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Book part
Publication date: 12 September 2017

Anna Bottasso and Maurizio Conti

This chapter examines the main methodological issues involved in the comprehension of the cost structure of the airport industry and suggests considerations for future…

Abstract

This chapter examines the main methodological issues involved in the comprehension of the cost structure of the airport industry and suggests considerations for future airport cost analyses. Such understanding has become a crucial concern for policy makers, regional planners, and managers in order to deal with optimal market design (e.g., regulation and market configuration) and airport strategies (e.g., pricing, investments, and alliances). An in-depth analysis of the economics of cost functions is presented, together with a description of the relevant multi-output cost economies measures (average incremental costs, scale and scope economies, and cost complementarities). We also discuss the assumptions underlying estimates of total versus variable cost functions and the importance of estimating a sufficiently flexible functional form. Moreover, we provide a critical survey of the international empirical literature on the cost structure of the airport industry, which highlights how econometric estimates strongly depend on the sample choice and the empirical model considered. Indeed, while econometric studies on international samples based on long-run cost function estimates show that long-run scale economies are never exhausted, single country studies mostly estimate variable cost functions and find lower values for scale economies at median sample points that tend to decrease with size. We discuss why we believe that studies based on the estimation of short-run variable cost functions offer more reliable results, given the reasonable assumption of airport overcapitalization in the short run. We conclude our work by noting that underlying policy issues related to planning and regulation, as well as to the optimal market structure of the airport sector, need to take into account the role played by vertical relationships between airports and airlines.

Details

The Economics of Airport Operations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-497-2

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Book part
Publication date: 13 October 2008

Graham P. Martin

For policymakers and academics alike, gentrification – the renovation of socially and economically marginal inner-city areas by higher status social groups – has become an…

Abstract

For policymakers and academics alike, gentrification – the renovation of socially and economically marginal inner-city areas by higher status social groups – has become an issue of rising importance in the changing social structures of developed-world cities (Smith, 1979; Rose, 1984; Hamnett, 1991). In the regeneration of deprived inner-urban areas, it is seen as a double-edged sword, its potential to reinvigorate local property markets and provide much-needed investments of social capital matched by its tendency towards displacement of ‘less desirable’ extant populations and social division between middle-class newcomers and incumbent working-class residents (Smith, 1992; Blokland, 2002; Butler, 2003).

Details

Qualitative Housing Analysis: An International Perspective
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84663-990-6

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Book part
Publication date: 12 September 2017

Gisle Solvoll and Terje A. Mathisen

It is demonstrated how an analysis of airports’ cost structures and the calculation of long-run marginal costs (MCs) of serving passengers and airplanes can be used as a…

Abstract

It is demonstrated how an analysis of airports’ cost structures and the calculation of long-run marginal costs (MCs) of serving passengers and airplanes can be used as a basis for setting airport charges according to the principles of welfare economics. Based on Norwegian data, the MC for an extra passenger (PAX) and extra air traffic movement (ATM) are used to set airport charges under the assumption that the charges should be equal for all airports in the country. When adjusting the estimates to meet revenue restrictions and comparing the estimates to current charges, we observe that PAX should be charged more and ATM less. This finding is in line with recommendations from the International Air Transport Association (IATA). When allowing charges to vary between airports, we demonstrate how a Ramsey pricing approach can be applied to set differentiated PAX and ATM charges, considering both the supply side (the competitive conditions between the airlines operating at the airports) and the demand side (the passengers’ price elasticity of demand).

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The Economics of Airport Operations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-497-2

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Article
Publication date: 17 May 2013

Graham P. Martin, Sarah McNicol and Sarah Chew

Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRCs) are a new UK initiative to promote collaboration between universities and healthcare…

Abstract

Purpose

Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRCs) are a new UK initiative to promote collaboration between universities and healthcare organisations in carrying out and applying the findings of applied health research. But they face significant, institutionalised barriers to their success. This paper seeks to analyse these challenges and discuss prospects for overcoming them.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper draws on in‐depth qualitative interview data from the first round of an ongoing evaluation of one CLAHRC to understand the views of different stakeholders on its progress so far, challenges faced, and emergent solutions.

Findings

The breadth of CLAHRCs' missions seems crucial to mobilise the diverse stakeholders needed to succeed, but also produces disagreement about what the prime goal of the Collaborations should be. A process of consensus building is necessary to instil a common vision among CLAHRC members, but deep‐seated institutional divisions continue to orient them in divergent directions, which may need to be overcome through other means.

