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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2013

Zheng‐Xin Wang

The purpose of this paper is to propose an extending correlation analysis method to deal with the correlation analysis between the sequences with incomplete information.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose an extending correlation analysis method to deal with the correlation analysis between the sequences with incomplete information.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the axiomatic definition of a grey number and its greyness degree in grey system theory, the whitenization mean, whitenization difference, whitenization covariance of sequences with interval grey numbers and their greyness degrees are defined in turn. In addition, the whitenization correlation coefficient and its greyness degree of sequences with interval grey numbers are also defined. By using the relationship between the greyness degree and kernel for a grey number, the transformation formula from the whitenization value and greyness degree of correlation coefficient to form of interval grey numbers are put forward further.

Findings

The whitenization value of correlation coefficient efficient of two arbitrary sequences with interval grey numbers have symmetry, with same greyness degree but without normalization in the interval [−1, 1]; the mean, difference, covariance and correlation coefficient defined in statistics are all the special cases of those in sequences with interval grey numbers.

Research limitations/implications

Due to the complexity of operation of grey numbers, the reliability of correlation coefficient of interval numbers sequence is difficult to be tested by constructing statistics at present. The further research is needed.

Practical implications

The correlation analysis method of interval grey numbers can contribute to the further researches on the incomplete information system in the real world.

Originality/value

On the basis of grey system theory, a correlation analysis method for analyzing information incomplete sequences is proposed.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 42 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 December 2020

Sheng Xu, Qingde Yue and Binbin Lu

The implementation of the innovation-driven development strategy is of practical significance for improving the quality and efficiency of economic growth and accelerating…

Abstract

Purpose

The implementation of the innovation-driven development strategy is of practical significance for improving the quality and efficiency of economic growth and accelerating the transformation of economic development mode. The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of innovation-driven strategies on marine industry agglomeration and industrial transformation.

Design/methodology/approach

In traditional grey correlation analysis, when the positive and negative areas cancel each other out during the integration process, the calculation result of the correlation degree is often inconsistent with the qualitative analysis. For this reason, from the perspective of curve similarity, this paper constructs two response curves through the relative change area of the two curves and the relative area change ratio of similar degree, thus constructing an improved grey relational model.

Findings

The authors find that the innovation investment has a better correlation with marine industrial agglomeration. It also found that Guangdong Province has the highest degree of correlation between innovation indicators and marine industrial agglomeration. Much beyond the authors’ expectation, in the areas where marine industrial agglomeration is high, the synergistic effect is not obvious by using the location entropy method.

Originality/value

The improved grey correlation analysis method can effectively overcome the phenomenon that the positive and negative areas cancel each other in the integration process of the original algorithm, and it can also effectively measure the negative correlation between variables. This paper explores the impact of innovation drive on the agglomeration of marine industries, which is of great significance to the sustainable development of marine economy.

Details

Grey Systems: Theory and Application, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-9377

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 July 2014

Xiaoning Li, Xinbo Liao, Xuerui Tan and Haijing Wang

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate resource configuration and service ability in hospital on public private partnership (PPP) model (Chaonan Minsheng Hospital of…

247

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate resource configuration and service ability in hospital on public private partnership (PPP) model (Chaonan Minsheng Hospital of Guangdong Province), supplying decision-making reference for participants of hospital on PPP model.

Design/methodology/approach

Four model of grey relational analysis (GRA) (Deng's correlation degree, grey absolute correlation degree, grey relative correlation degree and grey comprehensive correlation degree) are applied to evaluate resource configuration and service ability, a total of 11 indicators of hospital on PPP model public hospital and private hospital from 2007 to 2011.

Findings

The paper finds that different GRA models have different results when the paper applied them to evaluate resource configuration and service ability in hospital on PPP model. More than 60 per cent indicators of resource configuration (total six indicators) and service ability (total six indicators) are assessed as “hospital on PPP model ≻ public hospital” or “hospital on PPP model≻ private hospital” from three models of Deng's correlation degree, grey absolute correlation degree and grey comprehensive correlation degree.

