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Article
Publication date: 7 June 2019

Lucja Dybowska-Sarapuk, Daniel Janczak, Bartlomiej Podsiadly, Malgorzata Jakubowska and Marcin Sloma

A comparison of electric and viscosity percolation threshold is crucial from the scientific and technical points of view to understand the features and capabilities of…

Abstract

Purpose

A comparison of electric and viscosity percolation threshold is crucial from the scientific and technical points of view to understand the features and capabilities of heterogeneous graphene composite materials and properly select the functional phase volume. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to present the analysis of the electrical and rheological percolation thresholds in the polymer–graphene screen printing pastes and the analysis of the relation between these two parameters.

Design/methodology/approach

In the paper, the properties of polymer-based pastes with graphene nanoplatelets were tested: paste viscosity and printed layers conductivity. The tests of pastes with different filler content allowed to determine both the electrical and rheological percolation thresholds using power law, according to Kirkpatrick’s percolation model.

Findings

The electrical percolation threshold for graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) in the composite was 0.74 Vol.% when the rheological percolation threshold is observed to be at 1.00 Vol.% of nanoplatelets. The percolation threshold values calculated using the Kirkpatrick’s percolation model were 0.87 and 0.5 Vol.% of GNPs in the paste for electrical and rheological percolation thresholds, respectively.

Originality/value

Recently, GNPs are becoming more popular as the material of the functional phase in screen printing heterophase materials, because of their unique mechanical and electrical properties. However, till date no research presented in the literature is related to the direct comparison of both the electrical and rheological percolation thresholds. Such analysis is important for the optimization of the printing process toward the highest quality of printed conductive paths, and finally the best electrical properties.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 45 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

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Article
Publication date: 11 January 2018

Piotr Sobik, Radoslaw Pawlowski, Bartlomiej Pawlowski, Boguslaw Drabczyk and Kazimierz Drabczyk

The purpose of this paper is to present results of the studies on modification of ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) encapsulation foil to be used as thermal interface material…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present results of the studies on modification of ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) encapsulation foil to be used as thermal interface material (TIM). It is estimated that poor thermal management in electronic devices can cause over 50 per cent of failures. As the junction temperature rises, the failure rate for electronics increases exponentially. To ensure sufficient heat transfer from its source, TIMs are used in various circuits. On the other hand, it is important to ensure high electric resistivity of the designed TIM.

Design/methodology/approach

The focus of the investigation was twofold: modification of EVA with both graphene oxide (GO) and silver nanopowder (nAg); and TIM applicability through lamination of photovoltaic cells with standard and modified EVA foil. The main problem of a new type of encapsulant is proper gas evacuation during the lamination process. For this reason, reference and modified samples were compared taking into account the percentage of gas bubbles in visible volume of laminated TIM. Finally, reference and modified TIM samples were compared using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and laser flash analysis (LFA) measurements.

Findings

The proper parameters of the lamination process for the modified EVA foil - with both GO and organometallic nAg particles - were selected. The nAg addition results in an increase in thermal conductivity of the proposed compositions with respect to unmodified EVA foil, which was confirmed by DSC and LFA measurements.

Originality/value

The experiments confirmed the potential application of both EVA foil as a matrix for TIM material and nAg with GO as an active agent. Proposed composition can bring additional support to a solar cell or other electronic components through effective heat removal, which increases its performance.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 44 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

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Article
Publication date: 17 June 2021

Mohammed Gamil, Nagih M. Shaalan and Ahmed Abd El-Moneim

This study aims to present an efficient and reliable graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs)-based temperature sensor.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to present an efficient and reliable graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs)-based temperature sensor.

Design/methodology/approach

A high-quality dispersion of GNPs was dropped by casting method on platinum electrodes deposited on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. The GNPs were characterized by scanning electron microscope, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction spectra to ensure its purity and quality. The temperature sensing behavior of the fabricated sensor was examined by subjecting it to different temperatures, range from room temperature (RT) to 150 °C.

