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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study the effect of green lemon zest combined with sardine proteins in diabetic hypertensive rats (DHRs).

Design/methodology/approach

Male Wistar rats (n = 30) weighing 250 ± 10 g were divided into five groups. The first group consumed a diet containing 20 per cent casein (C). The other four groups are rendered diabetic by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (40 mg/kg body weight), then hypertensive by subcutaneous implantation controlled time-release pellet containing ouabain (0.25 mg/pellet). One untreated group (DHR) consumed 20 per cent casein and the three other groups consumed the same diet supplemented with 2 per cent green lemon zest (DHR-lz), or with 20 per cent of sardine protein (group DHR-sp) or with the combination of both sardine proteins and green lemon zest (group DHR-sp + lz).

Findings

DHRs feeding on the combination of both sardine protein (sp) and lemon zest (lz) induced a significant decrease of diastolic blood pressure and heart rates values compared with DHR (p < 0.05). The HDLC values were increased by +55 per cent in DHR-sp + lz compared with DHR group. Moreover, plasma non-HDLC concentrations were decreased significantly compared to DHR, DHR-lz, DHR-sp and C groups. In DHR-sp + lzvs DHR group, TBARS values were decreased by −25 per cent in the liver. Moreover, kidney TBARS were significantly reduced by −66, −51, −65 and −67 per cent compared with C, DHR, DHR-lz and DHR-sp, respectively.

Originality/value

These results suggest that consumption of green lemon zest combined with sardine proteins can reduce blood pressure and tissue oxidative damage and, therefore, help to prevent cardiovascular complications in hypertensive diabetic patients.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 48 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Book part

Vinod Shastri

Every year, tonnes of flower waste from religious places is dumped into India’s holiest river Ganges, polluting it to virtual death. Pesticides and insecticides used in…

Abstract

Every year, tonnes of flower waste from religious places is dumped into India’s holiest river Ganges, polluting it to virtual death. Pesticides and insecticides used in growing these flowers mix with the water, affecting millions of lives through water-borne diseases. Most others may just lament these facts, Ankit Agarwal and Karan Rastogi, childhood friends from Kanpur, used them as inspiration to innovate. Two years of relentless experimentation led to a brilliant idea; that of recycling the flower waste. They founded HelpUsGreen® in 2014 to convert the waste into bio-fertilisers and lifestyle products. Widely appreciated and heavily awarded now, success has not come easy for this well-educated duo. HelpUsGreen® processes hundreds of kilos of flower waste, creating employment for hundreds of underprivileged women. An entirely bootstrapped project with no carbon foot print, the venture hopes to revive the Ganges through Flowercycling®. Currently at 8.5 tonnes per day and at the tipping point of scaling, HelpUsGreen® hopes to process over 50 tonnes of flower waste per day by 2020. Apart from the environmental impact, HelpUsGreen® has achieved huge societal impact, employing over a thousand women who did not previously have formal employment. What also makes the social entrepreneurs stand apart is their entrepreneurial market savviness. They have positioned their products not at the sympathy market but at the high-end premium market. Their products sell under the name ‘Phool’. HelpUsGreen® has set its eyes firmly on spreading operations across 2,000 kilometres along the Ganges and creating over 25,000 jobs for women.

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Article

Mohammad Ghiath Naser Aldeen, Rita Mansour and Malak AlJoubbeh

This paper aims to study the effect of cooking and food additives, such as lemon juice and vinegar, on phenols and flavonoids contents and antioxidant activity of purslane.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study the effect of cooking and food additives, such as lemon juice and vinegar, on phenols and flavonoids contents and antioxidant activity of purslane.

Design/methodology/approach

The Folin–Ciocalteu method was used to determine total phenols content (TP), while total flavonoid content (TF) was determined by the aluminum chloride method. Two methods were used for determination of antioxidant activity: DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) assay to determine radical scavenging activity, and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) to measure the reducing power.

Findings

According to the results, leafs had higher values of TP, TF and antioxidant activity than aerial parts. Both lemon juice and vinegar retracted antioxidant properties of leafs. TP and TF of leaves showed deterioration after treatment with lemon by 58% and 21.8%, respectively, and FRAP and radical scavenging activity decreased by 75.8% and 74.5%, respectively (p <0.001). Also, TP, TF, FRAP and DPPH radical scavenging activity decreased in leaves by 82.2%, 30.5%, 87.8% and 90.9%, respectively, after treatment of leaves with vinegar. TF increased after cooking in studied parts, where no significant statistical difference was observed in TP and antioxidant activity (DPPH assay and FRAP) of cooked aerial parts. Adding lemon juice after cooking increased antioxidant properties of purslane (p <0.001).

Originality/value

Purslane has antioxidant activity because it is rich in polyphenols and flavonoids. Effects of food additives and cooking were studied using different measurements. According to the authors’ knowledge, this is the first work that studied the effect of food additives on antioxidant properties of purslane.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 50 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article

Joshita Lamba, Sangeeta Goomer and Lata Nain

The Indian diet is rich in all the essential nutrients required for the well-being of human life. Probiotics have always been part of our traditional diet but microbiota…

Abstract

Purpose

The Indian diet is rich in all the essential nutrients required for the well-being of human life. Probiotics have always been part of our traditional diet but microbiota of traditional fermented foods has not been explored. This study aims to analyse various traditional Indian fermented products for their probiotic nature.

