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Article
Publication date: 28 January 2014

Pieter-Jan Bezemer, Stefan Peij, Laura de Kruijs and Gregory Maassen

This study seeks to explore how non-executive directors address governance problems on Dutch two-tier boards. Within this board model, challenges might be particularly

Abstract

Purpose

This study seeks to explore how non-executive directors address governance problems on Dutch two-tier boards. Within this board model, challenges might be particularly difficult to address due to the formal separation of management boards' decision-management from supervisory boards' decision-control roles.

Design/methodology/approach

Semi-structured interviews and a questionnaire among non-executive directors provide unique insights into three major challenges in the boardrooms of two-tier boards in The Netherlands.

Findings

The study indicates that non-executive directors mainly experience challenges in three areas: the ability to ask management critical questions, information asymmetries between the management and supervisory boards and the management of the relationship between individual executive and non-executive directors. The qualitative in-depth analysis reveals the complexity of the contributing factors to problems in the boardroom and the range of process and social interventions non-executive directors use to address boardroom issues with management and the organization of the board.

Practical implications

While policy makers have been largely occupied with the “right” board composition, the results highlight the importance of adequately addressing operational challenges in the boardroom. The results emphasize the importance of a better understanding of board processes and the need of non-executive directors to carefully manage relationships in and around the boardroom.

Originality/value

Whereas most studies have focussed on regulatory initiatives to improve the functioning of boards (e.g. the independence of the board), this study explores how non-executive directors attempt to enhance the effectiveness of boards on which they serve.

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Article
Publication date: 6 November 2018

Hanh Thi Song Pham and Hien Thi Tran

This paper aims to investigate the effects of board model and board independence on corporate social responsibility (CSR) disclosure of multinational corporations (MNCs).

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the effects of board model and board independence on corporate social responsibility (CSR) disclosure of multinational corporations (MNCs).

Design/methodology/approach

The authors developed an empirical model in which CSR disclosure is the dependent variable and board model (two-tier vs one-tier), board independence (a proportion of independent directors on a board) and the interaction variable of board model and board independence together with several variables conventionally used as control variables are independent variables. The authors collated the panel dataset of 244 Fortune World’s Most Admired (FWMA) corporations from 2005 to 2011 of which 117 MNCs use the one-tier board model, and 127 MNCs use the two-tier board model from 20 countries. They used the random-effect regression method to estimate the empirical models with the data they collated and also ran regressions on the alternative models for robustness check.

Findings

The authors found a significantly positive effect of a board model on CSR disclosure by MNCs. Two-tier MNCs tend to reveal more CSR information than one-tier MNCs. The results also confirm the significant moderating impact of board model on the effect of board independence on CSR disclosure. The effect of board independence on CSR disclosure in the two-tier board MNCs tends to be higher than that in the one-tier board MNCs. The results do not support the effect of board independence on CSR disclosure in general for all types of firms (one-tier and two-tier board). The impact of board independence on CSR disclosure is only significant in two-tier board MNCs and insignificant in one-tier board MNCs.

Practical implications

The authors advise the MNCs who wish to improve CSR reporting and transparency to consider the usage of two-tier board model and use a higher number of outside directors on board. They note that once a firm uses one-tier model, number of IDs on a board does not matter to the level of CSR disclosure. They advise regulators to enforce an application of two-tier board model to improve CSR reporting and transparency in MNCs. The authors also recommend regulators to continue mandating publicly traded companies to include more external members on their boards, especially for the two-tier board MNCs.

Originality/value

This paper is the first that investigates the role of board model on CSR disclosure of MNCs.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2016

Shabir Ahmad and Rosmini Omar

The purpose of this paper is to review the state of existing literature for various corporate governance models by answering specific questions. Much has been written in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review the state of existing literature for various corporate governance models by answering specific questions. Much has been written in the recent years on various corporate governance (CG) models, primarily the model of Anglo-Saxon and Continental European. In particular, it investigates most examined model in literature, forums used to publish and research types conducted, as well as basic differences between the two models. Findings of this paper suggest that more evidence-based systematic reviews on various aspects and geographical regions are needed to map the entire field of CG.

Design/Methodology/Approach

Much has been written in the recent years on various CG models, primarily the model of Anglo-Saxon and Continental European. This paper attempts to review the state of existing literature for these models by answering specific questions. In particular, it investigates most examined model in literature, forums used to publish and research types conducted, as well as basic differences between the two models. Findings of this paper suggest that more evidence-based systematic reviews on various aspects and geographical regions are needed to map the entire field of CG.

