Search results

1 – 10 of over 14000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 March 1976

H.L. Theuns

Nowadays it is — to a certain extent — popular to criticize international tourism to third world countries. These criticisms may base on widely divergent aspects of the…

Abstract

Nowadays it is — to a certain extent — popular to criticize international tourism to third world countries. These criticisms may base on widely divergent aspects of the phenomenon, ranging from for instance the economic impact to the environmental impact or the psychological impact. Without implicitly suggesting that the non‐economic effects of international tourism in developing countries are unimportant we will concentrate in the following on the economic impact. The reason for this is twofold:

Details

The Tourist Review, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0251-3102

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 August 2016

Narendranathan Maniyalath and Roshni Narendran

Past research has identified a negative association between national income and female entrepreneurship rates. Data from Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) 2012 are…

Abstract

Purpose

Past research has identified a negative association between national income and female entrepreneurship rates. Data from Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) 2012 are analyzed to determine whether the Human Development Index (HDI) predicts female entrepreneurship rates. The purpose of this paper is to indicate how other socioeconomic variables that measure human development interact with national income to predict female entrepreneurship rates.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were drawn from the 2012 GEM data set, which provides information on female entrepreneurship rates in 61 countries. To test relevant hypotheses, dependent and socio-demographic variables were sourced from international databases to perform quantitative cross-country regression analyses.

Findings

National income significantly predicted female entrepreneurship rates in the univariate analysis. However, this relationship became non-significant when development indices were added to the model. In contrast, the HDI, the Gender Inequality Index, and national religious composition were robust, significant predictors.

Practical implications

This study presents evidence that human and gender development indices, and national religious composition, are better predictors of female entrepreneurship rates than national income. Thus, studies on female entrepreneurship rates should account and adjust for human development and gender equality indices. As religiosity continues to be pervasive within multiple nations, policymakers should consider this when developing interventions geared toward promoting female entrepreneurship.

Originality/value

This paper identifies factors other than economic determinism to explain variance in female entrepreneurship rates and demonstrates that human development and gender inequality indices are better predictors of female entrepreneurship rates.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 22 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 5 September 2008

Minh Quang Dao

This paper aims to examine the impact of the components of human capital on the extent of poverty and income distribution in developing countries.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the impact of the components of human capital on the extent of poverty and income distribution in developing countries.

Design/methodology/approach

Data for all variables are from the World Development Report, 2006 and 2007. The least‐squares estimation technique in a multivariate linear regression is applied. It is noted that the introduction of interaction terms between income and the components of human capital yields better statistical results, as pointed out in the economic development literature.

Findings

Based on data from the World Bank and using a sample of 40 developing economies, it is found that the fraction of the population below the poverty line is linearly dependent upon gender parity ratio in primary and secondary schools, the prevalence of child malnutrition, per capita purchasing power parity gross national income, the maternal mortality rate, and the percentage of births attended by skilled health staff. Using another sample of 35 developing countries, it is found that income inequality linearly depends on the same explanatory variables plus the infant mortality rate and the primary school completion rate.

Practical implications

Statistical results of such empirical examination will assist governments in those countries identify areas that need to be improved upon in order to alleviate poverty and improve the distribution of income.

Originality/value

This paper provides useful information on the impact of the components of human capital on the extent of poverty and income distribution in developing countries.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 35 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 12 October 2015

Peter Omondi-Ochieng

This study aims to examine the association between national economic prosperity (measured by per capita gross national income – GNI) and the acquisition of football…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the association between national economic prosperity (measured by per capita gross national income – GNI) and the acquisition of football workers (indicated by number of amateur footballers, football officials and professional footballers) and predict football performances (specified by qualifications at continental football championships) based on per capita GNI and football workers.

Design/methodology/approach

Archival data of 203 national football teams were utilized based on continental football championship records before 2014. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to build various models to ascertain their predictive values. Economically prosperous nations are those with a per capita GNI of more than US$10,000, and unprosperous nations are those with per capita GNI of less than US$10,000.

Findings

The analysis indicated that per capita GNI was significantly and positively associated with the acquisition of football workers – but not predictive of football performance. Rather football officials and professionals emerged to be the key predictors of football performance and not per capita GNI. The final model predicted 73.1 and 74.2 per cent of performance and non-performance, respectively, of national football teams correctly.

Research limitations

The findings were largely restricted to quantitative archival data for the last continental championships. However, future research may benefit from using qualitative interviews, questionnaires and or ethnographic studies of players, teams and or managers.