Design/methodology/approach

Fermented indigenous products such as kanji, vegetable pickles and curd were prepared under controlled conditions and stored at ambient temperatures for shelf life studies. During the shelf life study, pH, titratable acidity and Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) count were estimated.

Findings

LAB counts ranged between 106 and 108 cfu/g in all the products, reflective of the probiotic nature of the products. Growth was observed even at low pH of 2.77 in product such as lemon chilli and ginger pickle. The 16S RNA-based sequencing technique was used for the identification of probiotic organisms present in the product. Enterococcus lactis, enterococcus durans, bacillus subtilis and lactobacillus plantarum were detected in the products.

Practical implications

These observations emphasise the need to undertake in-depth analysis of the viability of LAB in these fermented Indian foods for improving their nutritional properties. A need exists to explore and popularise more indigenous fermented products as probiotics.

Originality/value

India has a very rich and diverse food culture which differs from one region to other. This is because of difference in climatic conditions which has led to variety of food products. There are many products prepared locally and are not studied scientifically. This study aimed to explore these products for the presence of LAB which could have a probiotic potential.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 49 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article

The statement of the Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, coming so quickly after the ban on the use of cyclamates in food and drink in the United States…

Abstract

The statement of the Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, coming so quickly after the ban on the use of cyclamates in food and drink in the United States, indicates that the new evidence of carcinogenesis in animals, placed at the disposal of the authorities by the U.S. F.D.A., has been accepted; at least, until the results of investigations being carried out in this country are available. The evidence was as new to the U.S. authorities as to our own and in the light of it, they could no longer regard the substances as in the GRAS class of food additives. It is, of course, right that any substance of which there is the slightest doubt should be removed from use; not as the result of food neuroses and health scares, but only on the basis of scientific evidence, however remote the connection. It is also right that there should always be power of selection by consumers avoidance is usually possible with other things known to be harmful, such as smoking and alcohol; in other cases, especially with chemical additives to food and drink, there must be pre‐knowledge, so that those who do not wish to consume food or drink containing such additives can ascertain from labelling those commodities which contain them.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 71 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Case study

Renuka Kamath and Ashita Aggarwal

Marketing management, brand management, brand loyalty, brand consumer behavior.

Abstract

Subject area

Marketing management, brand management, brand loyalty, brand consumer behavior.

Study level/applicability

MBA program or the Executive Education program.

Case overview

Anubhav Jain, Marketing Head of Digamber Industries, is concerned about the national launch of Surya Gold tea. The brand had been doing well in Jabalpur (Madhya Pradesh, India) with almost 20 per cent market share. However, market reports suggested that retailers primarily pushed the brand and consumers had little loyalty for Surya Gold. Owing to lower repeat purchases, Jain had to spend large amount of money on consumer acquisition. For the national launch, a large base of loyal consumers was critical for business growth. He understood brand loyalty but found it a difficult proposition to relate from consumers' perspective. Market consultants were hired to conduct a qualitative research based on Susan Fournier's work on consumer-brand relationships. The case gives an account of conversations with professed lovers of tea to understand consumer behavior toward tea, including why people drink tea, how they choose their brands and what makes them re-buy or change brands. The case makes certain propositions around brand loyalty, which Jain had to decode to understand tea consumers in India, how brand loyalty develops and changes over time, and hence, how should he plan his marketing strategy. The case attempts to help students critique traditional definitions of brand loyalty, understand and evaluate the concept from consumers' perspective and highlight its importance in marketing strategy planning by explaining evolution, various types and intensity of brand loyalty.

Expected learning outcomes

The broad objective of the case is to strengthen participants' understanding of brand loyalty concept and also appreciate the importance and role of brands in consumer's life. The case can be used for MBA or executive education in brand management or consumer behavior courses. The specific objectives of this case are to help students appreciate the variations in brand loyalty across consumers and critically assess the traditional definition of loyalty, highlight the connection between the consumer personality and the brand attributes, help them understand how the concept of brand loyalty and brand relationship affects consumers' attitude and behavior, help students understand as to why brand loyalty develops and how it can be maintained and expose students to qualitative unstructured data and give them an experience of using it for managerial use.

Supplementary materials

Teaching notes are available for educators only. Please contact your library to gain login details or email support@emeraldinsight.com to request teaching notes enclosed.

Details

Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, vol. 5 no. 5
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2045-0621

Keywords

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Article

Hannele Kauppinen-Räisänen and Marie-Nathalie Jauffret

The impact of colour is acknowledged within the marketing field. However, research on colour communication is limited, with most prior studies focusing on pre-defined…

Abstract

Purpose

The impact of colour is acknowledged within the marketing field. However, research on colour communication is limited, with most prior studies focusing on pre-defined meanings or colour associations. The purpose of this paper is to reveal insights into colour meaning and propose an alternative view to understanding colour communication.

