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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2021

Caleb Debrah and De-Graft Owusu-Manu

The purpose of this study is to develop a framework to guide green cities development in developing countries. The study adapted and validated indicators that can be…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to develop a framework to guide green cities development in developing countries. The study adapted and validated indicators that can be adopted, to predict, estimate, depict and measure green city development in developing countries. In using a covariance-based structural equation model (CBSEM), the study developed a framework for green cities development in developing countries using Kumasi city (Ghana) as a case study.

Design/methodology/approach

To test the proposed framework, a quantitative methodology was used, in which, data was collected using research questionnaires that targeted a sample of 200 green city experts. In total, 154 useable questionnaires were retrieved, representing a response rate of 77%. The confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses were adopted in a CBSEM.

Findings

The indices reported were indicative that the model/framework is a good fit for the data. This points to the direction that the model for measuring green city development was statistically significant and acceptable. The results of the confirmatory factor analysis revealed a robust fit of the indices, as they met the standardised cut-off points and as such the model fits the data.

Practical implications

This novel research is one of the few studies investigating green cities development in Ghana which could serve as a lesson for other developing countries. The proposed green city framework will serve as a guide to stakeholders in identifying the key indicators/factors that are critical to green city development in developing countries, especially Ghanaian cities.

Originality/value

This study proposed a green city framework to guide the development of green cities based on the local context of Ghana.

Article
Publication date: 22 September 2020

Caleb Debrah, De-Graft Owusu-Manu, Ernest Kissi, Eric Oduro-Ofori and David John Edwards

Of late, cities across the globe are taking pragmatic steps towards addressing environmental, social and economic problems in the debate on sustainable development. Even…

Abstract

Purpose

Of late, cities across the globe are taking pragmatic steps towards addressing environmental, social and economic problems in the debate on sustainable development. Even so, little attention has been paid to studies focused on developing countries. The aim of this study is to examine the barriers to green cities development in developing countries.

Design/methodology/approach

A comprehensive literature review was conducted to examine the barriers to green cities development. In terms of methodological choice, a quantitative research strategy was used to collect data from professionals who have lines of influence on the greening of our cities and sustainable urban development.

Findings

The barriers to green city development identified were lack of awareness of the benefits of a green city, environmental degradation, insufficient policy implementation efforts, excessive generation of solid waste and poor wastewater collection and treatment. It was indicative from the study findings that taking the right sustainable steps in urban development and a paradigm shift towards the pillars of sustainability, Ghanaian cities, especially Kumasi, have a great proclivity of regaining its longstanding status being “Garden City”.

Practical implications

The outcome of this study provides stakeholders in city development an insight into the barriers that inhibit the development of green cities. In practice, this study contributively proposes that the concept of green cities should be incorporated in the education and training of stakeholders to improve the level of awareness.

Originality/value

This paper presents the foremost comprehensive study appraising green city development in Ghana.

Details

Smart and Sustainable Built Environment, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6099

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 September 2020

De-Graft Owusu-Manu, Caleb Debrah, Eric Oduro-Ofori, David John Edwards and Prince Antwi-Afari

The advances in green city growth are widely discussed in extant literature. The benefits of green cities to urban development in recent discussions of sustainability and…

Abstract

Purpose

The advances in green city growth are widely discussed in extant literature. The benefits of green cities to urban development in recent discussions of sustainability and sustainable development are well documented and cannot be overemphasised. Although a growing study on green building development in developing countries has been advanced in literature, there is a paucity of studies that explore green cities in developing countries. Moreover, evidence of studies that have focussed on green cities development in Ghana is lacking. Because of this identified knowledge gap, the purpose of this study is to establish the indicators/attributes for measuring the level of greenness of cities in developing countries.

Design/methodology/approach

A comprehensive literature review was conducted to identify the indicators/attributes for measuring the level of greenness of cities in developing countries. This study has adopted the pragmatism as its undergirding research philosophy and the deductive research approach. In terms of methodological choice, quantitative research strategy was used to collect data from experts in sustainable urban development. The primary data retrieved from this study was analysed using descriptive statistics, relative importance index and one-sample t-test. The reliability and validity of this study were measured with the Cronbach’s alpha test.

