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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2014

Ardis Storm-Mathisen

This article aims to discuss challenges to Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID)-based services from a user perspective located within sociology, anthropology and science…

Abstract

Purpose

This article aims to discuss challenges to Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID)-based services from a user perspective located within sociology, anthropology and science and technology studies.

Design/methodology/approach

Two cases of toll/ticketing RFID technologies are explored: the mature AutoPASS (tolling on public roads) and the newly implemented Flexus/Ruter Travelcard (public transport) in Norway. A methodologically triangulation of qualitative data is applied to trace the history of RFID implementation, and to compare the benefits proclaimed by suppliers with the hands-on experience of users.

Findings

The RFID benefits proclaimed by suppliers were, to a large extent, shared by users in the case of AutoPASS, but to a lesser extent in the case of Flexus/Ruter Travelcard. The cases illustrate that RFID applications are heterogeneous products with different levels of maturity and complexity, applied to fields and services with varied user-groups, functional requirements and privacy concerns. Vital to the success of RFID-based services is good management, compliance with Data Protection Regulations and providing user’s an experience of greater ease-of use and added-value in their everyday lives in comparison to previous systems.

Practical implications

Future research should broaden perspectives and methodologies to better grasp the complex interplay among RFID applications, users and the environment. This entails moving beyond a focus on discursive adoption to ethnographic studies of appropriation and how technology affects social practice.

Originality/value

RFID is undergoing an extremely expansive usability phase – commercially and socially. Research on RFID is scare and fragmented with few contributions from social science. Studies that privilege user perspectives tend to address the needs and concerns of business rather than of users.

Details

info, vol. 16 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6697

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2017

Chaehan So

This paper aims to present a conceptual framework of how software teams can leverage the implicit information of implemented acceptance tests to cater to the needs of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a conceptual framework of how software teams can leverage the implicit information of implemented acceptance tests to cater to the needs of decision makers. The research questions on this framework were how business stakeholders can receive project status information in an intuitive way and how this framework can guarantee the traceability of tests to requirements.

Design/methodology/approach

The conceptual framework delineates the design of an acceptance test framework in three aspects: how the requirements model reflects the evolving states of requirement maturity over a project, how the acceptance test model becomes synchronized with the requirements model without a traceability matrix and how the acceptance test model communicates business value to the decision makers.

Findings

In an industrial case study, the presented framework yielded the positive effects of intuitive understanding by business stakeholders, high test coverage of requirements and distinctly reduced manual quality assurance (QA) work by automated testing for browsers and mobile devices.

Practical implications

The presented framework can help to convince business stakeholders to approve the budget for building a testing framework because it delivers them value as a status reporting tool.

Originality/value

This paper is the first to describe a step-by-step approach to solving a critical problem that IT departments frequently face. The solution consists in a new way of transforming the perception of a technical framework into a reporting tool for business information by intuitive design. The idea of mapping hierarchically corresponding abstraction layers can be transferred to other engineering domains.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2005

Denise Worsfold

Hygiene award schemes are intended to promote excellent food safety standards. They should encourage food premises to raise standards and provide consumers with more…

Abstract

Purpose

Hygiene award schemes are intended to promote excellent food safety standards. They should encourage food premises to raise standards and provide consumers with more information. The Food Standards Agency (FSA) is considering a national hygiene award scheme as part of its strategy to improve food safety management in food businesses throughout the UK. This paper seeks to review four hygiene award schemes that are currently operating in the UK.

Design/methodology/approach

The schemes were assessed using the preferred components for a national scheme established by the FSA. An attempt was made to gauge consumer and industry interest in the schemes and to identify whether food safety standards had been improved.

Findings

In all of the schemes the food safety standards were assessed by enforcement officers during routine inspections to grade the awards. The award schemes appeared to be popular with most award winners, with some of the local authorities and with those members of the public who are aware of them. However, the schemes do little to inform the public of actual standards in food premises. This lack of transparency mainly relates to a lack of information on the scoring mechanism for businesses and the public, limited publicity for the scheme in the media and the evident need to educate the public.

Originality/value

Information on the benefits and limitations of the different schemes that are highlighted may make some contribution to the debate on a national scheme.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 107 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2006

Denise Worsfold

The purpose of this case study was to obtain information on the hygiene standards of food premises using the Freedom of Information (FOI) Act 2000.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this case study was to obtain information on the hygiene standards of food premises using the Freedom of Information (FOI) Act 2000.

Design/methodology/approach

Eight local authorities in South Wales were asked to provide the most recent food hygiene inspection of a named food premise in their area. The disclosed reports were assessed to determine whether they conformed to the Food Standards Agency (FSA) Food Law Code of Practice and how useful they would be to the consumer seeking information on the hygiene standards of a food premise.

Findings

Five of the eight authorities provided full information. Most authorities supplied a risk grading for the premises. Reports ranged from completed comprehensive inspection protocols with full post‐inspection letters to a hand written, barely legible report that failed to adequately differentiate between legal requirements and recommendations. Without some training in food law and food hygiene it would be difficult for most consumers to interpret some of the reports.

