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Article
Publication date: 12 July 2013

Neda Lotfi Yagin, Reza Mahdavi and Zeinab Nikniaz

Although black tea is commonly consumed in Iran, within the last years the popularity of green tea, especially green tea bags, has dramatically increased due to all…

Abstract

Purpose

Although black tea is commonly consumed in Iran, within the last years the popularity of green tea, especially green tea bags, has dramatically increased due to all scientific papers reporting that green tea has benefit impacts on human health. Considering the postulated role of increased dietary oxalate intake on calcium oxalate stone formation, this paper aimed to study the oxalate content of most popular green and black tea bags consumed in Iran.

Design/methodology/approach

Five green tea samples and ten black tea samples were purchased from various markets in Tabriz, Iran. The oxalate content of each sample after infusion for five minutes was measured in triplicate using an enzymatic assay. Statistical analysis used: the ANOVA with Tukey's post‐hoc test, and also an independent t‐test were used for statistical analysis.

Findings

The oxalate concentration in different brands of green tea bags ranged from 0.73 to 1.75 and from 3.69 to 6.31 mg/240 ml for black tea bags. There were significant differences in oxalate content of different brands, both in green and black tea bags (P<0.001). The mean oxalate content of green and black tea samples also differed significantly from each other (P<0.001).

Originality/value

From the oxalate point of view, consumption of green and black tea bags infusions several times per day may not pose significant health risks in kidney stone patients and susceptible individuals.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 43 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 4 December 2017

Amanda Berhaupt-Glickstein and William Hallman

The purpose of this paper is to identify the demographic and psychographic characteristics of older green tea consumers in the USA. By understanding this segment’s…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the demographic and psychographic characteristics of older green tea consumers in the USA. By understanding this segment’s background, perceptions, and behaviors, health and marketing professionals can tailor messages to reach clients and consumers.

Design/methodology/approach

An online survey was completed in January 2014 with 1,335 older adult consumers (=55 years old). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and binomial logistic regression.

Findings

More than half (n=682, 51.2 percent) of respondents drank green tea. Most green tea consumers in this sample are college-educated and employed female home owners. The odds for green tea consumption are greater if a respondent is in good health, was informed about diet and health, or made a health-related dietary change in the past year. There are greater odds of consumption if the respondent is familiar with the relationship between drinking green tea and the reduced risk of cancer however, the importance of health statements on product labels are not predictive of consumption.

Research limitations/implications

This study was conducted in the USA and with older adults. Future research should explore characteristics of younger consumers, i.e. 18-54 years old.

Practical implications

Health educators, regulators, and marketing professionals may use this profile to tailor messages that speak to consumers and client’s values and motivations.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first profile of older adult green tea consumers in the USA.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 119 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 5 November 2018

Fatemehbanoo Mortazavi, Zamzam Paknahad and Akbar Hasanzadeh

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a complex disorder that exacerbates the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus; some studies have indicated the beneficial…

Abstract

Purpose

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a complex disorder that exacerbates the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus; some studies have indicated the beneficial effects of green tea on human health. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of green tea consumption on the MetS indicators in women.

Design/methodology/approach

A randomized clinical trial was carried out on 70 eligible women with confirmed diagnosis of MetS who visited Shabani Diabetes Clinic (Isfahan, Iran). Participants were randomly divided into two groups. Participants in the Green Tea Group were asked to consume three 200 cc of green tea in the morning, at noon and at night for eight weeks, while people in the control group were asked to take identical amount of lukewarm water at the same schedule. Anthropometric indicators, blood pressure, blood sugar, lipid profile, diet and physical activity were assessed at the beginning and the end of the study.

Findings

An independent t-test showed that weight (p = 0.001), body mass index (p = 0.001), waist circumference (p < 0.001) and waist–hip ratio (p = 0.02), systolic blood pressure (p = 0.04), fasting blood glucose (p = 0.01) and low density lipoprotein (p = 0.03) changed significantly more in the Green Tea Group than in the control group; but no such inter-group difference was observed in diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride, total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein (HDL) values (p > 0.05).