Findings

This study established eight indicators for measuring green city development: air quality, water, sanitation, land use, health and safety, transportation, energy and building and construction. It was discovered that the development of green cities should enhance air quality, improve water production and supply, improve management in sanitation, promote mixed and integrative land use, maintain the health and safety of city dwellers, reduce the demand for transportation and formalise public transport, adopt renewable and efficient energy technologies and promote sustainable construction and green buildings. These indicators are key to policymaking and implementation of green cities development.

Research limitations/implications

This study focusses primarily on Ghana; however, the findings of this study do not limit the generalisability, as it can be used as an example for other developing countries.

Practical implications

Theoretically, this study adopted quantitative indicators that are reproducible in another geographical context. This study contributively adds to the discourse on sustainability, especially in Ghana, and can be a source of reference to motivate others to conduct further research in related areas. The outcomes of this study will help the local government, policymakers, city stakeholders and industry expertise to gain insights of the overall indicators that underpin green city development.

Originality/value

This paper attempts to posit in literature the foremost appraisal of green city indicators adaptive in Ghana, which could motivate other developing countries to develop their own green cities.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 July 2018

Evaldas Klimas and Mantas Lideika

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the measures implemented under the spatial planning law of the Republic of Lithuania, along with various initiatives, to identify…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the measures implemented under the spatial planning law of the Republic of Lithuania, along with various initiatives, to identify whether Lithuania is following the international trend of greening cities.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors’ analysis is based on an evaluation of the urban theory-based approach towards greening cities and adopting urban agriculture in Lithuania and legal regulations introduced by the Lithuanian government. The paper specifically analyses the legal requirements enshrined in Lithuanian law that are intended to encourage green infrastructure and urban agriculture in cities as part of the adoption of the principles of sustainable development. The paper focuses on Vilnius, the capital city of Lithuania, to gauge the extent to which the new regulations encourage urban greening and agriculture.

Findings

The authors’ reveals that Vilnius is lacking initiatives with regard to urban agriculture, while existing areas for urban agriculture are disappearing. This is happening despite the promising spatial planning reform in Lithuania, which introduced the principle of sustainable development into spatial planning regulations. This is a cause for concern and should lead to renewed calls for a coherent and ambitious approach to the greening of Vilnius and other cities in Lithuania. Furthermore, the lack of action shows that the vague wording used by the regulations does not actively encourage urban agriculture and even results in ignorance of its virtues. Therefore, more precise regulations on encouraging urban agriculture and greening of the cities should be introduced.

Originality/value

This paper is the first to analyse the extent to which the newly adopted principle of sustainable development in spatial planning could affect the greening of Lithuanian cities and encourage urban agriculture. The paper identifies the sequence of opening the meaning of the sustainable development principle in regular legal norms which encouraging the greening and indicates the lack of imperative norms to ensure the due implementation of sustainable development principle.

Details

Journal of Property, Planning and Environmental Law, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-1450

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 October 2016

Chung-Shing Chan and Lawal M. Marafa

This paper aims to connect green spaces with city branding by introducing a proposed Green (Resource) Brand Hexagon (GBH).

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to connect green spaces with city branding by introducing a proposed Green (Resource) Brand Hexagon (GBH).

Design/methodology/approach

This study empirically tested the principles of the GBH with samples of Hong Kong residents (n = 301) and visitors (n = 395). Surveys were carried out to investigate the perceptions of the 23 elements in the GBH by both respondent groups.

Findings

A comparison of the results via factor analysis identified two green brand structures preferred by local residents (a brand pentagon) and by visitors (a brand square). The findings suggest different associations of green resource elements in their brand perceptions, which were partly reflected in the governmental Brand Review exercise in Hong Kong in 2008. Inter-group differences in the ranking of GBH’s elements also indicate a knowledge gap between visitors and residents.

Research limitations/implications

The modification process of the GBH from Anholt’s City Brand Hexagon framework involved researchers’ interpretations and understanding of green resources in Hong Kong; it inevitably produced some degree of subjectivity. The working definition of “green resources” in this study perceptually excluded certain features in public parks, such as the geological landscapes and beaches that are, in principle, part of the Hong Kong Geopark.