Practical implications

Evaluation of resource configuration and service ability for hospital on PPP model with GRA makes results quantified objective and provides reference for decision making and management. GRA makes the comparison of resource configuration and service ability between hospital on PPP model and other model hospitals becoming possible.

Originality/value

The shortcoming for data analysis method of “large sample” is overcome and data analysis method of “small sample” is realized by using GRA, which broaden the method of evaluating hospital on PPP model.

Details

Grey Systems: Theory and Application, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-9377

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 November 2022

Sifeng Liu, Yong Tao, Naiming Xie, Liangyan Tao and Mingli Hu

The purpose of this paper is to summarize the advances in grey system theory research and various application achievements in science and engineering. At the same time, it…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to summarize the advances in grey system theory research and various application achievements in science and engineering. At the same time, it commemorates the 40th anniversary of the birth of grey system theory and the 10th anniversary of Grey Systems–Theory and Application.

Design/methodology/approach

Firstly, the innovations of theoretical research in grey system theory were summarized and some of the widely recognized new results are briefly described. By searching and combing the research results of grey system theory in China national knowledge infrastructure (CNKI) database and Web of Science by Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), this paper shows the rapid development trend of grey system theory in the past 40 years, and the successful applications of grey system theory in the fields of social sciences, natural sciences and engineering technologies.

Findings

More than 227 thousands literature were found by input 10 phrases such as grey system, grey number and sequence operator etc. in CNKI database. After entering the new century, the number of grey system papers included in CNKI database is increasing rapidly. Since 2008, more than 10 thousands papers have been included per year and more than 15 thousands papers have been included per year since 2014. Grey system method and model are widely used in physics, chemistry, biology and other fields of natural science, as well as transportation, electric power, machinery and other fields of engineering technology, and a large number of valuable results have been achieved.

Practical implications

It can be seen that the grey system theory plays an important role in promoting China’s scientific and technological progress, innovation and development and high-level talent training from tens of thousands of literatures marked with important national science and technology projects and a large number of grey system literatures published by China’s double first-class universities and double first-class discipline construction universities.

Originality/value

Both innovations of theoretical research and practical application play important role in the growth of new theory. The innovations of theoretical research provide methods and tools for practical application, which is conducive to improve application efficiency and broaden application fields. A large number of practical applications needs have become the source of theoretical innovation and the solid background for the birth of theoretical innovation achievements.

Details

Grey Systems: Theory and Application, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-9377

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 April 2019

Xiaoyi He, Liping Li, Xiaojian Liu, Yongsheng Wu, Shujiang Mei and Zhen Zhang

Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common infectious disease in infants and children. HFMD has caused millions of cases and a large epidemic worldwide. A number of…

Abstract

Purpose

Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common infectious disease in infants and children. HFMD has caused millions of cases and a large epidemic worldwide. A number of studies have shown that the incidence of HFMD is closely related to various factors such as meteorological factors, environmental air pollution factors and socio-economic factors. However, there are few studies that systematically consider the impact of various factors on the incidence of HFMD. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used grey correlation analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) method to systematically analyse the impact of meteorological factors, health resource factors, socio-economic factors and environmental air pollution factors on the incidence of HFMD in Shenzhen.

Findings

The incidence of HFMD in Shenzhen was affected by multiple factors. Grey correlation analysis found eight influencing factors which are as follows: volume of industrial waste gas emission; the days of air quality equal to or above grade; the volume of industrial nitrogen oxide emission; precipitation; the mean air temperature; the gross domestic product; the expenditure for medical and health care; and the gross domestic product per capita. PCA found that the gross domestic product, the volume of industrial soot emission, the relative humidity, and the days of air quality equal to or above grade have a higher load value.

Originality/value

This study is the one of the first studies that apply the grey correlation analysis to analyse the influencing factors of HFMD in the English literature, which to some extent fills up the blank in this field.

