceutical and traditional therapeutic uses. The aim of this…

Abstract

Purpose

Black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) is well known for its strong, hot, peppery taste and has many nutritional, pharmaceutical and traditional therapeutic uses. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant effect of different solvent extracts of black cumin seed to retard lipid and protein oxidation in raw ground pork meat during refrigerated storage (4 ± 1°C) for nine days.

Design/methodology/approach

Black cumin extracts (BCEs) were prepared using different solvents, namely, ethanol, water, ethanol:water (60:40) and methanol:hot water (60:40). Extracts were analysed for total phenolic content (TPC), 1,1 diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and reducing power. Based on the results, water extract (WE) and ethanol–water extract (EHWE) of black cumin were selected and incorporated at 1.5 per cent into freshly minced pork meat and compared with a synthetic antioxidant, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT; 100 ppm), in retarding lipid and protein oxidation. Treated and control samples were aerobically packed in low-density polyethylene bags for analysis of various parameters (pH, colour and odour score, peroxide, lipid and protein oxidation) during nine-day refrigerated storage study.

Findings

Results showed that BCEs had a good amount of TPC (4.4-7.4 mg gallic acid equivalents/g) and also DPPH scavenging activities (33.96-44.23 per cent), with WE and EHWE extracts showing highest reducing power and promising antioxidant capacity. Hence, BCEs (WE and EHWE) incorporated at 1.5 per cent into freshly minced pork meat was tested, compared to BHT (100 ppm) and control samples, in retarding lipid and protein oxidation during storage. In BCE-treated samples, thiobarbituric acid reacting substances, free fatty acids, peroxide, formation of protein carbonyls and off-odour or rancid odour development were lower than control and values were comparable with BHT. Incorporation of BCE did not negatively affect the colour of ground pork.

Originality/value

BCEs (WE and EHWE) at 1.5 per cent inhibited protein and lipid oxidation and it could be exploited commercially as an effective alternative in retarding oxidative deterioration of meat products.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 48 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Hyeoung-Su Lee and Dong-Ho Bae

The purpose of this paper is to determine the influences of fat content and storage temperature on the quality of frozen pork patties during storage to evaluate the shelf…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the influences of fat content and storage temperature on the quality of frozen pork patties during storage to evaluate the shelf life set by the manufacturer.

Design/methodology/approach

Changes in moisture content, acid value, peroxide value, thiobarbituric acid value, total volatile basic nitrogen content, and the sensory score of frozen pork patties with 10 and 15 percent fat contents during storage at −5, −15, and −23°C for six months.

Findings

Although microbiological quality remained unchanged, moisture content decreased, and lipid rancidity and protein putrefaction increased significantly during storage. More rapid deterioration in quality was observed in patties stored at −5°C than those stored at lower temperatures. Lipid rancidity and protein putrefaction increased more rapidly (but not significantly) in patties with 15 percent fat than those with 10 percent fat. Overall acceptance of the sensory properties was closely correlated with the above quality indicators, except thiobarbituric acid value. Acceptable qualities of the samples were maintained for the first two, four, and six months under storage at −5, −15, and −23°C, respectively.

Practical implications

The current shelf life of frozen pork patties set by manufacturers, assuming a storage temperature of −18°C, needs to be readjusted considering practical storage temperatures.

Originality/value

No studies have comprehensively explored the effects of fat content and storage temperatures on the quality of ground meat products during frozen storage. These approaches to determine quality changes may be useful for manufacturers to predict and control the quality of their products.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 120 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Anurag Pandey, Ramesh Chandra Keshri and Yogesh Kumar

This paper aims to develop a good quality pork sandwich spread incorporated with different levels of antioxidant mixture [butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) + butylated…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to develop a good quality pork sandwich spread incorporated with different levels of antioxidant mixture [butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) + butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT); 1:1] and to assess sensory, physico-chemical and microbiological properties of frozen product during storage.

Design/methodology/approach

Three levels of antioxidant mixture (BHA + BHT; 1:1) i.e. 100, 200 and 400 ppm were tried, and the product was compared for physico-chemical, microbiological and sensory properties along with the control during frozen storage (−18 ± 1°C).

Findings

pH and water activity decreased significantly (p < 0.05), whereas water holding capacity, 2-thiobarbituric acid reacting substances value, total plate count and psychrotrophic count increased significantly (p < 0.05) during storage period. No coliform, yeast and molds were detected throughout the study period. There was non-significant (p < 0.05) effect of antioxidant treatment on the scores of colour, texture, juiciness, adhesion ability and spreadability, but scores for flavour and overall acceptability significantly (p < 0.05) increased.

Research limitations/implications

Pork sandwich spread is envisaged to help in providing nutrition to a large section of needy population and will add a new dimension to the convenience foods.

