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Book part
Publication date: 17 June 2016

Shoko Yamada

This chapter highlights the characteristics of Asia through the analysis of policy-related documents by five donor countries, namely Japan, South Korea, China, India and…

Abstract

This chapter highlights the characteristics of Asia through the analysis of policy-related documents by five donor countries, namely Japan, South Korea, China, India and Thailand. It will also examine the roles played by regional bodies such as the Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization (SEAMEO) and ASPBAE (the Asia South Pacific Association for Basic and Adult Education) as the horizontal channels influencing aid policies in respective countries. Together with the analysis of the national and organizational policies, the regional process of building consensus on the post-2015 agenda is examined, with a particular focus on the Asia-Pacific Regional Education Conference (APREC) held in August 2014.

The analysis reveals that the region has two faces: one is imaginary and the other is functional. There is a common trend across Asian donors to refer to their historical ties with regions and countries to which they provide assistance and their traditional notions of education and development. They highlight Asian features in contrast to conventional aid principles and approaches based on the Western value system, either apparently or in a muted manner. In this sense, the imagined community of Asia with common cultural roots is perceived by the policymakers across the board.

At the same time, administratively, the importance of the region as a stage between the national and global levels is recognized increasingly in the multilateral global governance structure. With this broadened participatory structure, as discussed in the chapter ‘Post-EFA Global Discourse: The Process of Shaping the Shared View of the ‘Education Community’’, the expected function of the region to transmit the norms and requests from the global level and to collect and summarize national voices has increased.

Details

Post-Education-Forall and Sustainable Development Paradigm: Structural Changes with Diversifying Actors and Norms
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-271-5

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Abstract

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Handbook of Transport Strategy, Policy and Institutions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-0804-4115-3

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Article
Publication date: 9 February 2015

Richard M. Friend, Pakamas Thinphanga, Kenneth MacClune, Justin Henceroth, Phong Van Gai Tran and Tuyen Phuong Nghiem

This paper aims to fill a conceptual gap in the understanding of rapidly changing characteristics of local risk, addressing how the notion of the local might be reframed…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to fill a conceptual gap in the understanding of rapidly changing characteristics of local risk, addressing how the notion of the local might be reframed, and how opportunities for multi-scale interventions for disaster risk reduction might be identified.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper illustrates the significance of the systems and services on which urbanization depends – water, food, energy, transport and communications – to consider the cascading impacts at multiple scales often beyond the administrative boundaries of cities, and how vulnerabilities and risks are distributed unevenly across different groups of people.

Findings

The process of rapid urbanization in the Mekong Region represents a fundamental transformation of ecological landscapes, resource flows, livelihoods and demographics. In addition to the location of urbanization, it is these transformative processes and the critical dependence on inter-linked systems that shape the overall picture of urban disaster and climate vulnerability.

Research limitations/implications

By drawing on research and practical experience in two of the most rapidly urbanizing countries in the world, Thailand and Vietnam, the approach and findings have implications for understanding global patterns of urbanization.

Practical implications

The paper contributes to considering practical actions whether in terms of policy or project implementation for both the assessment of disaster and climate risk, and for actions to reduce vulnerability and promote resilience.

Social implications

The paper draws largely from social science perspectives, highlighting the dynamism of social organization in urbanizing contexts, and the implications for risk and vulnerability.

Originality/value

The paper draws on original research in Thailand and Vietnam that takes urbanization as the starting point for assessing vulnerability and risk.

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2009

Longyue Zhao and Yan Wang

World Trade Organization (WTO) accession marked a new beginning for China's economic, legal and institutional reforms and rapid integration with the rest of the world. The…

Abstract

Purpose

World Trade Organization (WTO) accession marked a new beginning for China's economic, legal and institutional reforms and rapid integration with the rest of the world. The purpose of this paper is to review China's post‐WTO transition experience, synthesize and update studies on China's pattern of trade and structural transformation, and provide both positive and negative lessons for other developing countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper has broadly reviewed the latest policy changes after China's WTO accession, and literatures on China's trade and economic development issues in order to understand the Chinese success and its speciality, and draw some useful lessons for both China's decision‐makers and other developing countries.

Findings

There are two main findings: first, market liberalization alone is not sufficient, and economic system reform and the liberalization are closely related and complement and promote each other. Second, experimentations via special economic zones (SEZs) and opening to foreign direct investment (FDI), which facilitated and supported cluster development and learning‐by‐doing, are needed for industrial upgrading and export competitiveness.

