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Article
Publication date: 10 April 2017

Kankan Ji, Xingquan Zhang, Shubao Yang, Liping Shi, Shiyi Wang and Yuguo Wu

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate surface integrity of quenched steel 1045 ground drily by the brazed cubic boron nitride (CBN) grinding wheel and the black SiC…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate surface integrity of quenched steel 1045 ground drily by the brazed cubic boron nitride (CBN) grinding wheel and the black SiC wheel, respectively. Surface integrity, including surface roughness, sub-surface hardness, residual stresses and surface morphology, was investigated in detail, and the surface quality of samples ground by two grinding wheels was compared.

Design/methodology/approach

In the present work, surface integrity of quenched steel 1045 machined by the CBN grinding wheel and the SiC wheel was investigated systematically. All the specimens were machined with a single pass in the down-cutting mode of dry condition. Surface morphology of the ground specimen was observed by using OLYMPUS BX51M optical microscopy. Surface roughness of seven points was measured by using a surface roughness tester at a cut-off length of 1.8 mm and the measurement traces were perpendicular to the grinding direction. Sub-surface micro-hardness was measured by using HVS-1000 digital micro-hardness tester after the cross-section surface was polished. The residual stress was tested by using X-350A X-ray stress analyzer.

Findings

When the cut depth is increased from 0.01 to 0.07 mm, the steel surface machined by the CBN wheel remains clear grinding mark, lower roughness, higher micro-hardness and higher magnitude of compressive stress and fine microstructure, while the surface machined by the SiC grinding wheel becomes worse with increasing of cut depth. The value of micro-hardness decreases, and the surface roughness increases, and the surface compressive stress turns into tensile stress. Some micro-cracks and voids occur when the sample is processed by the SiC grinding wheel with cut depth 0.07 mm.

Originality/value

In this paper, the specimens of quenched steel 1045 were machined by the CBN grinding wheel and the SiC wheel with various cutting depths. The processing quality resulted from the CBN grinding wheel is better than that resulted from the SiC grinding wheel.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

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Article
Publication date: 26 June 2007

Hiroki Endo and Etsuo Marui

This study seeks to clarify the behavior of ground materials and the grinding mechanism corresponding to the wear of abrasives, in the grinding process by coated abrasives.

Abstract

Purpose

This study seeks to clarify the behavior of ground materials and the grinding mechanism corresponding to the wear of abrasives, in the grinding process by coated abrasives.

Design/methodology/approach

Cemented carbide ball indenters for abrasive grains were used. Cemented carbide ball indenters have a definite shape. Grinding process is carried out using a wear‐testing machine with a reciprocating motion. This is an abrasive wear test. The deformation of the ground material is observed by the measurement of the worn groove and optical microscopic photograph of the worn ground surfaces.

Findings

Grinding process regularly proceeds when indenter diameter is small, that is, abrasive has a good cutting quality. However, when abrasives are gradually worn and the cutting quality becomes worse, a groove formed by grinding process is again filled up by the re‐adhesion of the generated worn debris. So, the grinding process by coated abrasives is impossible.

Research limitations/implications

To clarify the effects of indenter shape and its material on the abrasive wear of the workpiece or grinding process by coated abrasives, the additional experiments are now planned using other indenters having different shape or material in the laboratory.

Practical implications

In this research, interesting phenomena in grinding process by coated abrasives are found. This result is useful for the improvement of coated abrasives.

Originality/value

It is clarified that the grinding process by coated abrasives (that is, the behavior of ground material) can be simulated by this abrasive wear experiment.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 59 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2018

Juan Luis Osa, Naiara Ortega, Gorka Vidal, Borja Fernandez-Gauna, Asier Carballo and Ibon Tolosa

The granular structure of a grinding wheel determines its performance remarkably when grinding. Nowadays, grinding wheels are man-made porous conglomerates of hard…

Abstract

Purpose

The granular structure of a grinding wheel determines its performance remarkably when grinding. Nowadays, grinding wheels are man-made porous conglomerates of hard abrasive grains bonded with a binder. As an engineered material, it would be interesting to foresee the behaviour of the wheel, but it is hindered under its complex heterogeneous nature. Recently, some models based on the discrete element method (DEM) have been presented to model the grinding wheel. This paper aims to identify and propose a framework that must comply with such models and to identify new applications for DEM models in grinding.

Design/methodology/approach

First, the characteristics of the grinding wheel are described. In this way, the framework of DEM models of a grinding wheel material is developed, reproducing both the granular morphology and stiffness.

Findings

The paper asserts a promising future that provides the DEM in the modelling of grinding.