Originality/value

Antioxidant mixture (BHA + BHT, 1:1) treatment improved the sensory and microbiological properties of pork sandwich spread at frozen storage (−18 ± 1°C). At the end of storage period (60 days), the pork sandwich spread was found safe for human consumption. Hence, BHA and BHT antioxidant mixture could be used to improve quality attributes of meat products during storage.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 46 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Katrina Levine, Ashley Chaifetz and Benjamin Chapman

Medeiros et al. (2001) estimate 3.5 million cases of foodborne illness in the USA annually are associated with inadequate cooking of animal foods or cross-contamination…

Abstract

Purpose

Medeiros et al. (2001) estimate 3.5 million cases of foodborne illness in the USA annually are associated with inadequate cooking of animal foods or cross-contamination from these foods. Past research shows home food handling practices can be risk factors for foodborne illness. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the communication of food safety guidance, specifically safe endpoint temperatures and cross-contamination risk reduction practices, in popular cookbook recipes.

Design/methodology/approach

Recipes containing raw animal ingredients in 29 popular cookbooks were evaluated through content analysis for messages related to safe endpoint temperature recommendations and reducing cross-contamination risks.

Findings

Of 1,749 recipes meeting study criteria of cooking raw animal ingredients, 1,497 contained a raw animal that could effectively be measured with a digital thermometer. Only 123 (8.2 percent) of these recipes included an endpoint temperature, of which 89 (72.3 percent) gave a correct temperature. Neutral and positive food safety behavior messages were provided in just 7.2 percent (n=126) and 5.1 percent (n=90) of recipes, respectively. When endpoint temperatures were not included, authors often provided subjective and risky recommendations.

Research limitations/implications

Further research is needed on the effect of these results on consumer behavior and to develop interventions for writing recipes with better food safety guidance.

Practical implications

Including correct food safety guidance in cookbooks may increase the potential of reducing the risk of foodborne illness.

Originality/value

Popular cookbooks are an underutilized avenue for communicating safe food handling practices and currently cookbook authors are risk amplifiers.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 119 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Inspections have been made during the year at the majority of the principal food importing ports in England and Wales in connection with the administration of the Public…

Abstract

Inspections have been made during the year at the majority of the principal food importing ports in England and Wales in connection with the administration of the Public Health (Foreign Meat) and the Public Health (Unsound Food) Regulations, 1908.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Parminder Singh

The aim of the paper is to shed light on the use of chitosans and chitooligosaccharides as biopreservatives in various foods animal. Foods of animal and aquatic origin…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of the paper is to shed light on the use of chitosans and chitooligosaccharides as biopreservatives in various foods animal. Foods of animal and aquatic origin (milk, meat, fish, eggs, sea foods, etc) become contaminated with a wide range of microorganisms (bacteria, molds and yeasts) during harvesting, transporting, processing, handling and storage operations. Due to the perishable nature of these foods, their preservation is of utmost importance. Though many synthetic chemicals are available, yet their use is quite restricted due to their hazardous effects on human health.

Design/methodology/approach

Within the domain of food industry, traditionally chitosan is used for biopreservation of foods, which is well known for its nutritional and medicinal properties in human nutrition. However, chitooligosaccharides also possess a number of nutraceutical and health promoting properties in addition to their preservative effect and shelf-life extension of foods. In this study, the comparative effects of both chitosan and chitooligosaccharides on preservation of foods of animal and aquatic origin have been summarized.

Findings

Though chitosan has been extensively studied in various foods, yet the use of chitooligosaccharides has been relatively less explored. Chitooligosaccharides are bioactive molecules generated from chitosan and have several advantages over the traditional use of chitosan both in food products and on human health. But unfortunately, little or no literature is available on the use of chitooligosaccharides for preservation of some of the foods of animal origin. Notable examples in this category include cheese, beef, pork, chicken, fish, sea foods, etc.

Originality/value

This paper focuses on the effects of chitosans and chitooligosaccharides on the processing and storage quality of foods of animal and aquatic origin, which offers a promising future for the development of functional foods.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 46 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Pornpen Panjapiyakul, Tongsuk Srinin and Kamolnate Kitsawad

The purpose of this paper is to study for the product development of Sai Krok Isan or Thai fermented sausage with Tomyum ingredients (TFS-TY) such as kaffir lime leaves…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study for the product development of Sai Krok Isan or Thai fermented sausage with Tomyum ingredients (TFS-TY) such as kaffir lime leaves, lemon grass, galangal root and chili.

Design/methodology/approach

To study the proper formula of TFS-TY in order to obtain certain characteristics of both fermented sausage and Tomyum attributes by varying the ratio of cooked glutinous rice to cooked rice of total rice content and Tomyum ingredients content. The nine-point hedonic preference method was conducted to evaluate TFS-TY with 30 untrained panelists. Consumer survey from 200 respondents were asked about their behaviors on fermented sausage and opinions to the new products.

Findings

The preference score of the 3:1 (cooked glutinous rice: cooked rice) gained the highest score in all sensory attributes as same as 16 percent of Tomyum ingredients. According to the consumer survey, the TFS-TY was accepted by 90 percent of the total 200 respondents and gained an overall score equal to 7.30±1.11.

