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Article
Publication date: 7 June 2011

Clinton Free and Sandy Q. Qu

This paper aims to focus on the role of graphics in the propagation of the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) through the persuasive capacity of graphism to “scientize” management…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to focus on the role of graphics in the propagation of the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) through the persuasive capacity of graphism to “scientize” management ideas. Scientization, through professionalization of knowledge, rationalization of management and the empowerment of human actorhood, is widely seen as an important element in embedding new management concepts and techniques; a determination based on some version of the positivist belief that science offers a privileged access to reality.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on an analysis of popular literature of the BSC in core business media during 1992 and 2010, the paper focuses on the publications authored by Kaplan and Norton, the creators and authority on this topic.

Findings

The paper argues that the use of graphics has played an important role in promoting the claims made by proponents of the BSC by portraying the technique as both scientific and as descended from a venerable tradition of knowledge. Specifically, it argues that graphics are mobilized to: enable the technique to be portrayed as developing cumulatively towards the present vantage, from flawed measurement to management break‐through; promoters of the BSC to defensibly extend claims about the BSC (i.e. rationalize management through the visual representation of causality and strategic focus); and open up multiple interpretations and iterations of concepts which enable the empowerment of human actorhood (i.e. management).

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the accounting literature relating to diffusion of management innovations, and research examining the generative mechanisms and the processes through which management innovations come about.

Details

Journal of Accounting & Organizational Change, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1832-5912

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1994

Walt Crawford

Most computer users need graphics once in a while, even text‐oriented people like the author. While there have always been many different tools for manipulating and…

Abstract

Most computer users need graphics once in a while, even text‐oriented people like the author. While there have always been many different tools for manipulating and creating graphics on DOS computers (and better ones for Macs), Windows has made such tools more common, less expensive, easier to use, and much more powerful. After defining some basic terms for computer‐based graphics and discussing sources of raw material for those who aren't artists, the author summarizes varieties of graphic software for Windows (and other operating systems). He then describes examples based on personal experience and evaluates two sophisticated graphics packages that libraries can obtain for modest prices. Either package will serve users well, and both packages come with substantial collections of graphic source material (clip art). Finally, the author adds notes on the PC literature for July‐September 1993.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

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Article
Publication date: 21 June 2013

Laura Radford, Jason C. Senkbeil and Meganne Rockman

The cone of uncertainty (COU) warning graphic has created confusion for people trying to make evacuation and safety decisions. The purpose of this research was to create…

Abstract

Purpose

The cone of uncertainty (COU) warning graphic has created confusion for people trying to make evacuation and safety decisions. The purpose of this research was to create several alternative tropical cyclone graphics and present them to the public and college students via face‐to‐face surveys and polling.

Design/methodology/approach

Surveys depicting hypothetical landfall scenarios were administered in Pensacola and Jacksonville, FL. Respondents ranked five graphics in order of preference, and were encouraged to discuss their rankings. Following this initial field research, the most popular graphic of these five was compared to a graphic resembling the one used by The Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Comments were recorded for respondents favoring or disliking the Australian graphic in two separate analyses. A final graphic emphasizing post‐landfall hazards was also created as a suggestion for future research and evaluated directly against the most popular graphics from field research.

Findings

A graphic called the color‐probability‐cone was the most popular graphic in field research. There were subtle differences in graphic preference resulting from age and gender influences, with only one significant result. Comments from subsequent analyses reveal that the Australian graphic causes mixed reactions. A final analysis with a larger sample of college students revealed that the color‐probability‐cone was the most popular choice; however, comments reveal that many respondents who had used hurricane graphics before liked the specificity presented by the Australian graphic and the hazards graphic.

Originality/value

This research represents a possible initial step in the process of establishing a tropical cyclone warning graphic that is informative, visually appealing, and effective.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2002

Stella So and Malcolm Smith

Advancements in information technology and graphics software mean that colour graphics are an increasingly important part of the communication of business operations and…

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Abstract

Advancements in information technology and graphics software mean that colour graphics are an increasingly important part of the communication of business operations and corporate reporting. Unfortunately, the research literature on the effects of colour graphics on decision performance is sparse, and lends only limited and qualified support to the claims often made for colour coded graphics. There has been no research in the accounting environment of the impact of non‐redundant colour graphics (i.e. those not complemented by numerical or pattern support) on decision‐making performance. The existing literature suggests that gender, task complexity, field dependence and time constraints will all impact on the effectiveness of the use of colour, so this paper reports the results of a laboratory experiment designed to assess the interaction effects of non‐redundant colour coding in bar charts with information complexity, and with gender. A multivariate bankruptcy prediction decision is the task environment. Non‐redundant coding, rather than redundant coding, is used in this paper, to force subjects to use the actual colour coding in their decisions and in order to evaluate the effects of colour coding more fully. The results suggest that proponents of colour graphics must qualify their claims. Colour graphics improve decision making, though their impact is significant only when information complexity is low, and then for female subjects only.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

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Article
Publication date: 28 January 2014

Xiaoquan Zhao, Xiaoli Nan, Bo Yang and Irina Alexandra Iles

The purpose of this paper is to test the effects of cigarette warning labels that used text-only or text-plus relevant graphics. The labels were framed in terms of either…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test the effects of cigarette warning labels that used text-only or text-plus relevant graphics. The labels were framed in terms of either the negative consequences of smoking (loss frame) or the benefits of not smoking (gain frame). The role of smoking identity – the centrality of being a smoker to one's self-concept – in the effects of the warning labels was also examined.