Findings

Excellent resistance linearity with temperature change was achieved. Temperature coefficient of resistance of the fabricated sensor was calculated as 1.4 × 10–3°C. The sensor also showed excellent repeatability and stability for the measured temperature range. Good response and recovery times were evaluated at all the measured temperatures. With measuring the sensor response, the ambient temperature can be determined.

Originality/value

The present work presents a new simply and low cost fabricated temperature sensor based on GNPs working at a wide temperature range.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article
Publication date: 23 September 2020

Ashish Kumar Srivastava, Brijesh Sharma, Bismin R. Saju, Arpit Shukla, Ambuj Saxena and Nagendra Kumar Maurya

The development of a new class of engineering materials is the current demand for aircraft and automobile companies. In this context metal, composite materials have a…

Abstract

Purpose

The development of a new class of engineering materials is the current demand for aircraft and automobile companies. In this context metal, composite materials have a widespread application in different areas of manufacturing sectors.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, an attempt is made to develop the aluminium-based nano metal matrix composite reinforced with graphene nanoparticles (GNP) by using the stir casting method. Different weight percentage (0.4%, 0.8% and 1.2% by weight) of GNPs are used to fabricate metal matrix composites (MMCs). The developed nanocomposites were further validated by density calculation and optical microstructures to discuss the distribution of GNPs. The tensile test was conducted to determine the strength of the developed MMCs and also supported by fractographic analysis. In addition to it, the Rockwell hardness test and impact test (toughness) with fracture analysis were also conducted to strengthen the present work.

Findings

The results reveal the uniform distribution of GNPs into the matrix material. The yield strength and ultimate tensile strength obtained a maximum value of 155.67 MPa and 170.28 MPa, respectively. The hardness value (HRB) is significantly increased and 84 HRB was obtained for the sample with AA1100/0.4% GNP, while maximum hardness value (94 HRB) was obtained for the sample AA1100/1.2% GNP. The maximum value of toughness 14.3 Jules/cm2 is recorded for base alloy AA1100 while increasing the reinforcement percentage, it decreases up to 9.7 Jules/cm2 for AA1100/1.2% GNP.

Originality/value

Graphene nanoparticles are used to develop nanocomposites, which is one of the suitable alternatives for heavy engineering materials such as steels and cast irons. It has improved microstructural and mechanical properties which makes it preferable for many engineering and structural applications.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 17 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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Article
Publication date: 25 June 2019

Marjan Goodarzi, Iskander Tlili, Zhe Tian and Mohammad Reza Safaei

This study aims to model the nanofluid flow in microchannel heat sinks having the same length and hydraulic diameter but different cross-sections (circular, trapezoidal…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to model the nanofluid flow in microchannel heat sinks having the same length and hydraulic diameter but different cross-sections (circular, trapezoidal and square).

Design/methodology/approach

The nanofluid is graphene nanoplatelets-silver/water, and the heat transfer in laminar flow was investigated. The range of coolant Reynolds number in this investigation was 200 ≤ Re ≤ 1000, and the concentrations of nano-sheets were from 0 to 0.1 vol. %.

Findings

Results show that higher temperature leads to smaller Nusselt number, pressure drop and pumping power, and increasing solid nano-sheet volume fraction results in an expected increase in heat transfer. However, the influence of temperature on the friction factor is insignificant. In addition, by increasing the Reynolds number, the values of pressure drop, pumping power and Nusselt number augments, but friction factor diminishes.

Research limitations/implications

Data extracted from a recent experimental work were used to obtain thermo-physical properties of nanofluids.

Originality/value

The effects of temperature, microchannel cross-section shape, the volume concentration of nanoparticles and Reynolds number on thermal and hydraulics behavior of the nanofluid were investigated. Results are presented in terms of velocity, Nusselt number, pressure drop, friction loss and pumping power in various conditions. Validation of the model against previous papers showed satisfactory agreement.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 2 February 2015

Kamil Janeczek, Małgorzata Jakubowska, Grażyna Kozioł and Anna Młożniak

The purpose of this paper is to examine electrical and mechanical properties of radio frequency identification (RFID) chip joints assembled on a flexible substrate and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine electrical and mechanical properties of radio frequency identification (RFID) chip joints assembled on a flexible substrate and made from isotropic conductive adhesives (ICAs) reinforced with graphene nanoplatelets (GPNs) or graphite nanofibers (GFNs).

