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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 19 July 2022

Abdul Qayyum, Raja Ahmed Jamil and Amnah Sehar

This study aims to examine the negative effects of excessive product packaging (EPP), greenwashing and green confusion on green brand equity (GBE). Furthermore, the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the negative effects of excessive product packaging (EPP), greenwashing and green confusion on green brand equity (GBE). Furthermore, the moderating role of brand credibility in mitigating the negative effects of green marketing was investigated.

Design/methodology/approach

A within-subject experiment was conducted to evaluate excessive versus minimal product packaging to test the proposed hypotheses. Data analysis was performed with SmartPLS 3.3.3, which analyzed data from 206 consumers.

Findings

The results showed that EPP positively predicts greenwashing and green confusion. However, greenwashing has a negative impact on GBE. Brand credibility was also discovered to moderate the negative relationship between greenwashing and GBE, thereby reducing the negative effect of greenwashing.

Research limitations/implications

The findings imply that marketing managers should understand the consumers’ concerns for the environment, making product and brand strategies that promote environmental protection and sustainability.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the green marketing literature by empirically validating the positive impacts of EPP on greenwashing and green confusion, as well as the negative influence of greenwashing on GBE. Furthermore, it reveals how brand credibility can reduce the harmful effects of greenwashing on GBE.

Impacto del marketing verde, el greenwashing y la confusión verde en el valor de la marca verde

Resumen

Objetivo

Examinamos los efectos negativos del embalaje excesivo de los productos, el “greenwashing” y la confusión verde sobre el valor de la marca verde. Además, se investigó el papel moderador de la credibilidad de la marca para mitigar los efectos negativos del marketing ecológico.

Diseño

Se llevó a cabo un experimento intra-sujeto para evaluar el embalaje excesivo de los productos frente al mínimo envase posible, con el fin de comprobar las hipótesis propuestas. El análisis de los datos se realizó con SmartPLS 3.3.3, con una muestra de 206 consumidores.

Conclusiones

Los resultados mostraron que el embalaje excesivo de los productos predice positivamente el greenwashing y la confusión ecológica. Sin embargo, el greenwashing tiene un impacto negativo en el valor de la marca verde. También se descubrió que la credibilidad de la marca modera la relación negativa entre el greenwashing y el valor de la marca verde, reduciendo así el efecto negativo del greenwashing.

Implicaciones

Las conclusiones implican que los directores de marketing deben comprender las preocupaciones de los consumidores por el medio ambiente, elaborando estrategias de producto y de marca que promuevan la protección del medio ambiente y la sostenibilidad.

Originalidad/valor

Este estudio contribuye a la bibliografía sobre el marketing ecológico al validar empíricamente los efectos positivos del embalaje excesivo de los productos sobre el greenwashing y la confusión ecológica, así como la influencia negativa del greenwashing sobre el valor de la marca ecológica. Además, revela cómo la credibilidad de la marca puede reducir los efectos perjudiciales del greenwashing sobre el valor de la marca verde.

绿色营销、洗绿和绿色混淆对绿色品牌资产的影响

摘要

目的

我们研究了产品过度包装、洗绿和绿色混淆对绿色品牌资产的负面影响。此外, 我们还研究了品牌信誉在减轻绿色营销负面影响中的调节作用。

实验设计

我们进行了一项受试者内实验, 以评估产品过度包装和最小包装, 从而检验所提出的假设。用SmartPLS 3.3.3进行数据分析, 该软件分析了206来自名消费者的数据。

研究结果

结果显示, 过度的产品包装正向预测了洗绿和绿色混淆。然而, 洗绿对绿色品牌资产有负面的影响。品牌信誉也被发现可以调节洗绿和绿色品牌资产之间的负面关系, 从而减少洗绿的负面影响。

影响

研究结果表明, 营销经理应该了解消费者对环境的关注, 制定促进环境保护和可持续发展的的产品和品牌战略。

原创性/价值

本研究通过实证验证产品过度包装对洗绿和绿色混淆的积极影响, 以及洗绿对绿色品牌资产的负面影响, 为绿色营销文献做出了贡献。此外, 它还揭示了品牌信誉如何减少洗绿对绿色品牌资产的有害影响。

关键词

绿色营销, 洗绿, 绿色混淆, 品牌资产, 品牌信誉, 以及产品过度包装

文章类型: 研究型论文

Book part
Publication date: 23 May 2022

Agostino Vollero

The chapter describes the research objectives and different steps of the systematic literature review of existing studies on greenwashing. Both academics and practitioners…