Originality/value

This analysis suggests some of the key means by which those involved in joint enterprises such as CLAHRCs can achieve consensus and action towards a current goal, and offers recommendations for those involved in their design, commissioning and performance management.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

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Article
Publication date: 3 October 2019

Fahad Riaz Choudhry, Khadeeja Munawar, Bushra Akram, Yaser Mohammed Al-Worafi, Faizah Safina Bakrin, Li Ying Tey, Sabrina Anne Jacob, Goh Bey Hing, Tahir Mehmood Khan, Lee Learn Han and Anila Kamal

The purpose of this paper is to provide an insight into xylophagia, its treatment, intervention options, etiological causes and possible relationship with other diseases.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an insight into xylophagia, its treatment, intervention options, etiological causes and possible relationship with other diseases.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic search was performed across four scientific databases (i.e. Ovid Medline, Embase via Ovid, PubMed and ProQuest). All of the qualitative studies reporting on xylophagia from the inception of databases until August 2019 have been included. The quality of included studies was assessed through a ten-item checklist given by Kmet et al. (2004).

Findings

A total of 18 studies were included, and five primary themes emerged after analysis: precipitation/onset of xylophagia, co-morbid psychiatric or medical illnesses, assessment and investigation modes to confirm diagnosis, outcomes of xylophagia and treatment options comprising medical care, psychological care, counseling and duration of recovery. There were 16 females and 9 males in included studies. The mean ages and standard deviations of males and females were 29.25(12.17) years and 32.81(11.92), respectively. The mean duration and standard deviation of paper pica were 4.80(4.27) years.

Research limitations/implications

Despite the limitation that this meta-synthesis is based upon findings from case studies, results show that standardized medication regimens for treating xylophagia are still not available or are unknown. There is a dire need for further research in order to better understand the disorder. The healthcare professionals need to use reciprocal, mutually constituent influence of biological and sociocultural factors in order to screen, diagnose and manage complex psychological problems like xylophagia.

Originality/value

The findings advance our understanding of the positive effects of patients and family members undergoing counseling or cognitive behavior therapy in reducing stress and enhancing coping skills thus, avoiding self-damaging behaviors.

Details

Mental Health Review Journal, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-9322

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Article
Publication date: 18 May 2012

Emma‐Louise Aveling, Graham Martin, Natalie Armstrong, Jay Banerjee and Mary Dixon‐Woods

Approaches to quality improvement in healthcare based on clinical communities are founded in practitioner networks, peer influence and professional values. However…

Abstract

Purpose

Approaches to quality improvement in healthcare based on clinical communities are founded in practitioner networks, peer influence and professional values. However, evidence for the value of this approach, and how to make it effective, is spread across multiple disciplines. The purpose of this paper is to review and synthesise relevant literature to provide practical lessons on how to use community‐based approaches to improve quality.

Design/methodology/approach

Diverse literatures were identified, analysed and synthesised in a manner that accounted for the heterogeneity of methods, models and contexts they covered.

Findings

A number of overlapping but distinct community‐based approaches can be identified in the literature, each suitable for different problems. The evidence for the effectiveness of these is mixed, but there is some agreement on the challenges that those adopting such approaches need to address, and how these can be surmounted.

Practical implications

Key lessons include: the need for co‐ordination and leadership alongside the lateral influence of peers; advantages of starting with a clear programme theory of change; the need for training and resources; dealing with conflict and marginalisation; fostering a sense of community; appropriate use of data in prompting behavioural change; the need for balance between “hard” and “soft” strategies; and the role of context.

Originality/value

The paper brings together diverse literatures with important implications for community‐based approaches to quality improvement, drawing on these to offer practical lessons for those engaged in improving healthcare quality in practice.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

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Book part
Publication date: 30 July 2012

Joost van Loon

Purpose – Using Whitehead's notion of prehension in a critical reappraisal of phenomenology, a different kind of understanding of subjectification and objectification is…

Abstract

Purpose – Using Whitehead's notion of prehension in a critical reappraisal of phenomenology, a different kind of understanding of subjectification and objectification is being proposed in which subjectification is that which enables action as a multiplicity or virtuality, and objectification enables actuality.

Approach – A critical engagement with literature on objects, including Gabriel de Tarde, Alfred North Whitehead, Martin Heidegger and Graham Harman, is used to develop an original conception of objectification and subjectification. This is applied to debates about objectification in pornography.

