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Article
Publication date: 12 January 2021

Ifeanyichukwu Donald Olumor, Lee Geuntak and Eugene Olevsky

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of two unique processing routes (solvent jetting (SJ) and binder jetting (BJ)), on the green density of printed

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of two unique processing routes (solvent jetting (SJ) and binder jetting (BJ)), on the green density of printed stainless steel 316L (SS316L) and Nickel (Ni) powders.

Design/methodology/approach

In the SJ processing route, a solvent is jetted unto the powder/binder mixture to selectively activate the binder, layer by layer. In the BJ processing route, a solution of the binder mixture is jetted onto the powder bed to selectively bind powder particles. The effects of printing parameters such as layer height, roller speed, shaker speed and nozzle temperature on the green density of printed components are investigated and compared for both processing routes.

Findings

Results show that layer height and nozzle temperature affect the relative density of the printed compact for both processing routes. Slightly higher relative densities were achieved via the SJ route, with the overall highest relative density being 42.7% at 100 µm layer height and 70% nozzle temperature for the SS316L components and 43.7% at 150 µm layer height and 90% nozzle temperature for the Ni components, respectively. Results also show an increase in the final sintered relative density with an increase in green (printed) relative density of the solvent jetted SS316L components, with the highest relative density being 87.2%.

Originality/value

The paper studies the influence of printing parameters on the green density of printed SS316L and Ni samples in an unprecedented effort to provide a comparative understanding of the process-property relationships in BJ and SJ of SS316L and Ni components to the additive manufacturing research community.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 September 2022

Shahrooz Sadeghi Borujeni, Gursimran Singh Saluja and Vasily Ploshikhin

This study aims at compensating for sintering deformation of components manufactured by metal binder jetting (MBJ) technology.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims at compensating for sintering deformation of components manufactured by metal binder jetting (MBJ) technology.

Design/methodology/approach

In the present research, numerical simulations are used to predict sintering deformation. Subsequently, an algorithm is developed to counteract the deformations, and the compensated deformations are morphed into a CAD model for printing. Several test cases are designed, compensated and manufactured to evaluate the accuracy of the compensation calculations. A consistent accuracy measurement method is developed for both green and sintered parts. The final sintered parts are compared with the desired final shape, and the accuracy of the model is discussed. Furthermore, the effect of initial assumptions in the calculations, including green part densities, and green part dimensions on the final dimensional accuracy are studied.

Findings

The proposed computational framework can compensate for the sintering deformations with acceptable accuracy, especially in the directions, for which the used material model has been calibrated. The precise assumption of green part density values is important for the accuracy of compensation calculations. For achieving tighter dimensional accuracy, green part dimensions should be incorporated into the computational framework.

Originality/value

Several studies have already predicted sintering deformations using numerical methods for MBJ parts. However, very little research has been dedicated to the compensation of sintering deformations with numerical simulations, and to the best of the best of the authors' knowledge, no previous work has studied the effect of green part properties on dimensional accuracy of compensation calculations. This paper introduces a method to omit or minimize the trial-and-error experiments and leads to the manufacturing of dimensionally accurate geometries.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 November 2011

Ted Kruse

Libraries have a variety of computer printers, faxes, network printers and photocopiers. All these machines have an environmental impact using paper, ink and electricity…

741

Abstract

Purpose

Libraries have a variety of computer printers, faxes, network printers and photocopiers. All these machines have an environmental impact using paper, ink and electricity. This paper aims to discuss strategies for lessening the impact of these devices.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper provides a “how‐to” approach for librarians to achieve greener printing and copying.

Findings

Modification in library procedures can result in greener printing and copying.

Originality/value

The paper reviews the research on greener printing and provides practical suggestions for achieving greener printing and copying.

Details

The Bottom Line, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0888-045X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 August 2012

Megan E. Dempsey and Alex Palilonis

The purpose of this paper is to describe the implementation of a print management system to control costs and reduce waste associated with printing practices.

1703

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe the implementation of a print management system to control costs and reduce waste associated with printing practices.

Design/methodology/approach

A paper collection study found that 8 percent of pages printed in the library were never claimed. A print management system was implemented requiring print jobs to be manually released by users. Statistics on toner lifespan and number of pages printed before and after the system was implemented were compared.

Findings

The print management system reduced the total number of pages printed in a semester by 32 percent from Fall 2009 to Fall 2011 and increased the lifespan of toner cartridges so they would perform more efficiently.

Practical implications

Implementing a print management system without charging students a printing fee reduces the amount of wasted paper and the costs associated with purchasing paper and toner for printing services.

