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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate perceived sensory differences of organic and conventional leafy green vegetables through three sensory tests – blind, informed and inverted and the willingness to buy (WTB) them, and associated factors of organic food consumption by these students.

Design/methodology/approach

The research had a cross-sectional design with university students. First, a questionnaire with 16 statements was presented to 233 consumers with a five-point Likert scale response. The assertions were categorized into five domains: trust in organic production; trust in conventional production; positive attitude to organic; affordable price; and perceived quality. Afterwards, a hedonic scaling was conducted with 150 consumers, 50 in each type of test with conventional and organic leafy green vegetables: lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.); kale (Brassica oleracea L.); common chicory (Cichorium intybus); and endive (Cichorium endivia). Visual aspect, taste, texture, bitterness and overall liking for all samples were evaluated on a nine-point hedonic scale.

Findings

In general, the participants did not perceive sensory differences during the blind test, but when the information about the vegetables was provided, higher scores were obtained by those products labelled as organic in the informed test and in the inverted test (conventional labelled as organic). This effect was higher for students with stronger attitudes towards organic food. These results indicated that the perceived differences between organic and conventional leafy green by university students tended to be attitudinal and, therefore, can be greatly influenced by the information provided with the product.

Originality/value

This research showed that university students were influenced by the organic label, revealing their sensory perception about vegetables. This study had multiple methodological approaches, including hedonic scaling and consumers’ WTB. This combination allowed identifying the students’ attitudinal tendency in relation to their sensory perceptions of organic green leafy green vegetables.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 121 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article

I.M. Adekunle, O. Olorundare and C. Nwange

The aim of this paper is to assess the safety of commonly consumed green leafy vegetables in southwest Nigeria in relation to lead (Pb) contamination.

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to assess the safety of commonly consumed green leafy vegetables in southwest Nigeria in relation to lead (Pb) contamination.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 585 samples of five species of commonly consumed green leafy vegetable samples were procured from 15 outdoor markets and selected farms in three major cities (Abeokuta, Ibadan and Lagos) in the region. Samples were fragmented to two portions (water‐washed and unwashed) and subjected to acid digestion. The Pb in the digests was measured using a flame atomic spectrophotometer. Relevant information was elicited from traders by the administration of a structured questionnaire. Acceptable daily intakes of the metal from the vegetables were estimated using the FAO/WHO total diet study.

Findings

Lead concentrations in all the vegetable samples (6.35‐20.85 mg/kg) exceeded the recommended value of 0.3 mg/kg for green leafy vegetables. The estimated daily intakes of the metal (1.11×10−2 to 2.02×10−2 mg/kg bw) were also higher than the FAO/WHO safety threshold of 3.0×10−3 to 4.0×10−3 mg/kg bw for Pb. Washing the vegetables with water reduced Pb concentrations and EDIs by 11.36 to 43.52 per cent but did not bring the values below the recommended limit.

Research limitations/implications

It was impossible to evaluate the effect of distance from highways on metal concentration because traders were not restricted to a particular location in the outdoor markets in the country.

Originality/value

The study constitutes an evaluative probe into the degree of exposure of commonly consumed vegetables to Pb contamination, contributing to the database of knowledge on toxic metal daily intake from Nigerian foods and environmental contamination.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 39 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article

Rhona L. Miller‐Cebert, Nahid A. Sistani and Ernst Cebert

The purpose of this paper is to describe how three traditional cruciferous vegetables: cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata), collard greens (Brassica oleracea var…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe how three traditional cruciferous vegetables: cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata), collard greens (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) and kale (Brassica oleracea var. viridis) were compared to canola greens through sensory analysis to evaluate panelists' acceptance of canola as a potential source of leafygreen vegetable.

Design/methodology/approach

Canola cultivars were grown at Alabama A&M University, Winfred Thomas Agricultural Research Station, Hazel Green, Alabama, and harvested at the rosette stage. Traditional vegetables (cabbage, collard and kale) were obtained from a local food specialty store. All vegetables were washed and refrigerated overnight. On the day of testing, vegetables were chopped uniformly in preparation for cooking. Using a nine‐point hedonic scale, vegetables were rated for color, flavor and texture. Overall preference was rated using most favorite, second favorite and third favorite.

Findings

Color of prepared canola was preferred significantly over other vegetables. There was no significant difference in preference based on texture among canola, collard greens and kale, however, cabbage was significantly preferred by panelists for texture and flavor. The rating for color and texture indicated significant difference among age groups. Response for texture and flavor showed a linear relationship (r2 of 0.69) for the model: color texture = flavor, while principal component analysis indicated African‐American females, ages 20‐29 as outliers. The results suggest that canola greens have the appeal of being accepted as an additional tasty Brassica vegetable. Originality/value – This research provides new data on canola as a potential new green leafy vegetable, based on consumer preference.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 39 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article

Manu and N. Khetarpaul

The aim of the present nutritional survey was to assess the food consumption pattern of 183 Indian preschool children (four to five years) in Fatehabad district of Haryana.