Design/methodology/approach

The ICAs reinforced with GPNs or GFNs were prepared and screen printed on a test pattern to investigate resistance and thickness of these adhesive layers. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) was performed to assess a curing behaviour of the prepared ICAs. Then, RFID chips were mounted with the prepared ICAs to the pattern of silver tracks prepared on foil. Shear test was carried out to evaluate mechanical durability of the created chip joints, and resistance measurements were carried out to evaluate electrical properties of the tested ICAs.

Findings

The 0.5 per cent (by weight) addition of GFNs or GPNs to the ICA improved shear force values of the assembled RFID chip joints, whereas resistance of these modified adhesives increased. The DSC analysis showed that a processing temperature of the tested adhesives may range from 80 to 170°C with different curing times. It revealed a crucial influence of curing time and temperature on electrical and mechanical properties of the tested chip joints. When the chip pads were cured for too long (i.e. 60 minutes), it resulted in a resistance increase and shear force decrease of the chip joints. In turn, the increase of curing temperature from 80 to 120°C entailed improvement of electrical and mechanical properties of the assembled chips. It was also found that a failure location changed from the chip – adhesive interface towards the adhesive – substrate one when the curing temperature and time were increased.

Research limitations/implications

Further investigations are required to examine changes thoroughly in the adhesive reinforced with GFNs after a growth of curing time. It could also be worth studying electrical and mechanical properties of the conductive adhesive with a different amount of GFNs or GPNs.

Practical implications

The tested conductive adhesive reinforced with GFNs or GPNs can be applied in the production of RFID tags because it may enhance the mechanical properties of tags fabricated on flexible substrates.

Originality/value

Influence of GFNs and GPNs on the electrical and mechanical properties of commercial ICAs was investigated. These properties were also examined depending on a curing time and temperature. New conductive materials were proposed and tested for a chip assembly process in fabrication of RFID tags on flexible substrates.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

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Article
Publication date: 12 March 2018

Mohamed Ashour, Alaa Mohamed, Abou Bakr Elshalakany, Tarek Osman and Aly Khatab

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the rheological characteristics of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) and hybridized nanocomposite consisting of multi-walled carbon…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the rheological characteristics of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) and hybridized nanocomposite consisting of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and GNPs as an additive on lithium-based grease. The experiments of nanogrease are examined in different values of shear stress, apparent viscosity, temperature and shear rate using Brookfield Programmable Rheometer DV-III ULTRA and characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD).

Design/methodology/approach

First, GNPs was mixed well with lithium grease using mechanical stirring at 3,500 rpm for 15 min at room temperature to form a homogenous composite at different concentrations (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 and 2.5 Wt.%). Afterwards, MWCNTs and GNPs are mixed and dispersed well in the lithium grease using a sonication path for 30 min and mechanical stirring at 3,500 rpm for 15 min at 28°C to form a homogenous nanocomposite.

Findings

The results indicated that 1 Wt.% of GNPs is the optimum concentration. Subsequently, the weight percentage of additives varying between MWCNTs and GNPs are tested, and the result indicate that the grease containing GNPs had a 75 per cent increase in shear stress and 93.7 per cent increase in apparent viscosity over ordinary grease.

Originality/value

This work describes the inexpensive and simple fabrication of nanogrease for improving properties of lubricants, which improve power efficiency and extend lifetimes of mechanical equipment.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 70 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 21 August 2020

Valéry Tusambila Wadi, Özkan Özmen and Mehmet Baki Karamış

The purpose of this study is to investigate thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity of graphene nanoplatelet-based (GNP) nanolubricant.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity of graphene nanoplatelet-based (GNP) nanolubricant.