Originality/value

The paper describes the implementation of a print management system in a library that has substantially reduced the number of pages printed from library computers and the amount of toner used. The authors believe they have made a significant impact on reducing a primary area of waste.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 August 2021

Bharath Seshadri, Kaushik Selva Dhanush Ravi, Illias Hischier and Arno Schlueter

With a growing list of available materials and processes, the inherent mechanical and thermophysical properties of three-dimensional (3D) prints are important design…

Abstract

Purpose

With a growing list of available materials and processes, the inherent mechanical and thermophysical properties of three-dimensional (3D) prints are important design targets. This paper aims to study the functionality of binder jet 3D printed objects for thermally activated building construction elements and recyclable formwork for concrete structures.

Design/methodology/approach

Binder jet printed sand samples with various material and post-processing parameters (infiltration and baking) are prepared and studied. Using a statistical experiment design, the mechanical (flexural and compressive strength) and thermal (conductivity and specific capacity) characteristics are quantified.

Findings

Relative to the unprocessed “greenprint samples, post-processing improved the flexural and compressive strength of the samples by factors of 6.9 and 21.6, respectively; the thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity were improved by factors of 7.7 and 1.2, respectively. For the investigated temperature range (20°C–200°C), the “greenprints showed excellent stability while the stability of post-processed samples depended on the infiltrate used. Microscopic images of the microstructures offered evidence to support improvement in the mechanical and thermo-physical characteristics of the 3D printed sand elements.

Research limitations/implications

The literature review concluded that optimal printing parameters and infiltration under vacuum could further improve the mechanical and thermo-physical properties of the binder jet printed elements. However, both these factors were not explored in this research. The statistical experimental design approach provided more flexibility to choose the number of experiments for a fixed amount of time and resources. However, for future work, a more extensive number of experiments and reproducibility testing for each combination of binder-infiltrate is recommended.

Practical implications

3D printing has been identified as a promising opportunity to reduce material usage and improve construction efficiency in the field of architecture and building engineering. The emerging fabrication technologies are further expected to significantly reduce the operational energy of buildings through performance integration, i.e. multi-functional building elements with integrated heat- and mass-transfer capabilities to replace conventional systems.

Originality/value

This study has quantified the impact of infiltration on the mechanical and thermo-physical characteristics of sand-printed elements and, as such, reports reproducible functional performance maps for sand-print applications. The research demonstrates a way to achieve the desired functional characteristics of 3D prints through combinations of material selection and process/post-processing parameters.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 27 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 October 2018

Hadi Miyanaji, Niknam Momenzadeh and Li Yang

This study aims to experimentally investigate the effect of the powder material characteristics on the qualities of the binder jetting additive manufacturing parts both…

1017

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to experimentally investigate the effect of the powder material characteristics on the qualities of the binder jetting additive manufacturing parts both before and after post processing (sintering).

Design methodology/approach

Three different types of the 316L stainless steel powder feedstock with various mean particle sizes and size distributions were studied. The influence of the powder particle size distributions and pore sizes on the powder bed packing densities and on the dynamics of the binder droplet-powder bed interactions were characterized. In addition, the surface roughness and densities of these parts both in the green state and after sintering were studied.

Findings

The results revealed the significant role of the powder feedstock characteristics on the liquid binder/powder bed interaction and consequently on the dimensional accuracies of the green parts. It was observed that the parts printed with the smaller mean particle sizes resulted in better surface finish and higher final densities after sintering. Furthermore, the hardness of the sintered parts produced with smaller powder particles exhibited higher values compared to the parts fabricated with the larger particles. On the other hand, larger particle sizes are advantageous for various green part qualities including the dimensional accuracies, green part densities and surface roughness.

Originality/value

This study establishes more comprehensive correlations between the powder feedstock characteristics and various quality criteria of the printed binder jetting components in both green and sintered states. These correlation are of critical importance in choosing the optimal process parameters for a given material system.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 March 2015

Yun Bai and Christopher B Williams

The purpose of this paper is to explore the use of binder jetting to fabricate high-purity copper parts. The ability to fabricate geometrically complex copper shapes would…

2996

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the use of binder jetting to fabricate high-purity copper parts. The ability to fabricate geometrically complex copper shapes would have implications on the design and manufacture of components for thermal management systems and structural electronics.

Design/methodology/approach

To explore the feasibility of processing copper via binder jetting, the authors followed an established material development process that encompasses powder selection and tuning process parameters in printing and thermal cycles. Specifically, the authors varied powder size and sintering cycles to explore their effects on densification.

Findings

Three differently sized copper powders were successfully printed, followed by sintering in a reducing atmosphere. It was found that a 15-μm-diameter powder with a sintering cycle featuring a 1,080°C maximum temperature provides the most dense (85 per cent) and pure (97 per cent) final copper parts of the parameters tested.

Research limitations/implications

Due to powder-based additive manufacturing techniques’ inherent limitations in powder packing and particle size diameter, there are difficulties in creating fully dense copper parts. To improve thermal, electrical and mechanical properties, future work will focus on improving densification.