Findings

The authors found that although both models are well-reviewed, Continental European model is mostly explored with 47 per cent contributions as compared to Anglo-Saxon with 45 per cent. Moreover, majority of contributions are based on analytical research in terms of research type (30 per cent) and primarily focus on convergence of models. In addition, some 85 per cent of selected studies are based on theoretical research work, which leads to a significant dearth of empirical studies in the literature.

Research limitations/implications

The scope of the paper is limited to two basic models of CG, namely, Anglo-Saxon model and Continental European model in context of specific research questions.

Practical/implications

The systematic review on the basic models will assist the practitioners and policy-makers in determining the status of existing literature based on evidences. Further, it may facilitate in formulating new laws, regulations, codes and policies.

Originality/Value

The authors used evidenced-based systematic approach for conducting literature review of CG models. Systematic review is getting much attention of researchers, as it minimizes the bias by adopting a replicable, scientific and transparent process. This review, as contrary to narrative, contributes to the CG models literature the findings based on evidences.

Details

International Journal of Law and Management, vol. 58 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-243X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2004

Felix Bu¨chel and Matthias Pollmann‐Schult

Tests the hypothesis that overeducation is contingent upon the differing human capital endowments of employees. The analyses are based on data from the German Life History…

Abstract

Tests the hypothesis that overeducation is contingent upon the differing human capital endowments of employees. The analyses are based on data from the German Life History Study (GLHS). Applies a trivariate probit model which takes into account the selective acquisition of school qualifications, and the selective choice of vocational training programs with varying levels of quality. The findings confirm that the type of school diploma obtained has a strong effect on the later risk of overeducation. Furthermore, in the case of the intermediate school diploma – the qualification typically held by those entering initial vocational training in Germany – the grade attained also proves to have a strong effect on the risk of overeducation. In line with the existing literature, this paper finds that the risk of overeducation decreases as traditional human capital endowments such as experience, tenure, and on‐the‐job‐training increase.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2006

Niels Hermes, Theo J.B.M. Postma and Orestis Zivkov

The paper seeks to analyze to what extent the contents of corporate governance codes of countries in the European Union are driven by external (internationally accepted…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper seeks to analyze to what extent the contents of corporate governance codes of countries in the European Union are driven by external (internationally accepted corporate governance best practices) or domestic (institutions, culture, etc.) forces.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper compares the contents of codes with the priorities set by the European Commission with respect to modernising company law and enhancing corporate governance in the European Union.

Findings

The analysis shows that the majority of the codes of the European Union countries are not in full accordance with the priorities of the European Commission. This may reflect that codes are driven by both external and domestic forces. Whether there is a difference between Western European and Central and Eastern European countries in this respect is also investigated, but no difference, at least at the aggregate level of the codes of both groups of countries has been found.

Research limitations/implications

The analysis excludes five (prospective) European Union members. The analysis does not provide a comprehensive overview of domestic determinants of why codes of individual countries diverge from the European Union communication. Future research should systematically explore whether and to what extent domestic forces are indeed determining the contents of codes and, if so, which country‐specific forces have an impact on establishing code contents.

Originality/value

This paper is the first comprehensive attempt to analyse the contents of corporate governance codes. Such an analysis is important to understand the underlying forces that shape the diffusion of codes and their contents.

Details

International Journal of Managerial Finance, vol. 2 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1743-9132

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2004

Jos Sanders and Andries de Grip

This paper analyses whether low‐skilled workers' training participation and task flexibility contribute to their firm‐internal and firm‐external mobility, and find that…

Abstract

This paper analyses whether low‐skilled workers' training participation and task flexibility contribute to their firm‐internal and firm‐external mobility, and find that both training participation and task flexibility contribute only to firm‐internal employability. However, the workers' participation in training plays a much more explicit role in their firm‐internal career than their task flexibility does, as the former appears to be an important means to increase their opportunities in the firm‐internal labour market. Neither the low‐skilled workers' participation in training nor their task flexibility contributes to their external employability. Task‐flexible, low‐skilled workers are less likely to expect to be externally employable than non‐task flexible workers are. The focus of the low‐skilled workers on their firm‐internal employability can be explained by the fact that such workers usually have more opportunities to improve their position in the firm‐internal labour market than in the external labour market.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1999