Research implications/limitations

The results of this case study have increased confidence that local authorities are now complying with the FOI Act. It raises concerns about the consistency, fairness and robustness of inspections.

Practical implications

If there is to be greater transparency about hygiene standards in food premises, regulators will have to take account of the public in their communications. The public will need to be educated about the inspection and enforcement process and any systems used to disclose inspection results.

Originality/value

The paper shows how FOI can be used to inform the public about food hygiene standards.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 108 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 17 July 2019

Charu Grover and Sangeeta Bansal

This paper aims to investigate the role of certification in providing information and reducing market inefficiencies when the “certification process is imperfect”. In the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the role of certification in providing information and reducing market inefficiencies when the “certification process is imperfect”. In the setting, eco-labels imperfectly signal environmental product quality to consumers where the error in the process of certification could be either Type 1 or Type 2 error. The paper examines firms' incentive to get certified, equilibrium quantities and profits. The authors use perfect Bayesian equilibrium concept for the analysis. They then examine conditions for separating and pooling equilibrium to exist and welfare implications of certification process.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses a vertical product differentiated model where firms are competing in quantities. Consumers are unable to observe the environmental quality of the product. To signal the product quality to consumers, firms may adopt certification by a third party. Using a framework where certification process is imperfect, the paper derives conditions for Perfect Bayesian separating and pooling equilibrium to exist.

Findings

The paper shows that the existence of separating and pooling equilibrium depends on the certification fee. A separating equilibrium, where one firm seeks certification and other firm does not seek certification exists for an intermediate value of certification fee. A pooling equilibrium, where both firms seek certification, exists only when the certification fee is sufficiently small. The paper shows conditions for the certification fee for which welfare will be higher under separating equilibrium as compared to pooling equilibrium and analyses welfare implications for subsidy policy for the certification fee.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the literature by examining the role of labelling under imperfect certification.

Details

Indian Growth and Development Review, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8254

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Article
Publication date: 30 August 2013

Kara Chan and Hao‐Chieh Chang

Hong Kong youth's general attitudes toward government publicity were studied and their responses to two public service advertisements promoting green lifestyles were…

Abstract

Purpose

Hong Kong youth's general attitudes toward government publicity were studied and their responses to two public service advertisements promoting green lifestyles were measured. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Thirty‐four Chinese youths in Hong Kong aged 17 to 22 were questioned about their understanding of and attitudes toward public service advertising in face‐to‐face interviews. Their opinions of two government television ads promoting “green living” were then solicited.

Findings

The interviewees described government publicity in general as credible and practical. Some liked the green living ads for their creativity but others disliked them as boring, unrealistic, irrelevant and uninformative. Recommendations are presented for designing public service campaigns that target youth.

Research limitations/implications

The results were based on a small convenience sample. More than one interviewer participated, so the results were subject to differences in interviewing techniques.

Practical implications

The study developed useful information for those organizing public service ad campaigns, especially campaigns aimed at Chinese youth.

Originality/value

This has been the first study to measure youth's attitudes toward public service ad campaigns in the Hong Kong context.

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

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Article
Publication date: 19 July 2021

Marc Richard Hugh Kosciejew

Introducing immunity or vaccine passports is one non-pharmaceutical intervention that governments are considering to exempt immune, vaccinated or otherwise risk-free…

Abstract

Purpose

Introducing immunity or vaccine passports is one non-pharmaceutical intervention that governments are considering to exempt immune, vaccinated or otherwise risk-free individuals from lockdowns and other public health restrictions during the coronavirus pandemic. The primary objective of these documents would be to begin reopening societies, restarting economies and returning to a pre-pandemic normalcy. This article aims to present the start of a conceptual documentary analysis of (proposed and existing) COVID-19 immunity passports in order to more fully center their documentary status within research, considerations and conversations about their potential roles, impacts and implications.

Design/methodology/approach

Inspired by Paula A. Treichler's argument for the importance of theoretical thought for untangling the socio-cultural phenomena of epidemics, and drawing upon interdisciplinary theories of documentation, identity and public health, combined with recent news coverage of the coronavirus pandemic, this article provides a contemporary overview and conceptual analysis of emerging documentary regimes of COVID-19 immunity verification involving immunity or vaccine passports.

Findings

Three major interconnected objectives could be fulfilled by immunity passports. First, they would establish and materialize an official identity of COVID-19 immune for people possessing the formal document. Second, they would serve as material evidence establishing and verifying individuals' immunity, vaccination or risk-free status from the coronavirus that would, in term, determine and regulate their movements and other privileges. Third, they would create tangible links between individuals and governments' official or recognized identity category of COVID-19 immune. Immunity passports would, therefore, help enable and enforce governmental authority and power by situating individuals within documentary regimes of COVID-19 immunity verification.

Research limitations/implications

In the expanding interdisciplinary literature on COVID-19 immunity passports, sometimes also called certificates, licenses, or passes, there appears to be only minimal reference to their documentary instantiations, whether physical, digital, and/or hybrid documents. As yet, there is not any specific documentary approach to or analysis of immunity passports as kinds of documentation. A documentary approach helps to illuminate and emphasize the materiality of and ontological considerations concerning the coronavirus pandemic and its associated kinds of immunity or vaccination.