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of the present nutritional survey was to assess the food consumption pattern of 183 Indian preschool children (four to five years) in Fatehabad district of Haryana.

Design/methodology/approach

Data regarding food frequency, myths and intake were collected with the help of questionnaires and structured interviews. Food consumption patterns were recorded using a 24‐hour recall for three consecutive days.

Findings

The food frequency pattern indicated that wheat was the most accepted cereal among almost all the families and the consumption of pulses was weekly or on alternate days. They consumed roots and tubers frequently but the consumption of green leafy vegetables, fruits and other vegetables depended on the availability only. Most of the families consumed buffalo's milk (93 per cent) and desi ghee (73 per cent) daily. More than half of the respondents' mothers believed bajra, maize (corn), some pulses, bathua (Chenopodium album) and fenugreek leaves, onion, garlic, ginger, desi ghee and sweets are hot foods. According to the 24‐hour recall method for three consecutive days, the daily mean intake of all foodstuffs, namely, cereals, pulses, green leafy vegetables, roots and tubers, other vegetables, fruits, fats and oils, milk and milk products and sugar and jaggery was lower than their respective recommended dietary intake in the daily diets of preschool children.

Originality/value

On the basis of findings of this study, nutrition policy makers can plan the strategies for improving the nutritional status of preschool children who are an important segment of the Indian population.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 108 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article

Pallavi Joshi and Beena Mathur

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the nutritional composition and the acceptability of value-added products prepared from the dehydrated leaf mixture of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the nutritional composition and the acceptability of value-added products prepared from the dehydrated leaf mixture of underutilized green leafy vegetables (GLVs). GLVs are dense in micronutrients and are of great importance to the nutrition of population in developing countries. Nutritive value of commonly consumed GLVs has been studied extensively, but there is limited information available on nutritive value and acceptability of unconventional leafy vegetables.

Design/methodology/approach

The nutritional potential and acceptability of leaf mixtures (LMs) prepared from the less-utilized leaves of beet root (Beta vulgaris), carrot (Daucus carota), cauliflower (Brassica oleracea) and turnip (Brassica rapa) which are usually discarded or are used as animal fodder were analyzed in the present study. The LM was prepared by mixing the powders of above-mentioned greens in a definite ratio (1:2:1:1). The LM was analyzed for the proximate, mineral composition (Ca, P, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn and Mg) and antinutritional factors (oxalate and phenols). In total, 20 different recipes with different levels (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 per cent) of LM incorporation were prepared and were assessed for quality on the basis of sensory attributes.

Findings

The LM contains appreciable amount of proteins, fat, fiber, carbohydrate and calorific value, mineral elements and generally low levels of antinutrients. Products were well-accepted to the level of 10 per cent. Protein, iron and calcium content was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the LM-incorporated recipes, and the increase was directly proportional to the level of LM incorporated.

Originality/value

Dehydrated GLVs are concentrate source of micronutrients and can be used in product formulation. Value addition of traditional products with dehydrated GLVs can be advocated as a feasible food-based approach to combat micronutrient deficiencies.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 45 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article

R.S. Glew, B. Amoako‐Atta, G. Ankar‐Brewoo, J. Presley, L‐T. Chuang, M. Millson, B.R. Smith and R.H. Glew

The main purpose of this paper is to determine the content of amino acids, fatty acids and minerals in seven indigenous leafy vegetables (ILVs) in Ghana.

Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of this paper is to determine the content of amino acids, fatty acids and minerals in seven indigenous leafy vegetables (ILVs) in Ghana.

Design/methodology/approach

Leaves from plants growing near Kumasi were milled to a fine powder, dried to constant weight in a vacuum desiccator, and analyzed for their content of the afore‐mentioned nutrients. The plants were: Hibiscus sabdarifa, Hibiscus cannabinus, Amaranthus cruentus, Corchorus oliforius, Solanum macrocarpon, Xanthomosa sagittifolium and Vigna unguiculatus.

Findings

All seven ILVs contained a large amount of protein (15.5‐22.8 percent), which compared favorably to the essential amino acid pattern of a WHO standard. They all contained nutritionally useful amounts of α‐linolenic acid and had an omega‐6/omega‐3 ratio of 0.1‐0.9. The seven ILVs contained quantities of calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum and zinc that could contribute significantly to satisfying an individual's need for these elements.

Research limitations/implications

The presence of relatively large amounts of various nutritionally essential macro‐ and micronutrients in these seven ILVs does not necessarily mean these nutrients are bioavailable. Future research is required to determine the amounts of anti‐nutrients (e.g. protease inhibitors, chelators) in these vegetables, and the extent to which their protein, lipid and mineral constituents are digested and/or absorbed.