Originality/value

The findings of this paper offer an indicative green brand framework for destination marketers and brand managers whose cities enjoy attractive green resources. The ratings of GBH’s elements provide useful references for local brand management through an understanding of strong green brand attributes and structures by local residents and visitors. The inter-group comparison of the green brand structures also informs policymakers and city marketers about the divergent associations of brand elements for possible brand extension. Finally, the results are also very beneficial because they provide an opportunity for regional green brand development.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 25 November 2014

Ilaria Beretta

Today three out of four Europeans live in towns and cities. Urban areas are concentrated with most of the environmental challenges facing our society, but also bring…

Abstract

Purpose

Today three out of four Europeans live in towns and cities. Urban areas are concentrated with most of the environmental challenges facing our society, but also bring together the commitment and innovation needed to resolve these challenges. The European Commission has long recognised the important role that local authorities play in improving the environment and their high level of commitment to genuine progress; in this regard, it launched the European Green Capital Award (EGCA) in 2009 as an initiative to promote and reward cities making efforts to improve the urban environment and move towards healthier and sustainable living areas. The EGCA is given each year to the city deemed to be most deserving on the basis of 10 environmental parameters: the local contribution to global climate change, local mobility and passenger transport, the availability of local public open areas, the quality of local ambient air, noise pollution, waste production and management, water consumption, waste water treatment, environmentally sustainable management of the local authority and sustainable land use.

Design/methodology

This chapter has been composed on the basis of materials found in the literature and on websites, and thanks to contacts created with some departments of the municipalities considered.

Findings

Stockholm, Hamburg and Copenhagen represent the winning cities in 2010, 2011 and 2014, respectively. This chapter focuses on the successful experiences of these cities, which show how the convergence of the environmental and economic development is important in order to reach sustainable development.

Originality/value

This chapter shows that environmental protection must not be thought of as a cost for our society. On the contrary, it illustrates how it can support economic development in urban contexts if well planned, managed and participated in at a municipal scale.

Details

From Sustainable to Resilient Cities: Global Concerns and Urban Efforts
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-058-2

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 February 2019

Hui-Ju Wang

With society’s growing environmental concern, developing a green brand identity provides cities with opportunities to enhance their competitiveness. Nevertheless, few…

1253

Abstract

Purpose

With society’s growing environmental concern, developing a green brand identity provides cities with opportunities to enhance their competitiveness. Nevertheless, few studies have explored green city branding and specifically considered the diverse perceptions of multiple stakeholders. Accordingly, this study aims to explore green city branding from the perceptions of multiple stakeholders.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on associative network theory, the study uses brand concept maps and network analysis approaches to construct and analyze the content and structure of mental models among local residents and foreign tourists for a green city brand. This study further seeks empirical support for the findings via a survey, using the sample case of Yilan County in Taiwan.

Findings

The results of this study reveal that foreign tourists possess a more diverse and heterogeneous brand perception than local residents. Additionally, the study uncovers significant green city brand associations regarding their influences on the behavioral decisions of local residents and foreign tourists.

Originality/value

This research is the first attempt to advance the knowledge of green city branding by empirically exploring the green city brand perceptions of multiple stakeholders based on associative network theory. The results provide brand researchers with different analytical perspectives on the existing knowledge about city brand perceptions and offer strategic information for city managers.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 5 November 2021

Steffen Lehmann

How are our cities confronting the challenges posed by a warming climate, the loss of biodiversity, and the increasing urban heat island effect? ― This chapter discusses…

Abstract

How are our cities confronting the challenges posed by a warming climate, the loss of biodiversity, and the increasing urban heat island effect? ― This chapter discusses the opportunities and benefits of applying the concepts of renaturalization and rewilding of cities. It introduces nature-based solutions (NBS) in urban planning that are integrated with the aim to enhance urban resilience and to slow down the biodiversity decline, which can be applied in two areas: through the conception of new green neighborhoods and through the regeneration and regreening of existing but neglected parts of the city, such as postindustrial brownfields or economically weak districts.