Research limitations/implications

The varied preference of Thai respondents has affected on the acceptance of the new products. For example, some preferred very strong tastes either in sourness or spiciness, and some may be disliked.

Originality/value

The balancing characteristics of both products were very important. The new product should be identified by certain attributes in Thai fermented sausage and Tomyum. Over or less in any products gained lower preference attributes scores.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 119 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

The people of the Union of South Africa have established on a sound and satisfactory basis the beginnings of what we hope and believe will develop in due course into a…

Abstract

The people of the Union of South Africa have established on a sound and satisfactory basis the beginnings of what we hope and believe will develop in due course into a very great industry of fruit canning. The industry already meets the demands of the home market, but the people of South Africa are not great eaters of canned fruit, and about 60 per cent. of the total production is at present exported mainly to this country. The growth of the canned and bottled fruit industry has been exceedingly rapid, the output having steadily risen from about 1,500,000 lbs. in 1916–17 to over 7½ million lbs. in 1929–30. The fruit has attained a deservedly high reputation. The Fruit Export Control Acts of 1914, 1925, and 1929 are concerned in maintaining the high standard for fresh fruit, and cooperation among fruit growers themselves is a second important factor. Both of these exert an indirect but favourable influence on the fruit canning industry. It is hardly necessary to mention the physical influences which so greatly aid production of first‐class fruit. In the south‐west of the Cape Province, for example, rains are distributed. Excellent soil and bright sunlight does the rest. In spite of what has just been said, the development of the canned fruit industry has not proceeded as rapidly as might have been expected. An increase of five hundred per cent. in production in the course of fifteen years is excellent, but the value of the last figure quoted is but 156 thousand pounds sterling. It would be unfair perhaps to point out that this is but one‐tenth of the value of fresh fruit exported from the Union during the same period. Fresh fruit is the staple article of the export trade, and is likely to remain so. It is, however, but half the value of the dried fruits and two‐fifths that of the jam production of the Union. Perhaps the reasons for this relatively lower development of the canned fruit industry in South Africa at the present time is to be found in the fact that the people of South Africa are not great eaters of canned fruits, nor are they ever likely to be. In so saying, not the slightest reflection of an unfavourable kind is thrown on the canned fruit of South Africa, but the fact remains and will ever do so that so long as people are able to readily obtain an abundant supply of cheap and good fresh fruit—and the people of South Africa are in this happy position—they will turn to the orchard rather than the tin. It appears then that South Africa's market for canned fruit is the overseas market, and this as the canned fruit trade develops will claim an ever greater proportion of the canned fruit. However, the drop in prices and drop in demand in the world's markets has unfavourably affected every commodity, and canned fruit is no exception. Fruit canneries have already been established at Durban, Port Elizabeth, Cape Town—this last‐named port being the outlet for the wonderfully rich fruit grounds of the south‐west district of the Cape Province—at Paarl, Worcester, and other places. Last autumn a new cannery was established at Belleville, Cape Colony, with a present daily capacity it has been stated of 30,000 cans and a future possible output of 150,000 per day. Some five hundred fruit growers in the district are interested. It has been officially stated that over‐production and insufficient means of transport and distribution has led to great wastage of raw fruits in certain districts, so much so in fact that in many cases the fruit was not even gathered but left to rot on the ground, as transport costs were prohibitive. This is where the cannery “comes in.” Assuming an excess of the right kinds of fruit, existing markets can be supplied and new markets — for example, the Far Eastern markets—developed. The United States has at present a very considerable proportion of the world's markets. In 1931 the total imports of canned fruit into Great Britain amounted to 2,198,000 cases, and out of these the United States sent 1,888,000, Canada 25,000, Australia 109,000, and South Africa 5,000, or about quarter per cent. There seem to be no special regulations governing the trade. The Acts already referred to control the fresh fruit market. The Weights and Measures Act states that the name and address of the manufacturer and the nett weight of the contents shall be stated on the label of can or package, but the elaborated regulations of the United States and Canada have, at present at least, no counterpart in South Africa. The reason for this may be that the overseas trade in canned fruit is at present comparatively small when compared with that of certain other countries, and trade competition has not at present become particularly acute. This and the home market would seem to be controlled so far as the purity of the products is concerned by the Act, No. 13, of 1929, and the Regulations framed under sections 13, 14, 19, 33 and 44 of this Act.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 35 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

The following definitions and standards for food products have been adopted as a guide for the officials of this Department in enforcing the Food and Drugs Act. These are…

Abstract

The following definitions and standards for food products have been adopted as a guide for the officials of this Department in enforcing the Food and Drugs Act. These are standards of identity and are not to be confused with standards of quality or grade; they are so framed as to exclude substances not mentioned in the definition and in each instance imply that the product is clean and sound. These definitions and standards include those published in S. R. A., F. D. 2, revision 4, and those adopted October 28, 1936.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 40 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

1 – 10 of over 1000