Originality/value

The potential of DEM in grinding is analysed, proposing new applications. It can be used as topography model, which can also model the stiffness. In addition, DEM opens a new interesting research line: the modelling of the grit breakout. It draws up the development of essential dressing and wear models.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 35 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2012

Richard P. Daisley and Boppana V. Chowdary

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of liquid carbon dioxide (LCO2) on grinding of stainless steel.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of liquid carbon dioxide (LCO2) on grinding of stainless steel.

Design/methodology/approach

A factorial experimental approach was used to compare the LCO2's performance against grinding under dry air and emulsion coolants.

Findings

The experimental results have a great use to practitioners. It was found that under special conditions, LCO2 proves to be an alternative coolant for grinding of temperature sensitive materials. Furthermore, grinding under LCO2 conditions produced the lowest tangential force, while the normal forces were close to the values found under emulsion fluid environment. When compared to grinding under dry conditions, LCO2 coolant was successful in reducing the work piece temperatures. LCO2 and emulsion conditions inhibit work hardening by reducing material deformation at the grinding zone.

Originality/value

The paper shows that sub‐zero temperature coolants have the ability to bring about lower grinding temperatures than what is typically achieved under conventional fluids.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 64 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2005

Eric R. Marsh and Byron R. Knapp

The need for an instrumented grinding system that addresses the requirements of ductile regime machining of brittle materials is implemented. The static and dynamic…

Abstract

Purpose

The need for an instrumented grinding system that addresses the requirements of ductile regime machining of brittle materials is implemented. The static and dynamic stiffness of the structural loop of the grinding system meets or exceeds those of previous researchers. An instrumented spindle is introduced which features capacitance gages embedded in the stator of an air bearing spindle.

Design/methodology/approach

The instrumented spindle is demonstrated to provide valuable force feedback for fine grinding and is capable of resolving intra‐revolution force components. Tests are performed to demonstrate the use of the instrumented spindle for ductile grinding of brittle materials with superabrasive wheels.

Findings

The results of the test show that the instrumented spindle is capable of determining intra‐revolution force components for square alumina‐titanium carbide wafers.

Originality/value

Outlines some important work developing and building instrumented spindles to aid the precision grinding industry.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article
Publication date: 13 December 2018

Yusuf S. Dambatta, Mohd Sayuti, Ahmed A.D. Sarhan, Hamdi Bin Ab Shukor, Nur Aqilah binti Derahman and Sunusi Marwana Manladan

Optimisation of grinding processes involves enhancing the surface quality and reducing the cost of manufacturing through reduction of power consumptions. Recent research…

Abstract

Purpose

Optimisation of grinding processes involves enhancing the surface quality and reducing the cost of manufacturing through reduction of power consumptions. Recent research works have indicated the minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) system is used to achieve near dry machining of alloys and hard materials. This study aims to provide an experimental analysis of the grinding process during machining of aluminium alloy (Al6061-T6). MQL nanofluid was used as the lubricant for the grinding operations. The lubricant was formed by suspending silicon dioxide nanoparticles in canola vegetable oil. The effect of input parameters (i.e. nanoparticle concentration, depth of cut, air pressure and feed rate) on the grinding forces and surface quality was studied. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) prediction modelling was used to predict the specific normal force, specific tangential force and surface quality, the ANFIS models were found to have prediction accuracies of 97.4, 96.6 and 98.5 per cent, respectively. Further study shows that both the specific grinding forces and surface roughness are inversely proportional to the nanofluid concentration. Also, the depth of cut and table feed rate were found to have a directly proportional relationship with both the grinding forces and surface roughness. Moreover, higher MQL air pressure was found to offer better delivery of the atomised nanofluid into the grinding region.

Design/methodology/approach

Grinding experiments were performed using MQL nanofluid as the lubricant. The lubricant was formed by suspending silicon dioxide nanoparticles in canola vegetable oil. The effect of input parameters (i.e. nanoparticle concentration, depth of cut, air pressure and feed rate) on the grinding forces and surface quality has been studied.

Findings

The grinding process parameters were optimised using Taguchi S/N ratio analysis, whereas the prediction of the response parameters was done using ANFIS modelling technique. The developed ANFIS models for predicting the specific normal force, specific tangential force and surface quality were found to have prediction accuracies of 97.4, 96.6 and 98.5 per cent, respectively. Further findings show that both the specific grinding forces and surface roughness are inversely proportional to the percentage of nanoparticle concentration in the lubricant. Also, the depth of cut and table feed rate were found to exhibit a direct proportional relationship with both the grinding forces and surface roughness, while high MQL air pressure was observed to offer more efficient delivery of the atomised nanofluid into the grinding region.

Practical implications

The work can applied into manufacturing industries to prevent unnecessary trials and material wastages.