Abstract

The chapter describes the research objectives and different steps of the systematic literature review of existing studies on greenwashing. Both academics and practitioners may find this literature review useful, as it identifies the key features of the greenwashing research in a wide range of disciplines (management, marketing, accounting, corporate communication, etc.). The systematic literature review sheds light on the greenwashing types (and research gaps) in which the phenomenon takes shape. Time horizon (1990–mid 2021), keywords selection for queries on academic search engines, data collection, filtering criteria, etc., are explained and discussed in detail before presenting the main results in terms of frequency of publications over years, leading outlets in greenwashing research, trending articles, levels of analysis, geographical affiliation of first authors, theoretical approaches and methods used in this field of research. The chapter concludes by summarising the main types of greenwashing and possible avenues of research.

Book part
Publication date: 23 May 2022

Agostino Vollero

The chapter explores how different theoretical traditions address the gaps between talk (symbolic communication practices) and actions (substantive performance) in…

Abstract

The chapter explores how different theoretical traditions address the gaps between talk (symbolic communication practices) and actions (substantive performance) in organisations. The chapter details the main theoretical approaches in greenwashing research, namely legitimacy theory, attribution theory, institutional theory, signaling theory, impression management approaches and constructivist approaches. Among these latter, Communicative Constitution of Organizations (CCO) challenges the dominant view in literature and suggests abandoning the traditional dichotomy of talk versus action. The different approaches to studying greenwashing are presented along with main questions and research methods used in each field and sub-field of study. For each theoretical approach the main research trends and novel research questions are proposed. Researchers, doctoral and post-graduate students may appreciate this as standalone contribution to guide their future studies in this area, by designing their research avenues based on the best practices in the field.

Book part
Publication date: 23 May 2022

Agostino Vollero

This final chapter moves from a firm-level perspective to a more general level to connect individual organisational decisions on corporate sustainability to current and…

Abstract

This final chapter moves from a firm-level perspective to a more general level to connect individual organisational decisions on corporate sustainability to current and future societal and environmental challenges. The chapter starts by illustrating greenhushing, seen as a deceptive strategic silence that occurs when companies voluntarily decrease their communication on sustainability issues. The emergence of novel forms of greenwashing stresses the need to integrate the principles of sustainability in their corporate strategies in an authentic way, and to activate a virtuous circuit of sustainability sensegiving-sensemaking, in which the company can recognise the contribution of stakeholders in decision-making. The discussion then addresses some unresolved tensions in sustainability communication approaches that cause ‘deep-rooted’ greenwashing, thus paving the way for a systemic approach to the phenomenon. The chapter thus presents some speculative sketches that illustrate the social, organisational and environmental costs and benefits of an authentic approach to corporate sustainability. The discussion emphasises the need to establish a shared sustainability culture at different systems' levels and within organisations to avoid environmental and social damaging practices and widen corporate objectives to initiate long-lasting changes. Policy and decision-makers may appreciate this effort to identify responsibilities for each component and priority areas for action.

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 19 November 2021

Antonio Montero-Navarro, Thais González-Torres, José-Luis Rodríguez-Sánchez and Rocio Gallego-Losada

This paper aims at providing an overview and synthesis of the existing body of knowledge about greenwashing. Special attention is paid to the articles directly linked with…

1781

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims at providing an overview and synthesis of the existing body of knowledge about greenwashing. Special attention is paid to the articles directly linked with agriculture, food industry and food retail.

Design/methodology/approach

A bibliometric analysis was performed over 351 documents extracted from the WoS database, using SciMAT and VOSviewer software programs.

Findings

Three periods in the academic literature about greenwashing can be distinguished: ground-setting (2003–2010), trail-blazing (2011–2015) and remarkable growth (2016–2020). Along this evolution, a body of knowledge which stemmed from the literature about CSR has achieved a major development, deploying different research lines such as stakeholders' management, marketing and communication and audit. A specific analysis of the academic literature about greenwashing in agriculture, food industry and food retail has been carried out, showing a need for further development.

Social implications

The development of scientific knowledge about greenwashing puts this social claim on the spotlight of business management studies, helping to fight greenwashing and, this way, to reduce the environmental impact of corporate activities. Studying greenwashing will help to reduce its frequency and, therefore, heal the planet.