James Pounder

Over the past two decades, institutions of higher education worldwide have come under pressure to demonstrate effective performance. Their response has been to borrow the…

Abstract

Over the past two decades, institutions of higher education worldwide have come under pressure to demonstrate effective performance. Their response has been to borrow the quality concept from industry and place it at the centre of institutional performance assessment in higher education. This article describes a Hong Kong study which developed valid and reliable organisational effectiveness self rating scales for higher educational institutions. In the course of developing these scales, the relevance of quality to institutional performance assessment was examined. In failing to produce a valid and reliable effectiveness scale for a quality dimension, the study highlighted the shortcomings of the quality concept particularly as a basis for the comparative assessment of institutional performance. The study also indicated a methodology for identifying concepts which may provide a firmer base than quality for such comparisons.

Details

Quality Assurance in Education, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0968-4883

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 6 April 2012

Jokull Johannesson, Iryna Palona, Jose Francisco Salazar Guillen and Michael Fock

The purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast the corporate governance standards of Cyprus, Russia, and Kazakhstan to those of the UK to facilitate investment

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast the corporate governance standards of Cyprus, Russia, and Kazakhstan to those of the UK to facilitate investment decisions. The paper aims to discover governance gaps creating a potential for alignment to UK standards.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is a qualitative case study of four countries based on the OECD criteria of 118 corporate governance measures.

Findings

The findings indicate that the corporate governance standards in Cyprus match 92 per cent of the UK standards, Russian standards match 75 per cent, and Kazakhstan ones 63 per cent. The greatest contrast to the UK standards were for Cyprus in the area of disclosure and transparency category, Russia's was in the area of responsibilities of the board, and Kazakhstan's was highest in the two areas mentioned above and low overall.

Research limitations/implications

The paper identifies areas of governance that could be aligned to UK standards. Further research is needed to compare the governance standards of the countries studied to international standards other than those of the UK's.

Practical implications

The paper provides insight on governance for investors in the three countries and aids effective investment decisions.

Social implications

The paper identifies areas of governance needing regulatory adjustment in the three countries and could influence government and industry policy.

Originality/value

The originality of the paper lies in identifying gaps in governance among the four countries. Thus the paper provides information for investors as to the corporate governance they are likely to experience, and facilitates development in governance regulation.

Details

Corporate Governance: The international journal of business in society, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2016

Sophie Hennekam

– The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of the competencies motivation, integrity and social skills on both intrinsic and extrinsic career success.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of the competencies motivation, integrity and social skills on both intrinsic and extrinsic career success.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 1,112 individuals aged 45 or above registered at a job agency specialized in older employees in the Netherlands filled out a survey. The results were analyzed using multiple regression.

Findings

The three competencies had a positive relationship with intrinsic career success (job satisfaction). Motivation and social skills were also positively related to extrinsic career success, while integrity was unrelated.

Originality/value

The influence of competencies on career success of older workers has received only little attention from researchers.

Details

Employee Relations, vol. 38 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 26 September 2018

Anne Marie FitzGerald and Sandra Quiñones

Emerging research demonstrates that the community school model holds promise for meeting the needs of families by improving academic and social-emotional outcomes for…

Abstract

Purpose

Emerging research demonstrates that the community school model holds promise for meeting the needs of families by improving academic and social-emotional outcomes for students and strengthening communities. In this model, school leaders play an integral role in building relationships among multiple stakeholders, cultivating community partnerships and developing democratic decision making. The purpose of this paper is to focus on the community school coordinator (CSC) as a school leader who carries out all of her/his work in collaboration with students, teachers, school administrators, families and community partners.

Design/methodology/approach

Findings in this single qualitative case study are based on multiple data sources that include semi-structured interviews (n=29) of stakeholders (families, partners and educators), participant observations of partnership meetings and school events, and document analysis.

Findings

Data analysis shows how the CSC leads and facilitates professional capital among multiple school and community stakeholders. Findings are organized into three themes: the CSC as bridge-builder who connects and promotes trusting relationships with multiple stakeholders; the CSC as collaborator who fosters joint work and a sense of collective responsibility; and the CSC as leader who supports the emergence of decisional capital.

Originality/value

Given the nascent literature on the role of CSCs, this case study provides insight into the leadership role of the CSC as builder of professional capital. The research informs practice by providing an example of how one community school made a strategic investment in a leadership role intended to design and develop a culture of professional collaboration.

Details

Journal of Professional Capital and Community, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-9548

Keywords

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