Originality/value

The paper demonstrates the wisdom of China's simultaneous pursuit of domestic economic system reform, and opening to the international market. However, China has also paid a high social and environmental cost for its rapid growth. It is important for developing countries to have an exclusive, balanced and sustainable strategy in the future development.

Details

Journal of Chinese Economic and Foreign Trade Studies, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-4408

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Book part
Publication date: 31 December 2010

Rajib Shaw, Juan M. Pulhin and Joy Jacqueline Pereira

Climate change is one of the biggest challenges to development. Intergovernmental Committee in response to Climate Change (IPCC, 2007), with majority agreement, has…

Abstract

Climate change is one of the biggest challenges to development. Intergovernmental Committee in response to Climate Change (IPCC, 2007), with majority agreement, has pointed out that climate change is caused by human activities. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) also pointed out that these serious impacts by climate change will directly affect the poorer and more vulnerable communities and nations. According to the Human Development Report 2007–2008 by United Nation Development Program (UNDP, 2008), people in rural areas are most vulnerable to climate change, because it directly affects the resources in the ecosystem on which their lives depend. Countries with newly developed economy will be seriously hit, economically and socially, within the next few decades by natural disasters such as flood, draught, and storm, which have been increasing in number and severity. Human health is also adversely affected, which has multiplying effects in different sectors.

Details

Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction: An Asian Perspective
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-485-7

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Article
Publication date: 28 October 2020

Vinay Kaura

The main purpose of paper is to analyse the political, military and strategic significance of China’s rising power and its influence on Sino-Indian relations, while…

Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of paper is to analyse the political, military and strategic significance of China’s rising power and its influence on Sino-Indian relations, while addressing the question as to why India has not been able to develop a long-term, stable and friendly relationship with China.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is structured as follows: historical overview of India-China relations; various tools of China’s policy in Indian sub-continent; and India’s response. The paper employs a qualitative analysis of secondary literature, with media reports, official documents and public statements providing important sources for understanding the dynamics underlying bilateral relationship.

Findings

India needs to be prepared to face challenges as China’s charm offensive in India’s neighbourhood is primarily aimed at establishing a new Asian order in which Beijing would play the leading role. As China institutionalizes its military presence in South Asia and the Indian Ocean, India should adopt an innovative response mechanism, also involving counter-presence in areas considered China’s traditional sphere of influence.

Originality/value

The primary value of the paper lies in the fact that it covers most of the key dimensions of bilateral ties that impair a stable relationship between India and China. A proper understanding of the dynamics underlying bilateral ties may help the policymakers, scholars and academics to suggest ways to reduce sources of tensions, while also helping the Indian Government to prepare effective countermeasures.

Details

Social Transformations in Chinese Societies, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1871-2673

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 May 2016

Scott Hipsher

The purpose of this paper is to explore the perspectives of workers in one of the least developed economies (Cambodia) on the creation of new job and livelihood…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the perspectives of workers in one of the least developed economies (Cambodia) on the creation of new job and livelihood opportunities created by foreign firms or foreign investment.

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative: randomly selected interviews of individuals.

Findings

Individuals working in international organizations find international business activities increase their livelihood options and therefore help to improve their lives.

Research limitations/implications

An exploratory approach using convenience sampling was taken which limits generalizing the results to a broader population.

Practical implications

The concepts explored can be used by individual firms when formulating their social responsibility programmes and the ethical implications of their business practices in emerging markets as well as by governments in creating public policies concerning poverty reduction.

Social implications

Presents and respects the views of lower income individuals working in the tourism industry whose voices are often overlooked when corporate social responsibility and public policies are designed.

Originality/value

Provides a perspective about poverty reduction of individuals from low-income backgrounds whose lives are directly impacted by international investment and trade.

Details

Annals in Social Responsibility, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3515

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Article
Publication date: 19 December 2019

Minh Tam Thi Bui and Arayah Preechametta

The purpose of this paper is to examine effects of regional economic integration on the concentration of manufacturing firms in provinces of Thailand on the border with…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine effects of regional economic integration on the concentration of manufacturing firms in provinces of Thailand on the border with Cambodia. It aims to clarify the interactions between dispersion and agglomeration forces within a firm’s location choice in the presence of economic integration and thereby to explain the feasibility of the border SEZs.