Design/methodology/approach

An experiment was conducted online with 132 college smokers. Participants were randomly assigned to viewing either graphic or text-only labels that were either gain or loss framed. Smoking identity was measure prior to viewing. Message evaluations and smoking intentions were assessed after exposure as dependent measures.

Findings

A consistent interaction between graphics and framing emerged across a number of dependent measures. For graphic warning labels, the loss frame was more advantageous than the gain frame. For text-only warning labels, framing did not make any difference. This two-way interaction was further qualified by smoking identity for some, but not all, dependent measures.

Practical implications

Findings from this study support the use of graphic warning labels that focus on the negative health consequences of smoking.

Originality/value

Experimental research on graphic cigarette warning labels is limited and rarely considers the roles of framing and smoking identity. This study offered an initial test of the complex interaction among these message and audience variables as they jointly influence message reception and smoking intentions.

Details

Health Education, vol. 114 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1980

The hardware and software announced last month by ICL has resulted in a considerable improvement in the price/performance ratio for purchasers of the new equipment…

Abstract

The hardware and software announced last month by ICL has resulted in a considerable improvement in the price/performance ratio for purchasers of the new equipment. Existing users of 2900 processors are going to be offered attractive options to allow them to enhance their installed products to bring them into line with the new advantages.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 80 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

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Article
Publication date: 31 December 2007

Markus Ketterl, Robert Mertens and Oliver Vornberger

The purpose of this paper is to is to describe vector graphics for web lectures, focusing on the experiences with Adobe Flash 9 and SVG.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to is to describe vector graphics for web lectures, focusing on the experiences with Adobe Flash 9 and SVG.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents experiences made during the development and everyday use of two versions of the lecture‐recording system virtPresenter. The first of these versions is based on SVG, while the second is based on Adobe Flex2 (Flash 9) technology. The paper points out the advantages vector graphics can bring for web lectures and briefly presents a hypermedia navigation interface for web lectures that is based on SVG. The paper also compares the formats Flash and SVG and concludes with describing changes in workflows for administrators and users that have become possible with Flash.

Findings

Vector graphics are an ideal content format for slide‐based lecture recordings. File sizes can be kept small and graphics can be displayed in superior quality. Information about text and slide objects is stored symbolically, which allows texts to be searched and objects on slides to be used interactively, for example, for navigation purposes. The use of vector graphics for web lectures is, however, a trend that has begun only recently. A major reason for this is that multiple media formats have to be combined in order to replay video and slides.

Originality/value

The paper offers in insight into vector graphics as an ideal content format for slide‐based lecture recordings.

Details

Interactive Technology and Smart Education, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-5659

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1991

Anne Morrall

This study evaluated four different packages containing the hypertext facility for use in a browsing system at a museum. The browsing system envisaged would be on a…

Abstract

This study evaluated four different packages containing the hypertext facility for use in a browsing system at a museum. The browsing system envisaged would be on a medical or health topic and would be placed in the permanent exhibition area of the South African Medical Research Council at the South African Museum in Cape Town. The packages evaluated were Hyperties, Guide, KnowledgePro and CoNET. They all run on IBM‐compatible microcomputers. The Hyperties package was found to be the most suitable of the four for the application required. The comparative ease and speed with which a database can be created and the ease of use of a browsing system created with this package were the primary reasons for preferring this program. The experience gained in the study showed that the time which would be required to create the browsing system envisaged using Hyperties would not be excessive. Since the cost of the hardware required for the basic system is also not high, the proposed browsing system could be implemented cost effectively. The implementation of the browsing system did not form part of the study.

Details

The Electronic Library, vol. 9 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-0473

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1989

John L. Crawford

Describes how the huge problems of managing a largetelecommunications network have been addressed in the development of aproprietary system called NETWORKS. Discusses the…

Abstract

Describes how the huge problems of managing a large telecommunications network have been addressed in the development of a proprietary system called NETWORKS. Discusses the user′s mental model. Describes a network object model. Presents examples of how object‐oriented graphics can be applied to network management tasks.

Details

Office Technology and People, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0167-5710

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1989

STELLAR Computer Inc. today introduced the Application Visualization System (AVS), a next‐generation software system for rapid, easy visualization of scientific and…

Abstract

STELLAR Computer Inc. today introduced the Application Visualization System (AVS), a next‐generation software system for rapid, easy visualization of scientific and engineering data. Ian Edmonds, Stellar's Corporate Vice President of Marketing, stated “With the announcement of AVS, Stellar has shifted the playing field: instead of wrestling with graphics programming interface standards such as PHIGS and GKS or proprietary interfaces such as GL2 and DORE™, customers now have the solution they were looking for all the time—graphics supercomputing without graphics programming”.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 61 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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