Originality/value

Regular consumption of green tea for eight weeks significantly improved anthropometric indices, blood pressure, blood sugar and lipid profile in women with MetS. Therefore, this beverage can serve as part of an effective dietary strategy to control MetS.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 49 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 3 October 2012

Olusegun Aroyeun, Gerald Iremiren, Samuel Omolaja, Feyisara Abiodun Okelana, Olayiwola Olubamiwa, R.R. Ipinmoroti, Amos Oloyede, Semiu Ogunwolu Olalekan, Daniel Andrew, Christiana Olayinka Jayeola, Fatai Abiola Sowunmi and Lukman Ola Odumbaku

The purpose of this paper is to describe a project designed with the aim of developing a black and green tea processing technology for Nigerian farmers and evaluate the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe a project designed with the aim of developing a black and green tea processing technology for Nigerian farmers and evaluate the conformance of the quality of the processed tea to the recommended international standard.

Design/methodology/approach

Locally processed and graded black teas were collected from Kakara and Bangoba for analysis. Different grades analyzed were Dust 1, Pekoe fanning (PF), broken pekoe (BP) and Fibre. Green tea was also processed from 21 tea clones selected from the Cocoa Research Institute, Kusuku Station tea plantation located at 1,840 m above mean sea level and analyzed for quality characteristics. The methods used for the quality of black and green teas analysis were in accordance with ISO standard: ISO 9768 method (revised) was used for determining % water extract, ISO 5498 for crude fibre, ISO 1575 for % total ash, and ISO 1577 for acid insoluble ash. Other additional quality parameters evaluated for black tea were theaflavins (TF), thearubigins (TR) and colour brightness (C Br) from another set of 17 clones using flavonost methods. Conformance to ISO standard were assessed in all tea locally processed by the farmers, in comparison to the ones processed under controlled conditions.

Findings

The results obtained in this study revealed that 59.2 per cent of the tea analyzed conformed to ISO 9768, 81.5 per cent to ISO 5498, 77.8 per cent to ISO 1575 and 96.3 per cent to ISO 1576 and 100 per cent conformed to ISO 1577 and 85.2 per cent to ISO 1578 respectively. In all, only 33 per cent of the processed tea conformed to international standard for black or green tea physical parameters. As for black tea, clones which conformed to correct TF, TR, CBR are UNK, 367, 19, 74, 354, 368, 369, 353, 357, 143, 14 and 108 respectively.

Practical implications

The paper shows that production of green tea and black tea can be done locally without loss of quality if good manufacturing practices and hygiene practices are followed.

Originality/value

The use of clonal materials sourced locally that conformed to ISO standard from Nigeria could create new products (black and green tea) with high economic values to the farmers.

Details

World Journal of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5945

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Article
Publication date: 18 June 2021

Amnaj Khaokhrueamuang, Piyaporn Chueamchaitrakun, Warinthorn Kachendecha, Yuki Tamari and Kazuyoshi Nakakoji

This paper aims to clarify the functions of tourism interpretations of consumer products in a tourist-generating region (TGR) as a means of marketing the tourist…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to clarify the functions of tourism interpretations of consumer products in a tourist-generating region (TGR) as a means of marketing the tourist destination region (TDR) through tea tourism.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a case study of the Thai Shizuoka Green Tea brand working to promote tea tourism in Shizuoka, Japan. It is used to identify the functions of tourism interpretations of consumer products in a TGR related to the concept of brand identity. This paper assessed Thai consumers’ opinions on the efficiency of tourism interpretation through a sample of 404 questionnaires and with interviews of ten young females, the primary respondents.

Findings

Tourism interpretations of the TGR’s consumer products are important for promoting the TDR through five premises: 1) motivating visitors to visit the destination, 2) communicating the place’s meaning, 3) targeting potential tourists, 4) differentiating the destination from other sites and 5) activating value co-creation. Premises 1 and 2 were assumed to stem from visitors’ enjoyment of the tea; the packaging motivated their visit to Shizuoka, its origin. Premise 3 concerns young women who view the product as a premium healthy drink. Premises 4 and 5 are based on the brand’s essence, implying the tea company’s partnership between Thailand and Japan.

