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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1996

Edward T. Lee

Describes intuitively the fact that four types of formal languages can be generated by four types of grammars or can be recognized by four types of automata. Gives the…

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Abstract

Describes intuitively the fact that four types of formal languages can be generated by four types of grammars or can be recognized by four types of automata. Gives the relationships between context‐sensitive languages and computer programming languages. Defines and investigates parallel productions, parallel grammars, and context‐free parallel grammars. Shows that context‐sensitive languages exist which can be generated by context‐free parallel grammars. In addition, states the advantages of context‐free parallel grammars. Also shows that context‐free languages (CFL) are a proper subset of context‐free parallel languages (CFPL). Furthermore, CFPL is a more effective tool for modelling computer programming languages than CFL, especially for parallel computer programming languages, for example, the ADA programming language. Also illustrates context‐sensitive property of recognizing hand‐written characters. The results may have useful applications in artificial intelligence, model parallel computer programming languages, software engineering, expert systems and robotics.

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Kybernetes, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Book part
Publication date: 1 November 2012

Jessie Grace U. Rubrico

Contextualizing grammar in second language (L2) classrooms implies making grammar constructs relevant to the learners’ world; affording learners the opportunities to…

Abstract

Contextualizing grammar in second language (L2) classrooms implies making grammar constructs relevant to the learners’ world; affording learners the opportunities to better comprehend and apply these concepts in their own milieus. This instructional design (ID) has been devised to contextualize grammar and to explore learner engagement of pre-service English teachers through Computer-Aided Learning (CAL) and Task-based Learning (TBL) in a technology-driven learning environment. CAL encompasses technology-aided discussions, multi-media presentations, online tests and exercises, and social media deployment. TBL, on the other hand, contextualizes grammar using technology and social network in planning, executing, and presenting four assigned tasks: picture essay, brochure design, dialogue composition, and comic strips illustration. Facebook is the e-portfolio of the class, archiving all group and individual output. The CAL-TBL tandem is propelled by group initiatives and class collaboration evident in group discussions and planning, microteaching, task presentations, peer reviews, and self-evaluations. These initiatives engage learners; empowering students to collaboratively take active part and responsibility for their own learning. The three-hour-class meets every week in a computer laboratory. The post-semester feedback and online poll course design review as well as the University Course Evaluation comments have shown that the ID, from the learners’ perspective, is effective in contextualizing grammar and in engaging learners.

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Increasing Student Engagement and Retention Using Social Technologies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-239-4

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Book part
Publication date: 1 June 2017

Benjamin Taupin and Marc Lenglet

In this article, we make the point that managerial domination as described by pragmatic sociology is an appropriate notion to make sense of complex forms of domination in…

Abstract

In this article, we make the point that managerial domination as described by pragmatic sociology is an appropriate notion to make sense of complex forms of domination in contemporary organizations. Based on Lemieux’s work on ‘grammars’, we complement approaches of complex domination put forward by pragmatic sociologists such as Boltanski and Thévenot. We illustrate these ideas by means of an ethnographic study of the financial intermediation industry. Our analysis sketches out an alternative conceptualization of power in such environments, and by so doing, helps us delineate the features that characterize complex financial domination. We conclude by arguing that this type of domination is the result of specific contradictions inherent to the grammars of financial intermediation.

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Justification, Evaluation and Critique in the Study of Organizations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-379-1

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Book part
Publication date: 3 November 2017

Emily Machado, Rebecca Woodard, Andrea Vaughan and Rick Coppola

This study examines how writing teachers manage linguistic ideological dilemmas (LIDs) around grammar instruction and highlights productive strategies employed by one…

Abstract

This study examines how writing teachers manage linguistic ideological dilemmas (LIDs) around grammar instruction and highlights productive strategies employed by one teacher in an instructional unit on poetry. We conducted semi-structured interviews with nine elementary and middle-school teachers to better understand how they conceptualized and enacted writing pedagogies in urban classrooms. Then, we documented the teaching practices of one teacher during a 9-week case study. We describe three LIDs expressed by the teachers we interviewed: (1) a perception of greater linguistic flexibility in speech than in writing; (2) a sense that attention to grammar in feedback can enhance and/or inhibit written communication; and (3) apprehension about whether grammar instruction empowers or marginalizes linguistically minoritized students. We also highlight three productive strategies for teaching grammar while valuing linguistic diversity employed by one teacher: (1) selecting mentor texts that showcase a range of grammars; (2) modeling code-meshing practices; and (3) privileging alternative grammars while grading written work. We describe how teachers might take up pedagogical practices that support linguistic diversity, such as evaluating written assignments in more flexible ways, engaging in contrastive analysis, and teaching students to resist and rewrite existing language rules.

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Addressing Diversity in Literacy Instruction
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-048-6

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Article
Publication date: 20 November 2009

Tomasz Müldner, Gregory Leighton and Jan Krzysztof Miziołek

The purpose of this paper is to consider the secure publishing of XML documents, where a single copy of an XML document is disseminated and a stated role‐based access…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to consider the secure publishing of XML documents, where a single copy of an XML document is disseminated and a stated role‐based access control policy (RBACP) is enforced via selective encryption. It describes a more efficient solution over previously proposed approaches, in which both policy specification and key generation are performed once, at the schema‐level. In lieu of the commonly used super‐encryption technique, in which nodes residing in the intersection of multiple roles are encrypted with multiple keys, it describes a new approach called multi‐encryption that guarantees each node is encrypted at most once.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper describes two alternative algorithms for key generation and single‐pass algorithms for multi‐encrypting and decrypting a document. The solution typically results in a smaller number of keys being distributed to each user.