Design/methodology/approach

Nanolubricants in concentrations of 0.025, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.5 Wt% were prepared by means of two-step method. The stability of nanolubricants was monitored by visual inspection and dynamic light scattering tests. Thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity of nanolubricants in various temperatures between 25°C–70°C were measured with KD2-Pro analyser device and a rotational viscometer MRC VIS-8, respectively. A comparison between experimentally achieved results and those obtained from existing models was performed. New correlations were proposed and artificial neural network (ANN) model was used for predicting thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity.

Findings

The designed nanolubricant showed good stability after at least 21 days. Thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity increased with particles concentration. In addition, as the temperature increased, thermal conductivity increased but dynamic viscosity decreased. Compared to the base oil, maximum enhancements were achieved at 70°C with the concentration of 0.5 Wt.% for dynamic viscosity and at 55°C with the same concentration for thermal conductivity. Besides, ANN results showed better performance than proposed correlations.

Practical implications

This study outcomes will contribute to enhance thermophysical properties of conventional lubricating oils.

Originality/value

To the best of our knowledge, there is no paper related to experimental study, new correlations and modelling with ANN of thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity of GNPs/SAE 5W40 nanolubricant in the available literature.

Peer review

The peer review history for this article is available at: https://publons.com/publon/10.1108/ILT-03-2020-0088/

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 73 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 10 January 2020

Yong Qian, Hongying Gong, Xiaoyun Zhao, Lei Cao, Weizhong Shi and Jianli He

The purpose of this study is to corroborate the advanced tribological properties of graphene as a lubricant additive.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to corroborate the advanced tribological properties of graphene as a lubricant additive.

Design/methodology/approach

Different concentrations of functionalized graphene were coated on the substrate surface. Tribological properties of the graphene lubricants were carried out by ball-on-disk tribology tests. Wear mechanism of functionalized graphene was studied by observing wear scars on the substrate surface. Finally, the wear resistance of modified graphene was calculated by calculating and analyzing the applied experimental conditions and the obtained experimental data.

Findings

The best concentration of graphene lubricant is 0.5 wt.% which shows the best tribological performance. And the coefficient of friction is 0.08. Compared with the dry friction condition, the coefficient of friction and wear rate of best graphene lubricant decreased by 80% and 82%.

Originality/value

The formula of graphene lubricant is independently developed and works very well. Graphene lubricant can prevent the substrate from oxidation. The thickness of the graphene lubricant is about 4-7µm. The concept of anti-wear strength was introduced in this paper. When 0.5 Vol.% graphene was added, the anti-wear strength was greatly improved from 115.3 kg·mm-2 to 657.6 kg·mm-2.

Peer review

The peer review history for this article is available at: https://publons.com/publon/10.1108/ILT-08-2019-0344

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 72 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2015

Grzegorz Wroblewski, Konrad Kielbasinski, Barbara Swatowska, Janusz Jaglarz, Konstanty Marszalek, Tomasz Stapinski and Malgorzata Jakubowska

The paper aims to present the research results related to transparent heating elements made from carbon nanomaterials. Heating elements were fabricated only with…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to present the research results related to transparent heating elements made from carbon nanomaterials. Heating elements were fabricated only with cost-effective techniques with the aim to be easily implemented in large area applications. Presented materials and methods are an interesting alternative to vacuum deposition of transparent resistive layers and etching of low-resistive patterns. Fabricated heating elements were designed to be used as de-icing structures in roof-top windows.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents the research results related to transparent heating elements made from carbon nanomaterials. Heating elements were fabricated only with cost-effective techniques with the aim to be easily implemented in large area applications. Presented materials and methods are an interesting alternative to vacuum deposition of transparent resistive layers and etching of low-resistive patterns. Fabricated heating elements were designed to be used as de-icing structures in roof-top windows.

Findings

The sheet resistance of obtained layers was between 9 and 11 kΩ/□; however, double-walled carbon nanotubes showed significantly higher optical transmission (around 70 per cent) than graphene nanoplatelets (around 55 per cent for visible and near infrared range). The amount of polymer resin had the influence on the paints stability, electrical properties and coatings adhesion.

Originality/value

Results show a novel method of fabrication of a large area and transparent heating elements with tunable resistance done through the change of spray coating paint composition.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 41 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

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