Findings – This approach enables us to better understand the theoretical underpinnings of empirical philosophies such as Actor Network Theory in support of the argument that objects are capable of action. While subjectification is folded within the process of prehension as the opening of the virtual, it is logically possible to argue that objects are a matter of concern for ethics. This also means that in terms of the pornography debate, the pornographic object as such can be held accountable. We do not have to accept the instrumentalist argument that ‘what you do with it defines its ethics’.

Originality/value – The argument that objects are capable of action has thus far not been pursued in relation to questions of ethics as opposed to politics.

Details

Ethics in Social Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-878-6

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Book part
Publication date: 20 November 2013

Dennis M. McInerney and Ronnel B. King

The aims of this study were (1) to examine the relationships among achievement goals, self-concept, learning strategies and self-regulation for post-secondary Indigenous…

Abstract

Purpose

The aims of this study were (1) to examine the relationships among achievement goals, self-concept, learning strategies and self-regulation for post-secondary Indigenous Australian and Native American students and (2) to investigate whether the relationships among these key variables were similar or different for the two groups.

Methodology

Students from the two Indigenous groups answered questionnaires assessing the relevant variables. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to analyse the data. Structure-oriented analysis was used to compare the two groups in terms of the strengths of the pathways, while level-oriented analysis was used to compare mean level differences.

Findings

Self-concept was found to positively predict deep learning and self-regulated learning, and these effects were mediated by achievement goals. Students who pursued mastery and social goals had more positive educational outcomes. Both structure and level-oriented differences were found.

Research implications

Drawing on two distinct research traditions – self-concept and achievement goals – this study explored the synergies between these two perspectives and showed how the key constructs drawn from each framework were associated with successful learning.

Practical implications

To improve learning outcomes, interventions may need to target students’ self-concept, mastery-oriented and socially oriented motivations.

Social implications

Supporting Indigenous students in their post-secondary education is an imperative. Psychologists have important insights to offer that can help achieve this noble aim.

Originality/value of the chapter

Research on Indigenous students has mostly adopted a deficiency model. In contrast, this study takes an explicitly positive perspective on Indigenous student success by focusing on the active psychological ingredients that facilitate successful learning.

Details

Seeding Success in Indigenous Australian Higher Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-686-6

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1994

Graham Martin

Considerable attention is being given in the UK to the issue ofidentifying “what is it” that makes for success in health careorganizations. The HAY Group has developed a…

Abstract

Considerable attention is being given in the UK to the issue of identifying “what is it” that makes for success in health care organizations. The HAY Group has developed a worldwide database on the key human resource issues that are linked to success. Outlines some of the research. Drawing mainly on data from the USA, Canada, UK, Australia and The Netherlands, the research finds clear evidence of successful agencies adopting a strategic approach to the issues and then undertaking specific activities in organization design, management culture, rewards and management characteristics. Identifies a series of good practices and trends, and organizations can assess their own current position on a number of dimensions.

Details

Health Manpower Management, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-2065

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Article
Publication date: 5 October 2012

Sara Dolnicar and Friedrich Leisch

Academic researchers love multi‐category answer formats, especially five‐ and seven‐point formats. More than a decade ago Josef Mazanec concluded that these formats may…

Abstract

Purpose

Academic researchers love multi‐category answer formats, especially five‐ and seven‐point formats. More than a decade ago Josef Mazanec concluded that these formats may not the best choice, and that simple binary‐answer options are preferable in some empirical survey contexts. The purpose of the present study is to investigate empirically Mazanec's hypothesis in the context of the measurement of evaluative beliefs relating to fast‐food restaurants.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted an online experiment that asked respondents to assess evaluative beliefs relating to fast‐food brands using either a forced binary (n=100) or a seven‐point answer format (n=100). The authors also measured preferences for each of the fast‐food restaurants, user friendliness, and recorded the actual completion times for the survey.

Findings

The results indicate that the full binary answer format outperforms the popular seven‐point multi‐category format with respect to stability, concurrent validity, and speed of completion.

Practical implications

Given the demonstrated strengths of full binary measures, they should be used more by both practitioners and academics when measuring evaluative beliefs.

Originality/value

This study provides empirical evidence of the strong performance of the forced binary‐answer format for the measurement of evaluative beliefs, and thus challenges current measurement practice among academics and practitioners.

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

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1 – 10 of over 2000