Practical implications

The results revealed that economic prosperity positively influences the acquisition of football resources (here – in football workers). Specifically, targeted production of football workers, such as the acquisition of a large number of effective professional footballers and officials, can boost football performance – and not merely economic prosperity.

Originality/value

Actual football-specific human capital (and not general population) was used in predicting continental football qualifications – a factor uncommon in such studies.

Details

Team Performance Management, vol. 21 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7592

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 8 May 2019

Abstract

Details

African Economic Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-784-5

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 7 December 2015

Ojijo Odhiambo and John E. Odada

The Government of Namibia has traditionally used fiscal (especially tax) policy as an instrument for annual budget formulation. Marginal tax rates for profits and various…

Abstract

Purpose

The Government of Namibia has traditionally used fiscal (especially tax) policy as an instrument for annual budget formulation. Marginal tax rates for profits and various income brackets have been changed back and forth in response to changes in economic conditions. However, to date, no attempt has been made to evaluate the effectiveness of these reforms in achieving the broad national economic goals, in general, and the potential effects on government revenue in the short, medium and long-run periods, in particular. The purpose of this paper is to fill this information gap by analysing the implication of the 2008 zero-rating of value added tax (VAT) on basic commodities for aggregate demand and government revenue.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses an analytical framework based on economic theory which posits that in an open economy, which trades with the rest of the world, aggregate demand for goods and services is made up of consumption demand, investment demand, government demand and net exports and that real sector equilibrium is attained when aggregate supply of goods and services is equal to aggregate demand for goods and services.

Findings

Using the Namibia Household Income and Expenditure Survey results, the annual loss in government revenue attributable to this policy is, ceteris paribus, estimated to be N$310.4 million. With a marginal propensity to consume out of disposable income of 0.89, total expenditure by households on goods and services is likely to increase by N$276.3 million per annum. In the medium-to-long-run, national income will have increased by N$303.9 million per annum. Taxes which are responsive to changes in the level of national income will have increased by N$85.7 million, compensating for just over one quarter of the estimated loss in government revenue of N$310.4 million.

Research limitations/implications

The study has used a partial equilibrium model as opposed to computable general equilibrium model, which provides a consistent framework that meets most of the sectoral and institutional data requirements for the simple reason that a social accounting matrix which can be used readily to connect data from different sources, such as national accounts and household surveys and would thus have been ideal model for analysing the impacts of the VAT tax reform has not been developed for Namibia.

Practical implications

The paper provides a number of practical policy options available for government including, but not limited to, increasing direct taxes, VAT rate on specific (luxury) goods and services and statutory VAT rate on all other commodities not zero-rated, other taxes such as taxes; and borrowing from external sources.

Social implications

It is established that zero-rating VAT on all the basic commodities in 2008 reduces the VAT paid by all Namibian households by N$310.4 million per year, which represents the annual increase in the disposable income of all households. And with a marginal propensity to consume out of disposable income of 0.89, total expenditure by households on goods and services will increase by N$276.3 million per year.

Originality/value

This paper presents the first attempt at evaluating the effectiveness of tax (VAT) policy reforms in Namibia in achieving the broad national economic goals, in general, and the potential effects on government revenue in the short, medium and long-run periods, in particular.

Details

African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-0705

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 15 May 2009

Minh Quang Dao

The purpose of this paper is to estimate the determinants of rural and national poverty, of income distribution, and of agricultural growth in developing countries.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to estimate the determinants of rural and national poverty, of income distribution, and of agricultural growth in developing countries.

Design/methodology/approach

Data for all variables are from the 2008 World Development Report. The author applies the least‐squares estimation technique in a multivariate linear regression.

Findings

It is found, from different size samples, that: the percentage of the rural population living below the national rural poverty line in a developing country is dependent upon the logarithm of per capita purchasing power parity gross national income and the region in which it is located; it linearly depends on its per capita agriculture value added and its geographic location; agriculture value added growth linearly depends on the share of women in the agricultural labor force, whether the developing country is agriculture‐based, and whether it is located in Europe or Central Asia; and agricultural productivity linearly depends on the amount of arable and permanent cropland per agricultural person, the share of women in the agricultural labor force, and the share of agricultural employment in total employment.

