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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2006

Tony Manning, Richard Parker and Graham Pogson

To provide a critique of Belbin's team role theory, including the provision of a re‐definition of the concept of team role and an adequate framework for relating

Abstract

Purpose

To provide a critique of Belbin's team role theory, including the provision of a re‐definition of the concept of team role and an adequate framework for relating personality to team roles. The re‐defined concept of team roles has a significant social dimension that relates it to the roles people habitually play in teams, the autonomy provided by such roles and their commitment to them. It also advocates the use of the “Big Five” model for describing individual personality differences and relating them to team role behaviour.

Design/methodology/approach

A revised model of team role behaviour is described, along with a brief account of the “Big Five” model of personality, and findings are presented that relate team role behaviour to three sets of variables, namely, personality, team role expectations and team role orientation, including autonomy and commitment.

Findings

Team role behaviour is described using both self‐assessments and aggregated assessments by others derived from instruments using Likert‐type scales. Information is presented showing the relationship between these measures of team role behaviour and three sets of variables, namely, personality, team role expectations and team role orientation, including autonomy and commitment. These findings support the idea that team roles have a significant social dimension and that the “Big Five” model of personality provides a useful model for relating team role behaviour to individual personality traits.

Research limitations/implications

The research does not look at a number of other issues raised by Belbin's theory of team roles, including the relationship between team composition and team effectiveness. Further research, using the measures described in the article, could be carried out to explore this relationship in actual teams, including exploring team composition in different work contexts.

Practical implications

The main implication of the research is that, while team role behaviour does appear to be related in part to individual personality traits, such traits are much less constraining than Belbin's theory suggests. Team role behaviour can usefully be seen, in part at least, as learned social behaviour, with individuals learning to play different roles in teams. Thus attempts to improve team effectiveness would benefit from looking more at learned behaviour (including leadership, problem solving, work organisation and interpersonal skills, as well as specialist expertise relevant to the particular team), while focusing relatively less on assessment, selection, placement and guidance.

Originality/value

Previous research on, and criticisms of, Belbin's team role theory have challenged it from within the discipline of psychology. This research is unique in criticising it from a more sociological perspective. It is also unique in shifting the practical focus for improving team effectiveness away from assessment, selection, placement and guidance to learned behaviour and skills.

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 38 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2009

Tony Manning, Graham Pogson and Zoe Morrison

The paper aims to present and discuss research into the relationship between influencing behaviour and impact, including gender and seniority differences.

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to present and discuss research into the relationship between influencing behaviour and impact, including gender and seniority differences.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper builds on previous articles considering influencing behaviour in the workplace. These articles present a model of interpersonal influence and describe how individual influencing behaviour varies in different contexts. They identified the need for further investigation into the effectiveness of such behaviours in those contexts. This research utilises 360‐degree performance assessments as an indicator of the “effectiveness” or impact of workplace influencing behaviours.

Findings

The findings extend previous work supporting the idea that there are few, if any, influencing behaviours that apply to all situations and highlight the role of expectancies in work place assessments of influencing behaviours.

Research limitations/implications

The research highlights ways in which the relationship between influencing behaviour and impact differ according to both the gender and seniority of those seeking to influence. This indicates that the “expectancies” of the influence or target affect perceptions of influencing behaviour and assessments of impact. This is consistent with the model of interpersonal influence previously developed, which includes explicit reference to feedback loops between behaviour, responses and expectancies. This raises further questions as to the impact of expectancies on 360‐degree assessment, and the nature and fairness of assessment within organisational performance management systems.

Originality/value

This paper challenges the idea that there are influencing strategies and styles that are effective, irrespective of context. It also highlights the role of expectancies within behavioural assessments in the workplace.

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 41 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

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Article
Publication date: 14 March 2008

Tony Manning, Graham Pogson and Zoë Morrison

The purpose of this paper is to model the relationship between influencing behaviour, personality traits, work roles and role orientation. It builds on previous research

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to model the relationship between influencing behaviour, personality traits, work roles and role orientation. It builds on previous research into team roles, highlighting the relationship between influencing behaviour and team role behaviour.

Design/methodology/approach

Statistical analysis on questionnaire data from a mixed, work‐based, UK sample is used to assess relationships between influencing behaviour, role expectations, role orientation and team role behaviour.