Design/methodology/approach

The theory of industrial clustering and New Economic Geography provides a theoretical framework to understand the locations of economic activities when regional economies are integrated. This paper employs provincial level data to calculate industry location quotients across a 10-year period from 2007 to 2017 in central Thailand and uses firm-level data from industrial censuses in 2006 and 2011 to estimate logit models for two border provinces with Cambodia and three eastern seaboard provinces. Two base models and extended models are tested to explain the persistent agglomeration of Thai firms in each manufacturing industry.

Findings

The authors found a positive correlation between the agglomeration level in 2006 and the choice of firms toward the border provinces in 2011. The disaggregated analysis shows that depending on the initial level of concentration in each industry, there can be agglomeration or dispersion effects. The advantage of low trade costs and labor costs of unskilled migrant workers are not significant factors attracting firms to the border. Firms in industries with increasing returns are more likely to stay in the hub.

Practical implications

The disaggregated analysis by industry provides very important implications for SEZ policy interventions. The important role of agglomeration economies limits the extent to which such policies can be successful. It would be an enormous challenge for policy makers to initiate forces which are strong enough to induce firms to relocate away from areas with high agglomerations. Policy interventions with attractive incentives should be very selective to industries already have a certain degree of concentration in the provinces so as to reinforce the agglomeration effects.

Originality/value

The research extends the empirical literature on SEZs by offering a unique case study of an emerging economy with a strong market foundation rather than a transitional or developed economy. It is also different from other research on SEZs when taking into account the effects of regional integration on border SEZ formation and firms’ location choices. In addition, this study employs firm-level data rather than provincial data to bring empirical insights and fill in the knowledge gap on agglomeration economies in Thailand with the presence of regional economic integration.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Article
Publication date: 7 January 2020

Ruttiya Bhula-or

Previous studies have focused on migration and development from an economic perspective. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate sustainable migration and development in…

Abstract

Purpose

Previous studies have focused on migration and development from an economic perspective. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate sustainable migration and development in an integrative manner, including economic, social and environmental perspectives linking theoretical frameworks with empirical evidence in Thailand.

Design/methodology/approach

A framework of migration and sustainable development was developed in a structured and integrative manner, and the shift in migration and development patterns in Thailand was examined from an empirical and theoretical standpoint.

Findings

Migration contributes to Thailand’s economy in many ways. Migrant workers help to grow the economy, especially in labor-intensive sectors. This helps reduced income inequalities at the household level through remittances. Climate change will enhance migration, especially from neighboring countries and within Thailand itself, thus helping to reduce poverty and income inequality. Possible economic gains from migration, as well as circulating workers and international retirement migrants are highlighted.

Research limitations/implications

Only studies published in English or Thai were included, which may have resulted in the omission of some research. A need for rethinking policy design and implementation as a source of sustainable development is required.

Originality/value

Despite the recent influences of political and environmental changes, there has previously been no analysis of migration and sustainable development in Thailand in a structured and integrative manner as in this study. The impact of migration on the diffusion of new technology and brain drain issues was also addressed.

Details

Asian Education and Development Studies, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-3162

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Article
Publication date: 28 November 2019

Sammia Poveda, Melinda Gill, Don Rodney Junio, Hannah Thinyane and Vanessa Catan

This paper aims to explore how stable employment, company culture and tailored health, digital and core skills training provided by a social enterprise (SE) in the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore how stable employment, company culture and tailored health, digital and core skills training provided by a social enterprise (SE) in the Philippines affect survivors of exploitation. Research shows survivors experience adverse social conditions and physical and mental health outcomes caused by their exploitative experience. Stable, decent employment has been identified as critical to their recovery and reintegration. This paper discusses the SE’s impact on the employees’ physical, mental and social health and behaviour. Based on our findings, the authors discuss the contribution of SE in improving health outcomes and providing health services and conclude that SEs should not replace but complement public health government programmes.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses mixed methods, presenting data from a longitudinal survey (household income, mental health and social well-being) and a follow-up qualitative study, which uses in-depth interviews and participatory videos to explore survey findings.

Findings

The quantitative analysis demonstrates positive, but gradual, changes in sexual and reproductive health behaviour; personal empowerment; and trauma, anxiety and depressive symptoms. The qualitative findings show how improvements in executive functioning, self-regulation and self-esteem occur incrementally over time. As their self-efficacy improves, employees need to avoid being overly dependent on the SE, to support their autonomy; therefore, access to complementary public health services is fundamental.

Originality/value

This paper focusses, to the authors’ knowledge, on a unique SE, which hires survivors of exploitation, without losing their competitiveness in the market.

Details

Social Enterprise Journal, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-8614

Keywords

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