Details

Grey Systems: Theory and Application, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-9377

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 14 August 2018

Xuemei Li, Ya Zhang and Kedong Yin

The traditional grey relational models directly describe the behavioural characteristics of the systems based on the sample point connections. Few grey relational models…

Abstract

Purpose

The traditional grey relational models directly describe the behavioural characteristics of the systems based on the sample point connections. Few grey relational models can measure the dynamic periodic fluctuation rules of the objects, and most of these models do not have affinities, which results in instabilities of the relational results because of sequence translation. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Fourier transform functions are used to fit the system behaviour curves, redefine the area difference between the curves and construct a grey relational model based on discrete Fourier transform (DFTGRA).

Findings

To verify its validity, feasibility and superiority, DFTGRA is applied to research on the correlation between macroeconomic growth and marine economic growth in China coastal areas. It is proved that DFTGRA has the superior properties of affinity, symmetry, uniqueness, etc., and wide applicability.

Originality/value

DFTGRA can not only be applied to equidistant and equal time sequences but also be adopted for non-equidistant and unequal time sequences. DFTGRA can measure both the global relational degree and the dynamic correlation of the variable cyclical fluctuation between sequences.

Details

Marine Economics and Management, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2516-158X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 August 2012

Yeqing Guan and Dejin Song

The paper attempts to design an efficient algorithm for bearing track correlation of multi‐sensor on the same platform using grey incidence analysis which is on the basis…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper attempts to design an efficient algorithm for bearing track correlation of multi‐sensor on the same platform using grey incidence analysis which is on the basis of the line segment Hausdorff distance.

Design/methodology/approach

Starting from the line segment, Hausdorff distance that has been extended to calculate the distance between line segment sets by many scholars has been used for face recognition achieving good results. The degree of grey incidence is defined based on the above distance and properties which include normality, symmetry and closeness, are proved. Furthermore, a grey incidence matrix is built. With only the azimuth information detected by bearing sensors track correlation is difficult to judge, however grey incidence analysis can quickly and accurately determine whether two tracks are from the same target, and so an algorithm is designed to solve this dilemma. In the last part of the paper simulation experiment is conducted.

Findings

The results are convincing: not only the algorithm proposed in the paper can solve the problem of track correlation of bearing‐only sensors, but also the algorithm can judge the correlation degree of both tracks even in the case of intensive targets.

Practical implications

The method exposed in the paper can be used to judge correlation degree of tracks detected by different sensors even for less information, and also be used to determine the similarity of two waveforms in the field of engineering.

Originality/value

The paper succeeds in introducing the line segment Hausdorff distance into grey incidence analysis and on the basis of that an algorithm is designed to solve the problem of track correlation.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 41 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 2016

Jiajia Chen, Rong Zhang and Bin Liu

The purpose of this paper is to find the key influence factors of executive compensation within China ports and listed shipping companies and provide some reasonable…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to find the key influence factors of executive compensation within China ports and listed shipping companies and provide some reasonable suggestions. Eventually, help to perfect the executive compensation evaluation mechanism against the background of new area.

Design/methodology/approach

Grey correlation analysis is an important part of grey system theory. Professor Liu Sifeng further studies the relationship between two sequences absolute increment on the basis of Deng’s degree and put forward the “Grey absolute correlation degree,” which is widely used in practice. In the study, on the basis of the area of the line between sequences size, it measures the correlation degrees of firm performance, executive stock holding, continuous growth capacity and other relevant factors of executive payment in China ports and listed shipping companies.

Findings

The paper concludes that the main factors influence CEO salary in China ports and listed shipping companies are return on equity and growth rate of fixed assets. However, the authors consider the frequent occurrence of executives’ corruption in China listed state-owned enterprise under the environment of financial and economic crisis, the authors argue that the significant influence of net assets attributed to shareholders cannot be ignored. In addition, cash flow in operating activities and executive stock holding both have relatively important effect on executive compensation.