Originality/value

Tourism interpretation plays a significant role in TDRs’ success; however, it can be implemented with other consumer products and an efficient brand identity, to create an image of a destination.

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2014

Maysoon AlHafez, Fadi Kheder and Malak AlJoubbeh

The purpose of this paper was to determine total polyphenols (TP), total flavonoids (TF) and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) in five commercial tea extracts and in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to determine total polyphenols (TP), total flavonoids (TF) and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) in five commercial tea extracts and in their infusions at various temperatures (95-60°C) and brewing times (5-30 min).

Design/methodology/approach

TP was determined by the Folin–Ciocalteu method, TF by the aluminium chloride colorimetric method and EGCG by HPLC method.

Findings

The results showed that White tea – Silver needle had the highest content of TP and EGCG when extracted, but its infusions had very poor concentrations of these compounds. Green tea infusion was better source of TP and EGCG than white or black tea, although its extract did not contain a very high amount of TP compared to the latter two types. Black tea extract had a relatively high content of TP and TF in its extract. Its infusions as well contained higher concentrations of TP than white tea, but lower concentrations of EGCG than all studied teas.

Originality/value

Increasing infusion time and temperature does not necessarily increase the concentration, according to the results. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report on comparing these types of tea, especially the white tea, with other well-known teas under various infusion conditions. The extraction of the white tea leaves was also not found in previous works.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 44 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 3 June 2020

Chujun Wang, Yubin Peng, Charles Spence and Xiaoang Wan

This study was designed to investigate how the material properties of the tea-drinking receptacle interact with a participant's motivation and preference for extracting…

Abstract

Purpose

This study was designed to investigate how the material properties of the tea-drinking receptacle interact with a participant's motivation and preference for extracting and using information obtained via haptic perception, namely the need for touch (NFT), to influence his or her tea-drinking experience.

Design/methodology/approach

72 blindfolded participants were instructed to sample room temperature tea beverages served in a cup that was made of ceramic, glass, paper or plastic. They were then asked to rate how familiar they were with the taste of the beverage, to rate how pleasant the taste was and to specify how much they would like to pay for it (i.e. willingness-to-pay ratings).

Findings

The material of the receptacles used to serve the tea exerted a significant influence over the pleasantness ratings of the tea and interacted with the participants' NFT, exerting a significant influence over their willingness to pay for the tea. Specifically, high-NFT participants were willing to pay significantly more for the same cup of tea when it was served in a ceramic cup rather than in a paper cup, whereas the low-NFT participants' willingness to pay for the tea was unaffected by the material of the receptacles.

Originality/value

Our findings suggest that consumers may not be equally susceptible to the influence of the receptacle in which tea, or any other beverage, is served. Our findings also demonstrate how the physical properties of a receptacle interact with a consumer's motivation and preference to influence his or her behavior in the marketplace.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 122 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1979

B.L. Wedzicha

Tea is the most widely consumed beverage in the world. The economic importance of an annual world production of tea estimated to be in the region of 1–1·5 million tonnes…

Abstract

Tea is the most widely consumed beverage in the world. The economic importance of an annual world production of tea estimated to be in the region of 1–1·5 million tonnes has resulted in considerable attention being paid to the understanding of the chemical and physical changes which take place during tea manufacture. The three main types of tea, black, green and instant tea, are made by processing the young shoot or flush, comprising the terminal bud and two adjacent leaves of the tea plant (Camellia sinesis), shown opposite.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 79 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2017

Israel Olusegun Otemuyiwa, Mary Funmilayo Williams and Steve Adeniyi Adewusi

Tea contains high content of phenolics which are well-known to act as antioxidants. As such, there are claims that the consumption of infusion of tea could help ameliorate…

Abstract

Purpose

Tea contains high content of phenolics which are well-known to act as antioxidants. As such, there are claims that the consumption of infusion of tea could help ameliorate free radical-induced diseases; this therapeutic activity would depend on the amount of phenolics that is soluble and the amount that is absorbed and available for metabolic activity when consumed. The purpose of this study is to analyze the content of phenolics and antioxidant activity of some health tea and also to study the effect of addition of sugar and milk on in-vitro availability of phenolics in tea, cocoa and coffee drinks.