Findings

The paper argues that team roles access different types of power and influencing behaviours depending on role and role orientation. Findings establish a link between influencing behaviour and team role behaviour, as well as personality traits, developing the idea that there is a significant social dimension to team roles.

Research limitations/implications

The research does not consider specific influence attempts, nor does it present evidence regarding the effectiveness of patterns of influencing behaviour in particular contexts.

Practical implications

The paper highlights the relationship between influencing behaviour and personality and contextual variables. Considering “when” different strategies and styles are used may offer guidelines for action. Findings reinforce the significance of the social dimension of team roles and indicate a need for further research to consider the success of influencing behaviour in different contexts.

Originality/value

Previous research into influencing behaviour has focused on its relationship to either situational variables or personality traits and, where personality variable have been studied, they have been specific traits. This research considers both sets of variables simultaneously and covers the whole personality domain. This is the first study of the relationship between team role behaviour and influencing behaviour.

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 40 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 June 2008

Tony Manning, Graham Pogson and Zoë Morrison

The purpose of this paper is to present findings, and discuss the relevance of those findings, with regard to research undertaken about interpersonal influence in the workplace.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present findings, and discuss the relevance of those findings, with regard to research undertaken about interpersonal influence in the workplace.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is the second part of a three‐part paper considering influencing behaviour in the workplace, the ways in which people at work go about getting their way with others. This part of the paper is divided into two main sections. The first section presents the research findings. The second section discusses the relevance of the findings. In particular, it considers how the observed relationships may provide guidelines for action, suggesting the circumstances in which particular influencing strategies and styles may be appropriate and inappropriate.

Findings

The findings support the idea that influencing behaviour is related to the characteristics of the person, their work role and their orientation to that work role.

Research limitations/implications

There is clearly a need for further research. For example, the findings presented in this paper tell us nothing about whether patterns of influencing behaviour are actually effective in particular contexts. This raises further questions about how we might assess “effectiveness”. One possible approach is to look at the relationship between behaviour and assessments of effectiveness by other people, including 360 degree assessments. This approach has the merit of being consistent with the model of interpersonal influence described in the paper, that includes explicit reference to expectancies and has feedback loops between behaviour, responses and expectancies.

Originality/value

This paper is of value in presenting research findings that shine light on the nature of the relationship between influencing behaviour and both personality and contextual variables.

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 40 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 October 2008

Tony Manning, Graham Pogson and Zoë Morrison

The purpose of this paper is to model the relationship between influencing behaviour, personality traits, work roles and role orientation. It builds on previous research

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to model the relationship between influencing behaviour, personality traits, work roles and role orientation. It builds on previous research into team roles, highlighting the relationship between influencing behaviour and team role behaviour.

Design/methodology/approach

Statistical analysis on questionnaire data from a mixed, work‐based, UK sample is used to assess relationships between influencing behaviour, role expectations, role orientation and team role behaviour.

Findings

The paper argues that team roles access different types of power and influencing behaviours depending on role and role orientation. The findings establish a link between influencing behaviour and team role behaviour, as well as personality traits, developing the idea that there is a significant social dimension to team roles.

Research limitations/implications

The research does not consider specific influence attempts, nor does it present evidence regarding the effectiveness of patterns of influencing behaviour in particular contexts.

Practical implications

The paper highlights the relationship between influencing behaviour and personality and contextual variables. Considering “when” different strategies and styles are used may offer guidelines for action. The findings reinforce the significance of the social dimension of team roles and indicate a need for further research to consider the success of influencing behaviour in different contexts.

Originality/value

Previous research into influencing behaviour has focused on its relationship to either situational variables or personality traits and, where personality variables have been studied, they have been specific traits. This research considers both sets of variables simultaneously and covers the whole personality domain. This is the first study of the relationship between team role behaviour and influencing behaviour.

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 40 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 30 January 2009

Tony Manning, Graham Pogson and Zoë Morrison

This article aims to present some further research findings that explore the relationship between influencing behaviour and team role behaviour.

Abstract

Purpose

This article aims to present some further research findings that explore the relationship between influencing behaviour and team role behaviour.

Design/methodology/approach

The research is based upon data collected by the authors during training and development activities that they carried out and/or were involved in.

Findings

The main conclusion is specifically related to the revised model of team roles put forward by Manning et al. This was developed in response to perceived limitations in Belbin's original formulation of team role theory. It builds on and develops the idea that there is a significant social dimension to team roles.