Originality/value

Some previous studies have provided systematic reviews of the literature using different approaches, but they did not untangle the intellectual structure and the evolution of the body of research about greenwashing. This article originally provides a thorough analysis of these aspects, as well as a closer look at the impact of greenwashing practices in the academic literature regarding agriculture, food industry and food retail.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 123 no. 13
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 August 2021

Farzana Quoquab, Rames Sivadasan and Jihad Mohammad

This study aims to measure the greenwash construct in the sustainable property development (GSPD) context. Property development products such as residential homes, which…

2639

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to measure the greenwash construct in the sustainable property development (GSPD) context. Property development products such as residential homes, which are generally high-priced, require a long-term financial commitment from the consumers. It makes the property development sector unique. Hence, a specific scale is required to measure greenwash activities in this specific context by the marketers. However, the scale available to measure the greenwash construct is general which is not suitable to use in this particular context. The present study is an attempt to fill this gap in the literature.

Design/methodology/approach

Three studies were conducted to develop the GSPD measure in different phases. In developing the scale, qualitative interviews (study 1) were conducted to generate the initial pool of items. The preliminary set of questions were then validated (content and face validity) by experts' opinions. Exploratory factor analysis (using SPSS) was conducted to extract the factor structure of the newly developed measure (study 2) which was then again validated to ensure predictive reliability and nomological validity by using the SEM-PLS technique (study 3).

Findings

The exploratory factor analysis result revealed that greenwash in sustainable property development (GSPD) is a multi-dimensional construct. The dimensions are namely, false claims and misleading claims. The confirmatory composite analysis confirmed these two dimensions.

Practical implications

This newly developed GSPD scale will enable the researchers to measure the greenwash activities practiced by some of the housing developers. Marketers will be conscious to avoid such activities. Moreover, the government agencies may use this scale to monitor measure and deter greenwashing activities by property development companies.

Originality/value

This is a pioneer study that develops and validates a new scale to measure greenwash construct in sustainable property development in a developing context i.e. Malaysia. In addition, this study operationalized the greenwash construct in sustainable property development as a multi-dimensional behavioural construct determined by two dimensions i.e. false claims and misleading claims.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 34 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 May 2021

Cagri Bulut, Murat Nazli, Erhan Aydin and Adnan Ul Haque

This study aims to demonstrate how greenwashing perceptions shape the effect of environmental concern on post-millennials purchasing behavior.

2855

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to demonstrate how greenwashing perceptions shape the effect of environmental concern on post-millennials purchasing behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on 174 responses gathered through a street survey method from 5 different universities in Turkey, data are analyzed using the statistical package for social sciences software (SPSS 16.0). Principal component analysis is performed to assess the differentiation in factors. Multiple regression analysis is used to examine the effects of the items on the post-millennials purchasing and recommendation behavior.

Findings

The main findings revealed that the environmental concern trait of post-millennials triggers their green purchasing behavior. When the concern on green products is high, the awareness of perceiving that “if the product is actually green or pretending to be green” is high. When the post-millennials take the greenwashing perception into account, their environmental concern has lower effects on their green behavior. The moderating role of greenwashing between environmental concern and green purchasing is apparent. Greenwashing perception decreases the effects of environmental concern on green behavior.

Originality/value

The research raises the concept of greenwashing perception that moderates the relationship between environmental concern and post-millennials purchasing behavior. This study also demonstrates that greenwashing awareness has a critical role in creating a purchasing behavior of post-millennials that have environmental concerns.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 2020

John Richard Kurpierz and Ken Smith

The purpose of this paper is to show a significant overlap in the models accounting research uses for fraud and the models other research disciplines use for greenwashing

8121

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to show a significant overlap in the models accounting research uses for fraud and the models other research disciplines use for greenwashing, and show how researchers and policymakers interested in the application of effective sustainability policy can draw from fraud accounting literature to better understand, and therefore, combat greenwashing. This is illustrated by showing multi-actor information-asymmetry models from other branches of accounting literature and synthesizing them with the fraud triangle model to suggest new avenues for reducing greenwashing and strengthening corporate social responsibility (CSR).

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reviews the current literature surrounding the greenwashing aspect of corporate camouflage compares the legal and technical definitions of fraud and synthesizes a new variant fraud triangle that more usefully describes greenwashing.