Design/methodology/approach

Seven brands of health tea, two brands of cocoa drink, one brand each of coffee, powdered milk and sugar were selected. The tea samples were analyzed for pH, titratable acidity, total phenol and antioxidant activity using Folin–Ciocalteau and 202-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazil 28DPPH-29-20 reagents. In-vitro simulated digestion modeling stomach and small intestine were carried out on tea infusion, coffee and cocoa drinks with or without sugar, and phenolic availability was analyzed.

Findings

The result indicated that pH, titratable acidity and total phenolics ranged from 4.5 to 5.6, 0.167 to 0.837 (as maleic acid) and 1.15 to 1.17 mg/g gallic acid equivalent, respectively. Black tea recorded the highest phenolic content, in-vitro phenolic availability and antioxidant activity. Addition of sugar to black tea and chocolate drink caused a significant decrease in the in-vitro available phenolics, while the addition of milk leads to a significant enhancement.

Research limitations/implications

The data obtained in this study can be used nutritionally and commercially to show the impact of adding sugar or milk on the content of phenolics and their bioavailability in-vitro. The study justifies the claim that tea could help ameliorate free radical-induced health defects.

Practical implications

Assessment of antioxidant activity of food should not be based only on the content of total phenolics but on the amount that is bioavailable in the body system when the food is consumed.

Social implications

Consumption of tea, cocoa and coffee drinks with milk and sugar have been found to enhance or inhibit phenolics. Therefore, the optimum level of these additives should be determined if the drinks were meant for therapeutic purposes.

Originality/value

Results obtained may provide some useful information for considering the bioavailability of phenolics present in tea and beverages in view of consumption/digestion in our body as well as interference of sugar and milk as the additives.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 47 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Case study
Publication date: 24 September 2015

Renuka Kamath and Ashita Aggarwal

Marketing management, brand management, brand loyalty, brand consumer behavior.

Abstract

Subject area

Marketing management, brand management, brand loyalty, brand consumer behavior.

Study level/applicability

MBA program or the Executive Education program.

Case overview

Anubhav Jain, Marketing Head of Digamber Industries, is concerned about the national launch of Surya Gold tea. The brand had been doing well in Jabalpur (Madhya Pradesh, India) with almost 20 per cent market share. However, market reports suggested that retailers primarily pushed the brand and consumers had little loyalty for Surya Gold. Owing to lower repeat purchases, Jain had to spend large amount of money on consumer acquisition. For the national launch, a large base of loyal consumers was critical for business growth. He understood brand loyalty but found it a difficult proposition to relate from consumers' perspective. Market consultants were hired to conduct a qualitative research based on Susan Fournier's work on consumer-brand relationships. The case gives an account of conversations with professed lovers of tea to understand consumer behavior toward tea, including why people drink tea, how they choose their brands and what makes them re-buy or change brands. The case makes certain propositions around brand loyalty, which Jain had to decode to understand tea consumers in India, how brand loyalty develops and changes over time, and hence, how should he plan his marketing strategy. The case attempts to help students critique traditional definitions of brand loyalty, understand and evaluate the concept from consumers' perspective and highlight its importance in marketing strategy planning by explaining evolution, various types and intensity of brand loyalty.

Expected learning outcomes

The broad objective of the case is to strengthen participants' understanding of brand loyalty concept and also appreciate the importance and role of brands in consumer's life. The case can be used for MBA or executive education in brand management or consumer behavior courses. The specific objectives of this case are to help students appreciate the variations in brand loyalty across consumers and critically assess the traditional definition of loyalty, highlight the connection between the consumer personality and the brand attributes, help them understand how the concept of brand loyalty and brand relationship affects consumers' attitude and behavior, help students understand as to why brand loyalty develops and how it can be maintained and expose students to qualitative unstructured data and give them an experience of using it for managerial use.

Supplementary materials

Teaching notes are available for educators only. Please contact your library to gain login details or email support@emeraldinsight.com to request teaching notes enclosed.

Details

Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, vol. 5 no. 5
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2045-0621

Keywords

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