Design/methodology/approach

The study takes a conceptual approach and proposes Peircean semiotics to understand colour communication. The proposed framework is applied to analyse a set of colour meanings detected by prior colour research.

Findings

The study elucidates the underlying mechanism of how colour is read and interpreted in various marketing activities, and how meaning is conveyed. This study addresses this mechanism by identifying colour semantics and colour as a symbolic, iconic and indexical sign.

Research limitations/implications

The study contributes to the scholarly knowledge of colour in marketing. It enriches the understanding of how consumers interpret representations of single visual signs expressed in contexts such as products, brands and brand packaging to make informed product decisions.

Practical implications

By understanding consumer interpretation as a stage in the communication process, marketers can develop more informed marketing activities to communicate the intended meanings. This may well strengthen the brand identity and contribute to the perceived brand value.

Originality/value

By elaborating on how colours convey meanings and the mechanism that explains such meanings, this study demonstrates that colour meaning is far more than mere association. The study contributes to the current knowledge of colour by facilitating a deeper understanding of how consumers interpret representations of single visual cues expressed in various contexts.

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

Keywords

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Case study

Satbir Singh Kajal, Anish Goyal and Chitra Singla

The case talks about Hind Tea Pvt. Ltd (HTPL)-a small and medium enterprise (SME) in India that is 100% owned by Wadhwa family. HTPL procures processed tea from auctions…

Abstract

The case talks about Hind Tea Pvt. Ltd (HTPL)-a small and medium enterprise (SME) in India that is 100% owned by Wadhwa family. HTPL procures processed tea from auctions and sells it to distributors under its own brand names. The case describes the journey of two brothers and how the next generation of the family takes over and aspires to make the company a national level player. These aspirations pose new demands on the owners and the business; the case talks about decision making in the family under such a scenario. The case poses interesting questions related to governance, professionalization, succession, and decision making in the family.

Details

Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad, vol. no.
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2633-3260
Published by: Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad

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Article

Kaisa Kivioja

This study aims to examine the impact of olfactory cues at the point of purchase on consumers’ purchase behavior in terms of sales.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the impact of olfactory cues at the point of purchase on consumers’ purchase behavior in terms of sales.

Design/methodology/approach

The theory of semantic congruence and sensory marketing on consumer behavior is tested using data collected through an experiment and analyzed using quantitative methods.

Findings

The presence of an olfactory cue has a positive impact on purchase behavior, as measured by product and product-category sales. Results indicate that a more common, category-congruent scent is optimal, as opposed to product-congruent, differentiating scent, even for a single product.

Practical implications

The findings encourage retailers to implement scents at the point of purchase as a sales promotion tool. Targeting a product category, instead of a single product, would seem the most feasible target scope.

Originality/value

This paper studies sensory marketing and cue congruence in a real-life retail setting, measuring the impact in terms of sales, and not only in relation to purchase intentions or brand image. Addressing a precisely defined target that suits retailing, namely, a single product and product category, is also novel, contrasting with earlier studies focused on ambient scents in large environments.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

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Article

Aly R. Abdel-Moemin

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the content and some synthetic food colourants, total fats, nitrate and nitrite in both advertised foods (AF) and serum and urine…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the content and some synthetic food colourants, total fats, nitrate and nitrite in both advertised foods (AF) and serum and urine samples of children (8 to 12 years) and their impact on childrens’ diet and health.

Design/methodology/approach

Analysis of the content of the AF was done by watching the three Egyptian children’s channels (ECC) for 38 hours. Amaranth, Indigo Carmine, Tartrazine, nitrate and nitrite were analysed in all AF and in serum and urine specimens of children. However, total fats were only analysed in the advertised processed meats and in the restaurant dishes. Lipid profile was also estimated in children.

Findings

The AF accounted for 46-54 per cent of the total advertisements presented. The advertised restaurant dishes were predominantly high in fats, 63 and 55 per cent in restaurant dishes and processed meats, respectively. Tartrazine was the only food colourant found in soft drinks and jelly powders measuring 0.2-15 µg/ml and 25-125 µg/g, respectively. The average levels of total nitrate and nitrite were higher than the acceptable daily intake of the Egyptian and WHO limits (125 mg/kg). Urinary Tartrazine and serum and urinary total nitrate and nitrite were significantly higher in the viewers’ children for the ECC and at borderline for lipid profile compared to non-viewers’ children.

Research limitations/implications

The most harmful effect of these advertisements is the cumulative effect of AF that undermines progress towards a healthy diet for children. AF may expose children to non-communicable disease in the future.

Practical implications

The local policy context requires action to set clear rules for children’s food advertising and monitor processed meat products to tackle exceeded levels of nitrate and nitrite.

Originality/value

This is one of the first studies to analyse colourants, fats, nitrate and nitrite in AF and in the serum and urine of children. This research shows a large number of AF (1,112) in the ECC for 38 hours with statistically significant increase of Tartrazine, nitrate and nitrite in AF (p<0.0001) and in biological fluids (p<0.05).

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 118 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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