Originality/value

The purpose of this study is to develop an artificial intelligent model for predicting the outcomes of MQL grinding of the aluminium alloy material using ANFIS modelling technique.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 71 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1989

EMO (the acronym for Exposition de la Machine Outil) is the biennial machine tool exhibition. It is held at the Hannover trade fair complex every fourth year. On alternate…

Abstract

EMO (the acronym for Exposition de la Machine Outil) is the biennial machine tool exhibition. It is held at the Hannover trade fair complex every fourth year. On alternate fourth years the venue is either Paris or Milan.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 41 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 21 November 2018

Edyta Lyczkowska-Widlak, Pawel Lochynski, Ginter Nawrat and Edward Chlebus

This paper aims to present the way of modifying surfaces of 316L stainless steel elements that were manufactured in the selected laser melting (SLM) technology and then…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present the way of modifying surfaces of 316L stainless steel elements that were manufactured in the selected laser melting (SLM) technology and then subjected to mechanical and electrolytic processing (electropolishing [EP]). The surface of the as-generated and commercial produced parts was modified by grinding and EP, and the results were compared. The authors also present an example of the application of EP for the final processing of a sample technological model – an initial prototype of a 316L steel implant manufactured in the SLM technology.

Design/methodology/approach

The analyzed properties included surface topography, roughness, resistance to corrosion, microhardness and the chemical composition of the surface before and after EP. The roughness described with the Ra, Rt and Rz was determined before and after EP of samples manufactured from 316L steel with use of traditional methods and additive technologies.

Findings

EP provides us with the opportunity to process elements with a complex structure, which would not be possible with use of other methods (such as milling or grinding). Depending on the expected final surface of elements after the SLM process, it is possible to reduce the surface roughness with the use of EP (for t = 20 min, Ra = 3.53 ± 0.37 µm and for t = 40 min, Ra = 3.23 ± 0.22 µm) or mechanical processing and EP (for t = 4 min, Ra = 0.13 ± 0.02 µm). The application of the EP method to elements made from 316L steel, in a bath consisting of sulfuric acid (VI), H2SO4 (35 Vol.%), phosphoric acid (V), H3PO4 (60.5 Vol.%) and triethanolamine 99 per cent (4.5 Vol.%), allows us to improve the surface smoothness and to obtain a value of the Ra parameter ranging from 0.11 to 0.15 µm. The application of a current density of 20 A/dm2 and a bath temperature of 55ºC results in an adequate smoothing of the surface (Ra < 0.16 µm) for both cold rolled and SLM elements after grinding. The application of EP, to both cold rolled elements and those after SLM, considerably improves the resistance to corrosion. The results of potentiodynamic corrosion resistance tests (jkor, EKA and Vp) of the 316L stainless steel samples demonstrate that the values of Vp for elements subjected to EP (commercial material: 1.3·10-4 mm/year, SLM material: 3.5·10-4 mm/year) are lower than for samples that were only ground (commercial material: 4.0·10-4 mm/year, SLM material: 9.6·10-4 mm/year). The microhardness was found to be significantly higher in elements manufactured using SLM technology than in those cold rolled and ground. The ground 316L steel samples were characterized by a microhardness of 318 HV (cold rolled) and 411 HV (SLM material), whereas the microhardness of samples subjected to EP was 230 HV (commercial material) and 375 HV (SLM material).

Originality/value

The 316L samples were built by SLM method. The surface of the SLM samples was modified by EP. Surface morphological changes after EP were studied using optical methods. Potentiodynamic tests enabled to notice changes in the corrosion resistance of 316L. Microhardness results after electropolished 316L stainless steel were shown. The chemical composition of 316L surface samples was presented. The smoothening of the surface amounted to Ra = 0.16 µm.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1965

T.Z. Richards

A BRIGHT future has been predicted for the refractory metals for aerospace applications. Typical uses include; solid propellent rocket motor nozzles, re‐entry surfaces for…

Abstract

A BRIGHT future has been predicted for the refractory metals for aerospace applications. Typical uses include; solid propellent rocket motor nozzles, re‐entry surfaces for gliders and nuclear space power systems (liquid metal containers). Refractory metals are already employed on ram jet engines, hot structure sections capable of supporting aerodynamic and thermal stresses, or as heat shields protecting low temperature structural members.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 37 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1989

John M. Barnard

Production Engineers have been continually seeking to find new and improved ways of converting an unmachined component into its finished design. Much of their time is…

Abstract

Production Engineers have been continually seeking to find new and improved ways of converting an unmachined component into its finished design. Much of their time is spent investigating the contribution that new cutting tool materials and coolants could give them in the production of their components. In the field of production grinding more and more attention is being focused on the use of Superabrasives and in particular on ‘Cubic Boron Nitride’ for the grinding of ferrous materials. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the use of ‘Cubic Boron Nitride’ (C.B.N.) in the production grinding field and how the Engineer should approach the application of this highly versatile abrasive.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 61 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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