Originality/value

Since malnutrition (e.g. iron‐deficiency anemia, rickets, zinc deficiency, protein‐calorie malnutrition) is common in sub‐Saharan Africa, the information which is provided should increase awareness among agricultural and public health officials of the nutritional value of seven underappreciated and underutilized ILVs that are indigenous to Ghana and many other parts of Africa.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 112 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article

A. Jagannath, Manoranjan Kumar and P S Raju

Green leafy vegetables (GLVs) are important components of a balanced diet especially in developing countries where the major requirements of micronutrients are met…

Abstract

Purpose

Green leafy vegetables (GLVs) are important components of a balanced diet especially in developing countries where the major requirements of micronutrients are met. However, GLVs also contain significant amounts of oxalate, nitrate and nitrites, whose role in the human diet is constantly changing. The current study explored the behavior of nitrate, nitrites and oxalate in lactic-fermented GLVs with an intention to develop functional foods based on them.

Design/methodology/approach

Selected strains of beneficial lactic acid bacteria were used for the controlled fermentation of GLV, while an identical portion was subjected to spontaneous fermentation. The nitrate and nitrites were monitored spectrophotometrically, while oxalate contents were quantified by both titrimetric and by high-performance liquid chromatography throughout the duration of fermentation.

Findings

More than 90 per cent of individual constituents studied remained intact in the GLVs paste after the six-day controlled fermentation period. However, there was significant difference between the controlled and spontaneously fermented samples in terms of oxalate, nitrate and nitrite contents.

Originality/value

Controlled lactic fermentation although superior in all other aspects may not be able to lower the anti-nutrients present. The advantages of spontaneous fermentation vis-à-vis controlled fermentation are discussed. The work will bring out the importance of the beneficial effects of GLVs and the effect of lactic fermentation.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 45 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article

Priyanka Prasad, Anita Kochhar and Mohammed Javed

The purpose of this paper is to develop and standardize nutrient dense, easily digestible and affordable ready-to-eat supplementary foods from locally available…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop and standardize nutrient dense, easily digestible and affordable ready-to-eat supplementary foods from locally available ingredients for malnourished children and to assess their nutritional composition.

Design/methodology/approach

To develop supplementary foods, wheat and green gram were germinated, dried and made into flour. Potatoes of “Kufri Pukhraj” variety procured from university were washed, peeled, sliced, boiled, dipped in potassium metabisulphite solution, dried and grounded into flour. Spinach leaves were washed, dried and made into powder. Five wholesome ready-to-eat supplementary foods, namely, panjiri, mathi, seviyan, biscuits and pinni, were developed from germinated cereal, pulse and potato flour and spinach leaves powder. The products were standardized with potato flour and spinach leaves powder. The developed products were analyzed for proximate composition by standardized methods.

Findings

One-way analysis of variance and Tukey’s test was used to obtain differences in organoleptic scores within different levels of treatments. All five supplementary foods were acceptable at 30 per cent level of potato flour and 2.5 per cent level of spinach leaves powder. Mean scores of panjiri, mathi, seviyan, biscuits and pinni were significantly different (p < 0.05). Significant (p < 0.05) difference was observed in terms of moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre and ash content among the developed products.

Practical implications

The developed ready-to-eat supplementary foods can be recommended for supplementary feeding programmes running in the country.

Originality/value

The paper aims at the development of high energy protein supplementary foods for malnourished children. The developed complementary food blend is made up of variety of food groups like cereal, pulse, root and tuber and green leafy vegetables to provide wholesome nutrition to children. This is different to originally provided supplementary foods to children made up of only cereal. The developed products also add a variety to supplementary foods given to malnourished children in supplementary feeding programmes.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 46 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article

Wooju Kim, Ki-Ok Jeong, Ho-Lyeong Cheon and Dong-Hyun Kang

Biofilms are bacterial communities embedded in exopolysaccharide, enhancing the difficulty of detaching bacterial cells from surfaces. Due to structural properties, it is…

Abstract

Purpose

Biofilms are bacterial communities embedded in exopolysaccharide, enhancing the difficulty of detaching bacterial cells from surfaces. Due to structural properties, it is difficult to detach biofilms. Many removal methods have been developed, but there are still some limitations such as sample size and reproducibility. “Spindle” was developed, producing a higher quality suspension which can be used for further study. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors compared the enumeration of biofilm-forming cells detached from the spindle and stomacher in various surfaces. First, the authors chose stainless steel and polyvinyl chloride to attach biofilms and to be subjected to stomacher and spindle for up to 2 min. Also, the authors evaluated the efficiency of detachment from vegetable surfaces.

Findings

In a comparative experiment of abiotic surfaces, the spindle showed identical effectiveness for detaching biofilm-forming cells compared to the stomacher, recovering the population by 8-log for Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes. The spindle also showed no significant difference from the stomacher in the number of recovered cells which is 4-log from vegetable surfaces. However, turbidity after spinach was subjected to spindle was 4.37 NTU, while it was 99 NTU for stomacher, which was in accord with visual result about clearance.

Originality/value

This study demonstrated that the spindle is a useful to separate biofilms from surfaces without destructing structure, and thus it can be used for analysis in food laboratories as well as utilized for vegetable washing step in the food industry.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 122 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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Article

Irene Finch

We now have three good reasons for stressing the use of dark green leafy vegetables (dgv for short):

Abstract

We now have three good reasons for stressing the use of dark green leafy vegetables (dgv for short):

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 83 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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