Social implications

By beginning an exploration of what makes immunity passports thinkable as a public health response to the coronavirus pandemic, this article illuminates these health and identity documents' material implications for, and effects on, individuals and societies. This article, therefore, helps shed light on what immunity passports reveal about the complicated and contested intersections of identity, documentation, public health and socio-political control and discipline.

Originality/value

This article contributes the start of a documentary analysis of (proposed and existing) COVID-19 immunity passports in order to more fully center their documentary status within research and conversations about them.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2019

Kamal Ghosh Ray

The purpose of this study is to show that corporations may resort to legal compliance instead of acting voluntarily towards abatement of environmental damages as a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to show that corporations may resort to legal compliance instead of acting voluntarily towards abatement of environmental damages as a strategy for improving their reputation.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the natural philosophy and postulate of business, theoretical models have been developed to justify the purpose of this paper. Financial impacts of Indian revenue law on environmental damage prevention by the polluting firms have been gauged mathematically.

Findings

Corporate environmental responsibilities have seemed to be more reputation-led than innovation-led or efficiency-led. Reputation-led environmental responsibilities can have ways to bypass innovations and some firms can simply comply with regulations at the society’s cost (may be to a sizeable extent). If penalty is imposed on companies in the form of taxation for damaging the environment, then companies get chances to pass the financial burden to the shareholders in the form of lower dividend pay-outs. Unless the capital market supports corporate green initiatives, there may be destruction of shareholder wealth.

Research limitations/implications

Extensive empirical analysis have not been conducted as the paper concentrates on developing theoretical understanding of the models of “green cost”.

Practical implications

The exploration and outcomes of this paper can offer several directions to the government, business and social activists in articulating green economic policy for the benefits of all.

Social implications

The civil society will understand better what the corporate environmental responsibility really means for them.

Originality/value

This paper has made a modest endeavour to develop theoretical models of both “green cost internalisation” and “green cost externalisation”. It has paved the path for further deliberations and research.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. 15 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2015

Yeong Liang Sim and Frederik Josep Putuhena

The purpose of this paper is to identify mechanisms and approaches involved in the local construction industry to enhance environmental concerns and the adoption of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify mechanisms and approaches involved in the local construction industry to enhance environmental concerns and the adoption of capacity development model to manage the environment and up keeping of the quality in Malaysian construction industry.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper describes an innovative approach to understanding the role of internal and external influence through LEGO® concept. This approach builds on the theory of change management, in which includes learning about the domain of enabling environment, organisation, individual and knowledge management process. New ideas, practices or technologies occur through integration of efforts particularly from the above mentioned domains. The approach also analyses the challenges faced by construction stakeholders. It draws on findings from different studies including some other countries of sustainability in which the engagement of previous research has been incorporated to further enhance the construction and environmental quality in the Malaysian construction industry.

Findings

Environmental sustainable development construction requires a holistic thinking and decision making and more innovative solutions that enhance sustainability and result in mutually benefited outcomes for all stakeholders. A dedicated effort especially government and government link company is in strong demand. A valid reason for capacity development to develop in organisations and individuals to perform functions needed to keep green management operating and evolving to meet new challenges. The construction sector will benefit from learning advances in capacity development which are designed to improve and enhance construction and environmental quality governance. The coverage of LEGO® conceptual framework at which capacity development operates was identified in each domain of change management.

Research limitations/implications

A limitation of the study was the relatively little literature information provided and thus affects the expounding and reliability of data. For this reason, these findings cannot be generalised to the other countries based on this study alone. The access to information is limited as public and private organisations hesitate to share information on their strategic planning and tactics.

Originality/value

Development of capacity development model will contribute to the understanding of environmental sustainability through identifying gaps in the understanding and pursuit of construction and environmental quality in the Malaysian construction industry. This paper suggests the future prospect that integrates several dimensions towards green management practice in Malaysia.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1994

Andrzej Krawczyk

In 1993 the 200th anniversary of George Green, a great physicist and mathematician's, birth was celebrated. His contribution to world's science is beyond the question…

Abstract

In 1993 the 200th anniversary of George Green, a great physicist and mathematician's, birth was celebrated. His contribution to world's science is beyond the question. This can best be seen in the frequency of mentioning his name and quoting his works in other physicists' and mathematicians' works. Some of historians of science and researchers are deeply convinced that George Green together with Maxwell originated modern electromagnetism. George Green is also famous for his inventions as far as light, stress and accoustic theories are concerned but electromagnetism ows him most of all. Indeed, none of those who have ever dealt with mathematical electromagnetism will question George Green's part and position. In nearly each paper referring to it, Green's function or Green's identities are the terms that are mentioned or quoted. Without these notions contemporary numerical techniques such as finite element method (first Green's identity) or boundary element method (second Green's identity) or integral methods (Green's function) are hard to imagine.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

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