Contact to nature is essential for human existence, urban well-being, and a good quality of life. Green spaces in cities – big or small – all contribute to health and well-being. However, many cities do not offer residents easy access to green space within the city. Improving better access and extending gardens and parks will deliver a large number of benefits, such as ecosystem services, better water management for enhanced urban flood control, and slowing down the biodiversity loss, with the potential to restore damaged ecosystems. Furthermore, additional green space and NBS help to keep cities cool during heat waves and improve the urban microclimate.

In this context, NBS and regreening can generate significant benefits for citizens, improve urban health and well-being, and offer an opportunity to effectively deploy nature to resolve major societal challenges ― such as social inclusion, food security, and disaster risk reduction. However, it is essential that the design of NBS is fully integrated with other complementary planning interventions and seeks synergies across all sectors.

Details

Nature-Based Solutions for More Sustainable Cities – A Framework Approach for Planning and Evaluation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-637-4

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 April 2008

Krishne Gowda, M.V. Sridhara and S. Rajan

The purpose of this paper is to discuss how to plan and provide for people's relaxation and engagement, cognitive and aesthetic needs. Symbolic of this is the green city

2470

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss how to plan and provide for people's relaxation and engagement, cognitive and aesthetic needs. Symbolic of this is the green city image, which is obtained through planning and management of parks and green areas.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach here is to note that Bangalore has gained all‐round importance as an administrative, trading and industrial center and a location for premier educational institutions along with large IT and BT industries. Also, it is a center of strategic importance, due to a concentration of defense establishments. The study observes the abundance of parks and avenue trees and green areas along with green median and traffic islands all through in the city, which provide shade and meet the purely ecological and aesthetic needs.

Findings

The study reveals the beneficial impact of green areas on the microclimate of the city, which also serve as outdoor recreation areas to the city people. The parks and green areas need serious rejuvenation as centers of social activity and they should cater to peoples' active and passive recreation needs and abate the stress of urban living.

Practical implications

The implication of this study is the manifest importance of different local government authorities, institutional arrangements, NGOs with expertise to maintain parks and green areas in and around the Bangalore Metropolitan Area and of growing more trees and developing greeneries within the city of Bangalore.

Originality/value

This paper's value is to promote awareness regarding the complexities and importance of parks and green areas and their vulnerabilities and management.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 29 March 2021

Helen X. H. Bao

Urbanisation, environmental sustainability and property markets are intertwined. Consequently, studies on any of these three topics need to take the other two topics into…

Abstract

Urbanisation, environmental sustainability and property markets are intertwined. Consequently, studies on any of these three topics need to take the other two topics into consideration. By critically reviewing 33 hedonic pricing studies in 16 key journals in the urban studies and environmental policies areas, we summarise quantitative evidence on the price of environmental externalities resulting from China's urbanisation process. We find that Chinese residents are willing to pay more for the access to green space and waterbody as well as the treatment of urban pollution. The cost and benefit of these amenities and disamenities have already been capitalised in house prices. The central and local government in China can leverage market force to encourage, support and facilitate sustainable urban development and environmental protection, instead of directly intervening in the property market by using public resources. Meanwhile, the estimated hedonic price of Urban Green, Urban Blue and Urban Grey helps policymakers to understand the cost and benefit of their urban development decisions. Our review of the papers on Urban Green, Urban Blue and Urban Grey suggests that there have been promising and encouraging development in studies on all three topics in the last decade. The quality and quantity of hedonic price research has been improving notably. However, it is also clear that there is virtually no empirical evidence from the second- or third-tier cities, particularly, regarding Urban Green and Urban Blue investigations. The small number of existing hedonic studies is far from sufficient to draw reliable conclusions about the costs of environmental externality for cities that have not been studied. What works in first-tier cities may not hold elsewhere in China due to the large geographical variation in natural endowment, economic development status and local customs. There are many pieces that are missing from this big picture. More hedonic price studies are needed.

Details

Sustainable Real Estate in the Developing World
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-838-8

Keywords

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