Originality/value

The research is based upon data collected by the authors during training and development activities that they carried out and/or were involved in. Information collected comes from a work‐based sample of men and women, at all organizational levels, in a variety of mainly public sector organizations in the UK.

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 41 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 22 October 2016

Marian Mahat and Leo Goedegebuure

Key forces shaping higher education drive institutions to make strategic choices to locate themselves in niches where they can make use of their resources effectively and…

Abstract

Key forces shaping higher education drive institutions to make strategic choices to locate themselves in niches where they can make use of their resources effectively and efficiently. However, the concepts of strategy and strategic positioning in higher education are contested issues due to the nature and complexity of the sector and the university. As an industry facing increasing pressure toward marketization and competition, this study calls for an analysis of higher education, as an industry, in a more business-oriented framework. This chapter makes a contribution to scholarly research in higher education by applying Porter’s five forces framework to medical education. In doing so, it provides a foundational perspective on the competitive landscape, its environment, its organizations, and the groups and individuals that make up the higher and medical education sector.

Details

Theory and Method in Higher Education Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-895-0

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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2013

Florian Kunze, Stephan Boehm and Heike Bruch

In light of the increasingly aging workforce, it is interesting from both a theoretical and practical perspective to investigate empirically the commonly held stereotype…

Abstract

Purpose

In light of the increasingly aging workforce, it is interesting from both a theoretical and practical perspective to investigate empirically the commonly held stereotype that older workers are more resistant to change (RTC). Thus, the main purpose of this paper is to investigate the age/RTC relationship, considering tenure and occupational status (blue/white collar employees) as additional boundary conditions. Furthermore, the paper investigates the relationship between RTC and individual performance, thereby introducing RTC as a mediator in the age/job performance relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

Study hypotheses are tested among a sample of 2,981 employees from diverse companies. Structural equation modeling with bootstrapping procedures is applied to investigate the moderated-indirect model.

Findings

Contrary to common stereotypes, employee age is negatively related to RTC. Tenure and occupational status are further identified as boundary conditions for this relationship. Moreover, RTC also shows an association with individual job performance, which allows for the establishment of an indirect-mediation mechanism from age to job performance via the intermediation of RTC. These results can be explained using current life span concepts, particularly the selective optimization with compensation (SOC) model.

Research limitations/implications

Hypotheses were tested in a cross-sectional data set, which does not allow for conclusions of causality.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the age stereotyping literature that has thus far neglected the age/RTC relationship. Furthermore, the age/job performance literature is extended by introducing RTC as an important mediating factor. In sum, this study should help provide a more positive and more differentiated picture of older employees in the workplace.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 28 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 March 2014

Deirdre O'Shea, Sinead Monaghan and Timothy D. Ritchie

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of protean and boundaryless career attitudes in early career employees during a time of economic recession in Ireland…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of protean and boundaryless career attitudes in early career employees during a time of economic recession in Ireland, specifically regarding their relationship to work characteristics, job satisfaction and career satisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a quantitative design, data were obtained from a variety of Irish organizations. Employees in the trial career stage (aged between 18 and 29) responded to questions pertaining to their career attitudes, perceived work context and satisfaction.

Findings

Skill variety was related to higher job satisfaction for those with a strong organizational mobility preference, and skill specialization was related to lower job satisfaction for those with a weak organizational mobility preference. Autonomy and skill specialization were positively related to career satisfaction for those who held a strong self-directed career attitude.

Research limitations/implications

For researchers, this study contributes to our understanding of the boundary conditions of the work design-satisfaction relationship, and provides further insights into how these findings extend to career satisfaction.

Practical implications

For managers, they demonstrate the importance of considering career attitudes when considering the relationship between job design and satisfaction during recessionary times.

Originality/value

The research extends past findings on careers attitudes during times of recession, and provides insights into psychological and contextual variables that contribute to satisfaction during such economic periods.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1910

GLASGOW was later by about one hundred and thirty years than some of the Scotch towns in establishing a printing press. Three hundred years ago, though Glasgow contained a…

Abstract

GLASGOW was later by about one hundred and thirty years than some of the Scotch towns in establishing a printing press. Three hundred years ago, though Glasgow contained a University with men of great literary activity, including amongst others Zachary Boyd, there does not appear to have been sufficient printing work to induce anyone to establish a printing press. St. Andrews and Aberdeen were both notable for the books they produced, before Glasgow even attempted any printing.

Details

New Library World, vol. 12 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

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