Originality/value

The paper demonstrates the first use of binder jetting to fabricate copper artifacts. The resulting copper parts are denser than what is typically found in binder jetting of metal powders (without infiltration); significant opportunity remains to further optimize the manufacturing process by introducing novel techniques to tailor the material properties for thermal/electrical applications.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 November 2021

Samed Ayhan Özsoy, Safiye Meriç Acıkel and Cem Aydemir

The surface energy of the printing material can be increased to desired levels with different chemicals or methods. However, the important thing is that the surface…

111

Abstract

Purpose

The surface energy of the printing material can be increased to desired levels with different chemicals or methods. However, the important thing is that the surface properties of printing material are not affected negatively. In this way the aim of this paper provide that the surface properties of matte and glossy coated paper is improved by the argon containing atmospheric pressure plasma device because the plasma treatment method does not occur surface damaging on the papers.

Design/methodology/approach

In experimental studies, test samples cut from 160 mm × 30 mm in size from 115 g/m2 gloss- and matt-coated papers were used. The plasma treatments of paper samples were carried out with an argon containing atmospheric pressure plasma device of laboratory scale that produces plasma of the corona discharge type at radio frequency. The optimized plasma parameters were at a frequency of 20 kHz and plasma power 200 W. A copper electrode of length 12 cm and diameter 2.5 mm was placed in the centre of the nozzle.

Findings

Research findings showed that the surface energies of the papers increased with the increase in plasma application time. While the contact angle of the untreated glossy paper is 82.2, 8 second plasma applied G3 sample showed 54 contact angle value. Similarly, the contact angle of the base paper of matt coated is 91.1, while M3 is reduced to 60.4 contact angles by the increasing plasma time.

Originality/value

Plasma treatment has shown that no chemical coating is needed to increase the wettability of the paper surface by reducing the contact angle between the paper and the water droplet. In addition, the surface energies of all papers treated by argon gas containing atmospheric pressure plasma, increased. Plasma treatment provides to improve both the wettability of the paper and the adhesion property required for the ink, with an environmentally friendly approach.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 February 2008

Sandra Rothenberg, Ron Hira and Zhi Tang

This paper aims to report on how US printers perceive offshoring trends in the printing industry, and explore how they are responding to its opportunities and challenges.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to report on how US printers perceive offshoring trends in the printing industry, and explore how they are responding to its opportunities and challenges.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors relied on data collection comprising three stages: exploratory interviews, an industry survey, and follow‐up interviews.

Findings

Many printers perceive offshoring as a threat, and some groups are being affected by it. Firms that offer quick and variable printing and/or non‐standard IT services (with the exception of data management) are less likely to suffer from job loss due to the offshoring. To respond to the threat of offshore outsourcing, printers are trying to either focus on “safe” products, introduce new services, or offshore themselves. Most US printers do not have a global footprint, so few have taken advantage of the opportunities opened up by globalization, by offshoring their supply chain or selling abroad.

Research limitations/implications

Due to a low response rate, performance data are not in the analysis. This limitation is common for researchers of the printing industry where little public data are available.

Practical implications

While many US printers are feeling the negative effects of offshoring, few are taking advantage of its benefits.

Originality/value

Most offshoring studies to date have relied on publicly available data, which has significant limitations. This study uses a mix of both survey and interview data to attain a more nuanced view of how the US printing industry is being affected by, and responding, to offshoring.

Details

Strategic Outsourcing: An International Journal, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8297

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 January 2020

H. Abd El-Wahab, G. El-Meligi, M.G. Hassaan, A. Kazlauciunas and Long Lin

The purpose of this paper is to prepare, characterise and evaluate nano-emulsions of copolymers of various compositions as eco-friendly binders for flexographic ink industry.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to prepare, characterise and evaluate nano-emulsions of copolymers of various compositions as eco-friendly binders for flexographic ink industry.

Design/methodology/approach

Various nano-emulsions of copolymers were prepared using styrene (St), butyl acrylate (BuAc), acrylic acid (AA) and acrylamide (AAm) monomers by means of a conventional seeded emulsion polymerisation technique, using K2S2O8 as the initiator. The characterisation of the prepared emulsions was performed using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A selection of copolymers was formulated with pigments and additional ingredients, as water-based flexographic inks. The inks were characterised for their viscosity, pH, degree of dispersion, water resistance and colour density.

Findings

It was found that the low viscosity of the prepared copolymers may reduce the film thickness of the flexographic inks and may also increase the spreading of the ink on the surface. As a result, stable modified polyacrylate-based latex with improved physico-mechanical properties were obtained. The prepared latexes were showed improving and enhancing in water resistance; gloss values, and the print density that ranged from 2.06 to 2.51 and the maximum gloss values (39 and 48) were also obtained. Also, these binders provide excellent adhesion properties for both the pigment particles and the base paper.

Practical implications

This study focuses on the preparation of new water-based copolymer nanoparticles and their use as eco-friendly binders for flexographic ink industry.

Social implications

The ink formulations developed could find use in industrial-scale printing.

Originality/value

Eco-friendly environment ink formulations for printing on paper substrates are novel.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 49 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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