Originality/value

Statistical results in this paper will assist governments in developing countries assess the magnitude of agricultural policy variables in an effort to use agriculture as an engine for economic development.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 February 2007

Michael A. Clemens and Todd J. Moss

The purpose of this paper is to examine the historical origins of the international goal for rich countries to devote 0.7 per cent of gross national income (GNI) to aid…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the historical origins of the international goal for rich countries to devote 0.7 per cent of gross national income (GNI) to aid, in order to assess its present relevance.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper reviews all the original documents, interviews decision makers of that era, and uses their same essential method to estimate a new goal with today's data.

Findings

First, the target was calculated using a model which, applied to today's data, yields ludicrous results. Second, no government ever agreed in a UN forum to actually reach 0.7 per cent – though many pledged to move toward it. Third, ODA/GNI per se does not constitute a meaningful metric for the adequacy of aid flows.

Research limitations/implications

Any further work on aid targets must be based on a country‐by‐country assessment of realistic funding opportunities.

Practical implications

The 0.7 per cent goal has no modern academic basis, has failed as a lobbying tool, and should be abandoned.

Originality/value

Anyone who studies or works on the ways that rich countries can assist the development process must confront the 0.7 per cent goal sooner or later. The paper shows for the first time that it arose from an economic model with no modern credibility, and that – contrary to conventional wisdom – none of the UN documents contains a promise to meet the goal.

Details

International Journal of Development Issues, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1446-8956

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 3 May 2011

Bahriye Ilhan and Hakan Yaman

The aim of this paper is to analyze and compare the performance of the construction sector in Turkey and selected European Union (EU) countries using input‐output (IO…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to analyze and compare the performance of the construction sector in Turkey and selected European Union (EU) countries using input‐output (IO) tables for the years 1998 and 2002.

Design/methodology/approach

IO tables are used to analyze and compare the construction sector. First the input‐output analysis and the construction sector are briefly introduced. Then, the data and methodology are specified. A set of indicators obtained from the data is used for the comparative analysis.

Findings

The construction sector of the selected 13 countries is examined in terms of Gross National Product (GNP) and National Income (NI) shares; direct and total construction backward and forward linkage indicators and direct and total construction inputs from manufacturing and services reflecting the technologies used in construction. The key findings are pointed out in the conclusion.

Research limitations/implications

The lack of data from Turkey relating to recent years and incompatibility of new and old data limit this study's scope to the two years.

Originality/value

The concept of using IO analysis for comparing the construction sector has been around for a considerable period of time. This paper has an importance for comparing the construction sector in Turkey and some selected EU countries, being the first study in that field in Turkey, and is therefore of direct importance for the Turkish construction sector.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 18 July 2017

Mohammad Nurunnabi

This study investigates the tax evasion practices in a lower-middle income economy in South Asia, with specific reference to Bangladesh (which is the only economy within…

Abstract

This study investigates the tax evasion practices in a lower-middle income economy in South Asia, with specific reference to Bangladesh (which is the only economy within South Asia that had consistent 6% and above gross domestic product (GDP) growth from 2011 to 2013). This study adopted mixed methodology (documentary analyses and a focus group interviews with 20 participants) to reach the overall objective of the research. Using Hofstede et al.’s (2010) cultural theory, the contribution of the study is that the cultural dimension itself cannot correspond to the causes of tax evasion, the other institutional factors (e.g., political connectedness in both private and public sectors, multinational companies (MNC)’s role and corruption, and a lack of public sector accountability and enforcement) are needed to complement the causes of tax evasion. The second major contribution is that Hofstede’s last two dimensions (i.e., short-term and restraint society) can correspond to the preliminary four dimensions (i.e., uncertainty avoidance (UA), masculinity, power distance (PD), and individualism). A restraint society such as Bangladesh is short-term oriented and has established corruption norms and secretive culture. There is also a perception by corporate business that the tax system as unfair and this has major consequences for the poor and the level of trust between the tax authorities and the taxpayers. This study also questions Hofstede’s model application in other developing economies with military and democracy political regimes. The major policy implications include Income Tax Ordinance, the reform of tax administration and enforcement. The novelty of this study rests in the fact that the findings may well inform local and international policymakers (e.g., World Bank, International Monetary Fund (IMF), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), and the Asian Development Bank (ADB)) regarding how to tackle tax evasion practices in lower-middle income economies like Bangladesh. Further, it fills a gap in the literature exploring tax evasion in a lower-middle income economy – in this case, Bangladesh.

1 – 10 of over 14000