Presents a conceptual framework for understanding the meanings of polychronic behavior for individuals. A “created” meaning perspective, arguing that cultural, social, and…
Presents a conceptual framework for understanding the meanings of polychronic behavior for individuals. A “created” meaning perspective, arguing that cultural, social, and personality differences influence how the meaning of polychronic behavior is interpreted at the individual level is presented. These meanings through a phenomenological study of polychronic behavior in the workplace for both traditional, “mainstream” Americans and recent Latin American immigrants are explored. Implications for managers and workgroups are also explored.
Research on polychronicity generally treats time use preference, context, and time tangibility as isomorphic variables that can be represented on a single continuum. An…
Research on polychronicity generally treats time use preference, context, and time tangibility as isomorphic variables that can be represented on a single continuum. An alternative model of temporality that treats these variables as independent dimensions is presented. This model is tested in a sample of 258 middle and senior level executives representing more than 200 organizations and 25 countries. Correlations among the variables and confirmatory factor analyses provide support for the multidimensional view of polychronicity. Further classification provided evidence that all eight possible configurations of the three variables can and do exist. The most frequent “type” reflected a polyphasic time use preference, low context, and high time tangible profile. This profile fits the description of Type A behavior pattern adding support for the multidimensional view.
This chapter suggests that, while researchers and teachers of university technology transfer often think exclusively in terms of patents and the Bayh-Dole Act, we ought to…
This chapter suggests that, while researchers and teachers of university technology transfer often think exclusively in terms of patents and the Bayh-Dole Act, we ought to adopt a more nuanced view of intellectual property rights (IPRs). In the text, I discuss the primary non-patent types of intellectual property (IP) protection, copyright, trademark, and trade secret, and argue that while patents are normally the “default” position when we think about protecting technologies and profiting from them, evidence suggests that patents are among the least important means of capturing value from innovation. Moreover, I suggest that while many consider that IP protections act as substitutes for one another, thinking about IPRs as complements is a more relevant approach to this issue. Adopting this more nuanced view better reflects reality and does a superior job of alerting our audiences to the opportunities available in the technology commercialization process.
This chapter examines the role of “continuations” (procedural revisions of patent applications) within software patents and overall patenting in the United States during…
This chapter examines the role of “continuations” (procedural revisions of patent applications) within software patents and overall patenting in the United States during 1987–1999. Our research represents the first effort of which we are aware to analyse data on continuations in software or any other patent class, and as such provides information on the effects of 1995 changes in the U.S. patent law intended to curb “submarine patenting.” Our analysis of all U.S. patents issued 1987–1999 shows that the use of continuations grew steadily in overall U.S. patenting through 1995, with particularly rapid growth in continuations in software patenting. Sharp reversals in these growth rates after 1995 suggest that changes in the U.S. patent law were effective. Continuations were used more intensively by packaged-software firms prior to the effective date of the 1995 changes in patent law than by other patentees, and both software and non-software patents subject to continuation tend to be more valuable.
The purpose of this paper is to explore enablers and constraints in value co-creation in sponsored online communities, and to identify firm roles in shaping value…
The purpose of this paper is to explore enablers and constraints in value co-creation in sponsored online communities, and to identify firm roles in shaping value co-creation. The structured analysis is translated into strategies for practitioners and for guiding future research.
The authors systematically review and synthesise the literature to develop a comprehensive model of value co-creation.
The literature review findings have led to the identification of four actors in sponsored online communities, revealed enablers and constraints for value co-creation in online communities, and provided insight into the simultaneous roles of sponsoring firm (co-creator and facilitator) and the interrelationship between them.
Like other systematic literature review studies, the findings are limited by what was reported in the papers selected for the review. The authors contribute to service-dominant logic (SDL) by bridging the macro level to the empirical level, and add to our understanding of the sociomateriality theory by capturing constraints and enablers coming from various actors.
The extracted enablers and constraints guide decision makers to better design, asses, monitor and support sponsored online communities. The findings also inform how to orchestrate the two sponsoring firm roles so that the online community is still attractive for the members and creates value for the sponsoring firm.
Given the variety of disciplines dealing with value co-creation, and given the plenitude of definitions and related concepts, this study consolidates the existing knowledge and models how value is co-created in online communities.
The British Unlisted Securities Market (USM) was created in 1980. The study looks at the financial characteristics of small firms which achieved flotation on the USM and…
The British Unlisted Securities Market (USM) was created in 1980. The study looks at the financial characteristics of small firms which achieved flotation on the USM and makes some comparisons, with small firms that remained private and with similar firms that were floated on the conventional stock market during the early 1970s.
One of the tenets of the conventional wisdom of the strategic management literature is that if a business succeeds in increasing its market‐share it will usually enjoy an improvement in its profitability. It is not simply that it serves as one of a battery of measures of relative performance, nor that, ceteris paribus, increases in the volume of sales must be linked to increases in the total amount of profits earned, but that increases in market share will directly cause increases in profitability, that is profits deflated to take into account the level of output. As might be expected, the strength of feeling that is displayed about the virtues of market‐share as a strategic tool varies enormously among opinion leaders. Those from the influential Boston Consulting Group (1970) are almost messianic in their exhortations to businesses to aim single mindedly for increased market‐share in order to move down their experience curves. Others, most notably from the Strategic Planning Institute, through its Profit Impact of Market Strategies Programme (PIMS), e.g. Schloeffer, et al., (1974), Buzzell, et al., (1975) and Gale (1972), imply the importance of market‐share by the emphasis they place upon its influence in their reporting of the results of regressing return‐on‐investment in a model which contains over thirty other variables.
Incorporating electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) in the design life of traditional satellites is entrenched in the satellite industry. However, EMC treatment of CubeSats…
Incorporating electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) in the design life of traditional satellites is entrenched in the satellite industry. However, EMC treatment of CubeSats has not been widely pursued, for various possible reasons. CubeSats are a young technology platform initially intended for students and researchers at universities to create awareness and excitement amongst them for space technology. This and other factors limited the need for stringent EMC planning. As CubeSats mature in complexity, the success of future missions will rely on incorporating proper EMC designs in their development. This paper aims to address the experimental investigation of known EMC culprits within a CubeSat’s context.
Electromagnetic interference suppression effectiveness of cable trays in CubeSats, as well as crosstalk in high-speed/frequency data links, is investigated, using the PC/104 connector stack. Some recommendations for improving the EMC and, therefore, enhancing satellite mission success are provided.
It was found that, if physically feasible in the CubeSat, cable trays are significant radiation suppressors. A further investigation into crosstalk between pins of the PC/104 connector stack showed that grounding a pin in between two signal pins leads to a significant reduction in the coupled signal.
This paper addresses EMC within the context of a CubeSat and outlines experiments done resulting in cost-effective methods of reducing interference by using already available material (such as unused signal pins available in the PC/104 connector).
This paper aims at advancing research on the identification and the first test of the primary steps companies follow to generate and maintain enablers of long-term…
This paper aims at advancing research on the identification and the first test of the primary steps companies follow to generate and maintain enablers of long-term marketing relationships in cross-cultural business. To achieve the objective, the authors first identify the communication difficulties in generating and maintaining long-term relationships in bi-cultural or multi-cultural settings. They then develop the building blocks, or enablers, that are needed to form and maintain enduring relationships. They finally illustrate the suggested process by describing the use of enablers in two contrasting cultures, the Anglo-Saxon and the Latin, using samples from the United States and Chile, respectively.