Findings

The paper proves the correctness of the presented algorithms, and provides experimental results indicating the superiority of multi‐encryption over super‐encryption, in terms of encryption and decryption time requirements. It also demonstrates the scalability of the approach as the size of the input document and complexity of the schema‐level RBACP are increased.

Research limitations/implications

An extension of this work involves designing and implementing re‐usability of keyrings when a schema or ACP is modified. In addition, more flexible solutions for handling cycles in schema graphs are possible. The current solution encounters difficulty when schema graphs are particularly deep and broad.

Practical implications

The experimental results indicate that the proposed approach is scalable, and is applicable to scenarios in which XML documents conforming to a common schema are to be securely published.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the efficient implementation of secure XML publication systems.

Details

International Journal of Web Information Systems, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-0084

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2006

E. Massad and A.F. Rocha

This second part of a companion paper seeks to extend the theory proposed to apply the hierarchy of fuzzy formal language to cope with the three major phenomenon of life…

Abstract

Purpose

This second part of a companion paper seeks to extend the theory proposed to apply the hierarchy of fuzzy formal language to cope with the three major phenomenon of life: replication, control and shuffling of genetic information.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to cope with the proposal, three new classes of FFG are proposed: replicating grammars: to formalize properties and consequences of DNA duplication; self‐controlled grammars: to provide the tools to control the grammar ambiguity and to improve adaptability, and recombinant grammars: to formalize properties and consequences of the sexual reproduction to life evolution. Considering all these facts, FFG are proposed as the key instrument to formalize the basic properties of the chemical transactions supporting life.

Findings

The formalism of the model provides a new way to analyze and interpret the findings of the different genome sequencing projects.

Originality/value

The theoretical framework developed here provides a new perspective of understanding the code of life and evolution.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 35 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Article
Publication date: 3 June 2014

Dusan Repel and Ingo Stengel

This research aims to propose an attack that de-obfuscates codes by exploiting the properties of context-free grammars since it is important to understand the strength of…

Abstract

Purpose

This research aims to propose an attack that de-obfuscates codes by exploiting the properties of context-free grammars since it is important to understand the strength of obfuscation provided by context-free grammar-based obfuscators. In addition, the possibility of automatically generated transformations is explored.

Design/methodology/approach

As part of our empirical investigation, a development environment for obfuscating transformations is built. The tool is used to simulate a context-free obfuscator and to devise ways of reversing such transformations. Furthermore, a theoretical investigation of subset grammars and subset languages is carried out.

Findings

It is concluded that context-free grammar-based obfuscators provide limited levels of protection. Nevertheless, their application is appropriate when combined with other obfuscating techniques.

Research limitations/implications

The algorithms behave as expected on a limited number of test samples. Further work is required to increase their practicality and to establish their average reliability.

Originality/value

This research shows how a frequency analysis attack can threaten the security of code scrambled by context-free grammar-based obfuscators.

Details

Information Management & Computer Security, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0968-5227

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1994

Jozef Kelemen and D.J. Evans

Gives a broad understanding of multi‐agent systems and relates it to the generative paradigm of studying complex systems. Demonstrates the functioning of the multi‐agent…

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Abstract

Gives a broad understanding of multi‐agent systems and relates it to the generative paradigm of studying complex systems. Demonstrates the functioning of the multi‐agent paradigm in some approaches in artificial intelligence and in some closely related fields. After sketching a specific approach to formalization of multi‐agent systems using tools and techniques of the theory of formal grammars and languages, gives a preview of the main developmental lines of the theory of grammar systems.

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Kybernetes, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2006

José P. Duarte and Rodrigo Correia

The current goal is to implement a description grammar that generates housing briefs based on user and site data. The ultimate goal is to customize mass housing. This…

Abstract

The current goal is to implement a description grammar that generates housing briefs based on user and site data. The ultimate goal is to customize mass housing. This paper discusses these issues. Previous research proposed a mathematical model for the automatic generation of customized designs based on description and shape grammars. This paper describes the implementation of a description grammar that codifies the Portuguese housing design guidelines, as well as the intelligence of a human designer using them inferred after experimental work. Knowledge was sequentially converted from table format into English, Mathematical notation, and then the CLIPS language. Java Experts system Shell is the rule application engine, and JAVA and XML are used for coding theinterface and information tables, respectively.It describes how to implement a description grammar and it shows the feasibility of using them for automating the generation of housing briefs that contain enough technical information for design. In a subsequent step, it permits the automatic generation of housing solutions in real time. Backtracking is limited, theinterface does not provide visual clues for improving understanding of the available options, and the brief does not record intuitive or emotional information. It can help designers identifying the specifications of their clients' houses. It can be linked to a system that automatically generates, in a given language, housing solutions that match such specifications, thereby enabling the mass customization of housing. This paper describes the first practical implementation of a description grammar found in the literature.

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Construction Innovation, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-4175

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2006

J.L. Usó‐Domènech, F. Vives‐Maciá and J. Mateu

All models have in common that they encode experience and always involve signs, signals, syntax, semantics and an ability to decode and derive meaning from what is…

Abstract

Purpose

All models have in common that they encode experience and always involve signs, signals, syntax, semantics and an ability to decode and derive meaning from what is encoded. Therefore, an ecological model can be considered a text T, written in a formal (mathematical) language defined by the authors as L(MT).

Design/methodology/approach

The language chosen is a regular language generated by regular grammars which in turn are generated by finite automaton.

Findings

A text results from a union of some finite automata defining a textual grammar. Recognoscitive and generative grammars of words, defining the basis of the L(MT) language are developed.

Practical implications

A mathematical modelling of ecological systems is developed in parts I and II of this research project.

Originality/value

A language for ecological systems modelling has been defined and its implementation discussed.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 35 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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