Findings

This paper is able to show that other areas of accounting research in North America have already tackled similar systems of multiple actors in an information-asymmetric environment and that a recurring trait is the emergence of a more robust reporting system. CSR reporting is currently in the process of emerging and could develop more swiftly by copying extant fraud-fighting tools. This is particularly salient given the increasing amount of liability legal regimes are giving to both sustainability activities and sustainability reporting from firms, as evidenced in both guidelines and scandals over the past decade.

Research limitations/implications

Sustainability reporting is not unique in comprising a large number of interrelated entities with non-financial information asymmetry between actors. Previous researchers have encountered similar situations in government accounting and public administration and developed network models to study these relationships as a result. In government accounting, this led to the development both of better diagnostic tools for further research and better models for local governments to use to prevent fraud and malfeasance. This paper suggests that using such research methods in the area of CSR will allow for the development of similarly-useful tools and models.

Practical implications

Visualizing greenwashing as a form of fraud allows policymakers to use tools from the fraud-fighting literature to improve CSR reporting and produce a more robust regime in the future. As governments increasingly seek to respond effectively to material misstatements with an intent to deceive in sustainability reports, understanding the underlying information asymmetry as it is found in other private-public interfaces is critical. Similarly, researchers can analyze CSR reporting through the lens of fraud researchers to gain novel insights into how information asymmetry in CSR reporting works.

Social implications

Greenwashing is not traditionally seen as a form of fraudulent reporting, even though it often meets the same technical test used to determine fraudulent reporting. The realization that the two are structurally similar allows the authors to better understand how CSR reporting works and how CSR reporting can be falsified. By understanding the latter, governments, firms and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) can develop tools to prevent CSR reporting from being falsified.

Originality/value

This paper suggests a new suite of tools with which to study greenwashing, and with which to fight greenwashing in a sustainability accounting context.

Details

Sustainability Accounting, Management and Policy Journal, vol. 11 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8021

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 May 2020

Dandan Wang, Thomas Walker and Sergey Barabanov

The purpose of this study is to suggest an approach to regain consumer trust after negative effects of greenwashing that draws corporations and consumers into a conflicted…

3222

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to suggest an approach to regain consumer trust after negative effects of greenwashing that draws corporations and consumers into a conflicted relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors collect and interpret qualitative data from in-depth interviews to develop a theoretical approach that enables the rebuilding of trust between greenwashing corporations and their consumers using the concept of psychological resilience.

Findings

This analysis indicates that the approach is an interaction between consumers with green brand loyalty and greenwashing corporations. This type of consumer demands emotional factors, functional factors and legitimate factors in the process of psychological resilience, and after greenwashing, corporations should select appropriate recovery strategies to stimulate these protective factors.

Originality/value

Previous research studied green consumer trust in the marketing field but did not explore the core of trust which was regarded as a cognitive process. This paper investigates green consumer behaviour under the perspective of psychological resilience and makes an innovative attempt to understand drivers of regaining consumer trust. Previous research works put forward a series of strategies related to regaining trust, but they did not discuss the mechanisms by which these strategies work. Using the method of grounded theory, we attempt to reveal the “black box” of consumers cognition after greenwashing and propose a strategy for regaining consumer trust.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 37 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 December 2019

Hong Wang, Baolong Ma and Rubing Bai

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of greenwashing behaviour of one brand on purchase intention of green products from other brands. Further, this study…

3466

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of greenwashing behaviour of one brand on purchase intention of green products from other brands. Further, this study tests the mediating role of greenwashing perception of the entire industry and the moderating role of brand attitudes towards other brands in the industry for the above-mentioned relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 377 participants was utilised in three studies. The study analysed the data using SPSS 18.0 to test the research hypotheses.

Findings

The study suggests that greenwashing behaviour of one brand negatively affects consumers’ purchase intention of the green products from other brands in the industry. It is also indicated that the greenwashing perception of the entire industry partially mediates the relationship between greenwashing behaviour of a brand and purchase intention of green products from other brands. In addition, the study shows that the relationship between greenwashing perception of the entire industry and purchase intention of the green products from other brands is negatively moderated by brand attitudes towards other brands in the industry.

Practical implications

This study provides useful insights for the managers that firms can learn the way to alleviate greenwashing spillover effect through the brand attitudes to enhance green purchasing behaviour.

Originality/value

The study is perhaps the first one to study the existence of the spillover effect of brands’greenwashing behaviour. The study also reveals the influencing mechanism of greenwashing spillover effect of a brand.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 38 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

Keywords

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