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The Green Revolution was a singular event in world history; because of the Green Revolution, world prices for all crops declined. The agricultural mechanization issue was…
The Green Revolution was a singular event in world history; because of the Green Revolution, world prices for all crops declined. The agricultural mechanization issue was also driven by intellectual property rights (i.e., the right to patent products), as was the agricultural chemical revolution. The livestock industrialization revolution sharply lowered the prices for all livestock products. The Gene Revolution (i.e., the recombinant DNA revolution) further lowered the cost of producing farm products. The Gene Revolution was based on three events. The first was the discovery that DNA (Delbrook) was the carrier of genetic information. The second was the discovery by Watson and Crick of the double helix structure of DNA. The third was the method of stable insertion of DNA into a host genome (Cohen and Boyer). The future of agricultural research depends on the capacity of countries to invent and imitate.
In writing a paper to honour Professor Clem Tisdell, it is apt to focus attention on the environmental and human costs of commercial agricultural production, especially…
In writing a paper to honour Professor Clem Tisdell, it is apt to focus attention on the environmental and human costs of commercial agricultural production, especially the Green Revolution technology in South Asia during the last few decades. This is an area where Professor Tisdell has done much research, amongst the multitude of other research interests he has pursued in his very illustrious career. Modern commercial agricultural practices involving chemical inputs such as fertilizers and pesticides have been associated with huge increases in food production never witnessed before and, in the case of cereal production (especially wheat) under Green Revolution technology, recorded spectacular growth. As statistics show, production and productivity have increased. However, the high chemical usage of fertilizers and pesticides to bring about these spectacular increases in food production is not without its problems. A visible parallel correlation between higher productivity, high chemical input use and environmental degradation and human health effects is evident in many countries where commercial agriculture is widespread. This paper discusses the environmental and health effects/costs arising from the high use of chemical inputs to increase production and productivity in South Asia, with a field study carried out in Sri Lanka to show the health costs arising from direct exposure to pesticides during pesticide handling and spraying on farms by small‐scale farmers.
To provide a brief illustration of how the circumstances of economic underdevelopment and ecological decline are reciprocally linked, we can begin by tracing the…
To provide a brief illustration of how the circumstances of economic underdevelopment and ecological decline are reciprocally linked, we can begin by tracing the post‐World War II history of Africa. Political histories of the post‐war period abound for almost all parts of the continent, since it was during this era that many African colonies struggled for and won political independence. Detailed ecological histories of colonialism and the post‐colonial states, however, are just beginning to be researched and written. Nevertheless, several broad patterns and general trends of this history are now becoming apparent, and they can be set forth in rough narrative form even though detailed histories have yet to be compiled.
The purpose of this paper is to explain the global dilemma faced by humanity due to rising population pressures, constrained resources and related food security issues. The paper highlights the potential of information technology, biotechnology and nanotechnology in providing solutions to the problem of world hunger.
The paper utilizes past and contemporary research sources to estimate the potential of various technologies in improving the food security situation, cites past successes and identifies some consequences and constraints. The paper notes recent advances in science and technology of food production and the market and other institutional adjustments needed to fully realize their benefits.
The paper finds that the world greatly benefited from the green revolution during the course of the twentieth century. Additional gains to food production and food security will come from newer processes and techniques developed recently due to information technology, biotechnology and nanotechnology. It is important to educate people about these developments.
In order to optimally deploy the technologies, policies must be formulated for encouraging inventions, innovations and diffusion as well as strengthen the international intellectual rights regime.
This paper strives to look at the role of information technology, biotechnology and nanotechnology in improving food production and food security from an integrated perspective.
This chapter will examine ideological debates currently taking place in academics. Anthropologists – and all academic workers – are at a crossroads. They must determine…
This chapter will examine ideological debates currently taking place in academics. Anthropologists – and all academic workers – are at a crossroads. They must determine what it means to “green the academy” in an era of permanent war, “green capitalism,” and the neoliberal university (Sullivan, 2010). As Victor Wallis makes clear, “no serious observer now denies the severity of the environmental crisis, but it is still not widely recognized as a capitalist crisis, that is, as a crisis arising from and perpetuated by the rule of capital, and hence incapable of resolution within the capitalist framework.”
In this chapter, I present the philosophical pillars of a Southern green criminology. I develop this work by asking ultimate questions. First, I argue that green criminology has yet to establish and develop the most important fundamental premises that every inquiry must have – ontological, epistemological and methodological premises. To fill that gap, I examine the philosophical beliefs that guide, sustain and legitimise environmental discrimination as well as its preventive practices. Building on that analysis, I present two major philosophies – atomistic and Gestalt – that are overarching worldviews that guide our interactions with nature. I establish a Gestalt philosophy as an inquiry paradigm that can serve as the basis of a Southern green criminology.
The aim of this article is to examine the current marketing situation of sustainable buildings from a Finnish real estate developer’s perspective and deepen the market’s…
The aim of this article is to examine the current marketing situation of sustainable buildings from a Finnish real estate developer’s perspective and deepen the market’s understanding on this subject.
The theoretical part of the paper is conducted through a literature study, and for the empirical part three different green building development projects were examined.
Results indicate that the environmentally efficient characteristics of the buildings are not considered to be their major selling arguments but simply something that is expected in today’s market and thus the green marketing actions of the real estate development company were subtle and quite ineffective.
It seems that at the moment, the marketing of sustainable buildings lacks green ambition and not all are equally convinced about their differentiation potential. However, by increasingly concentrating on the different benefits of sustainable buildings and effectively communicating those to the customers, greenness can be made into a truly competitive marketing argument.
The technology needed to build environmentally efficient buildings and the knowledge about their benefits is available. However, the ways of marketing these benefits to the public and customers and, as a result, increasing the amount of green buildings have not been the subject of much research.
This article focuses on the global problem of hunger. It submits that many developing countries are caught in a hunger, poverty and population trap and with the increasing…
This article focuses on the global problem of hunger. It submits that many developing countries are caught in a hunger, poverty and population trap and with the increasing divergence in income between rich and poor countries, the chances that these countries will be able to come out of these positive self‐reinforcing cycles with negative side‐effects is quite low in the medium‐term. It then examines some of the “tragedies” in global governance that directly or indirectly affect hunger. It concludes that although the theories underlying international policies may be sound, when negotiated and applied in different contexts, the results may not be in line with what the policymakers expected.
In the last two decades the subject of intellectual property rights (IPR) took on major significance as an element of global trade regulation and commercial policy. Implementation of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) at the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 1995 obliged member countries, over various transition periods, to adopt and enforce minimum standards of protection for patents, copyrights, trademarks, trade secrets, and related policies. This mandate forced legislative and administrative changes in virtually all countries, but had particular impact in developing nations, which had generally weaker IPR standards prior to TRIPS. Since 1995 there have been additional multilateral negotiations, largely at the World Intellectual Property Organization, over stronger global standards for patents and copyrights for digital electronic goods. Most controversially, in its negotiations of bilateral free trade areas the United States aggressively demands highly rigorous standards, beyond those called for in TRIPS, for patent rules governing pharmaceutical products and new biotechnological goods in the agricultural and life sciences.