Research limitations/implications

This paper still has some limitations. First, it merely takes into account the financial indicators and ignores the influence of non-financial indicators to the performance evaluation of listed companies, such as: innovation ability, human capital and goodwill. Second, it has not considered the power consumption and other types of “invisible income” in the executive compensation structure, neither the influence of investing and financing activities on corporate performance. Consequently, these are likely to cause a certain deviation to the results of the study.

Practical implications

The outcome obtained in this paper can be provided for China ports and listed shipping companies to establish a reasonable executive compensation evaluation and incentive mechanism under the background of depressed shipping market.

Social implications

This paper intends to use correlation analysis between firm performance, executive stock holding, sustainability and executive compensation in the new area of time, tries to make a greater contribution to the major component of salary policy and then make some suggestions on incentive supervising and restraining mechanisms for the ports and listed shipping firms in China.

Originality/value

Although scholars have done many studies about the association analysis of executive compensation and firm performance, they neglect the economic environment of industry. Meanwhile, considering the non-financial indicators and incomplete information, this paper studies the grey correlation analysis of executive compensation and influence factors in China ports and listed shipping firms under the background of the Chinese flagging shipping industry.

Article
Publication date: 28 February 2019

Kedong Yin, Jie Xu and Xuemei Li

The purpose of this paper is to study the essential characteristics of grey relational degree of proximity, to analyse the abstract meaning of grey relational degree of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the essential characteristics of grey relational degree of proximity, to analyse the abstract meaning of grey relational degree of similarity and fully consider the two different relational degree models.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper constructed the grey proximity relational degree by using the weighted mean distance. To analyse the motivation of the development of things, this paper constructed the grey similarity degree by using the concept of induced strength. Finally, the two correlation models are weighted by reliability weighting.

Findings

The research finding shows that the distance is the essence of the grey relational degree of proximity, and the induced strength is a good explanation of the similarities in the development of things.

Practical implications

The analyses imply that the total amount of water consumption in China has the greatest correlation with the consumption of agricultural water resources, followed by the consumption of industrial water resources, and the least correlation with the consumption of domestic water resources.

Originality/value

The paper succeeds in realizing the essential characteristics of grey relational degree of proximity and the abstract meaning of grey relational degree of similarity. Besides, the resolution of the correlation degree can be greatly improved by reliability weighting.

Details

Grey Systems: Theory and Application, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-9377

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 February 2017

Xue Jin, Kedong Yin and Xuemei Li

On the basis of the time series of the land area economy and marine economy data during 1996-2015, the authors study the relationship between land area economy and marine…

Abstract

Purpose

On the basis of the time series of the land area economy and marine economy data during 1996-2015, the authors study the relationship between land area economy and marine economy, and divides the relational schema of the land-sea economy by doing causality test of land-sea economy, grey correlation degree analysis and relational schema analysis of the land-sea economy in coastal provinces and cities. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses methods such as Granger causality test and grey correlation degree analysis to preliminarily demonstrate the relationship of land-sea economy.

Findings

With Granger causality test, we can draw that there is a causal relationship between the land area economy and marine economy. Further with the relational schema analysis, we can draw that the relationship between marine economy and land economy in 11 coastal provinces and cities can be summed up into four kinds of patterns such as land-sea weak type, land-sea strong type, sea strong land weak type and land strong sea weak type.

Practical implications

For the government and related disaster management departments, when policies are made and relevant measures are taken in the process of planning economic layout of land-sea economy, similar policies or measures may be taken for the same type of provinces, in order to improve administrative efficiency.

Originality/value

The development and utilization between land economy and marine economy has a certain contradiction, which must be balanced to realize the balanced development of land economy and marine economy. Therefore, it is necessary to comprehensively assess the grey relational analysis of land-sea economy, in order to provide the basis for reasonable policies.

Details

Grey Systems: Theory and Application, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-9377

Keywords

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