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Article
Publication date: 19 May 2020

Graham Gladden

The purpose of this paper is to analyse Cunard’s marketing communications during a period of significant social and economic change. The intention is to show, firstly, how the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse Cunard’s marketing communications during a period of significant social and economic change. The intention is to show, firstly, how the company sought to meet and influence potential passengers’ understanding of their travel needs and, secondly, how these would be met.

Design/methodology/approach

The companies’ marketing communications are analysed using Maslow’s hierarchy. This is a well known descriptor of human needs.

Findings

Beyond a description and review of Cunard’s advertising, Maslow’s model of needs is shown to provide a rationale to the company’s approach. In particular, it gives an understanding of the continued, though changing, use of images of the ship to meet the needs of different cohorts of passengers. It shows how carefully constructed images in both word and picture assuaged passengers’ concerns over social needs and how the company promised to meet the highest needs, whether that be for the holiday maker or the emigrant.

Research limitations/implications

During much of the period under discussion, much of the advertising design work was done in house. Though none of these files have survived, other sources of information (for example, house magazines and internal correspondence) provide an understanding of Cunard’s attitude to its customers and the business opportunities it saw in a changing market. Where specific dates for documents are not available, a chronology of ship building and use has been applied.

Practical implications

This paper shows how a well-established model can be used in a different way, adding to the understanding of a company adapting to changing social and economic conditions.

Originality/value

To the best of author’s knowledge, this is the first time that Maslow’s hierarchy has been used explicitly as a tool to analyse marketing and advertising material. Though the existing literature includes some discussion of shipping line posters visual content, there is little further discussion of their content or purpose in a changing social context. This paper provides a more structured analytical view.

Details

Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-750X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 April 2022

Graham Gladden

The interwar period was a time of technological and social change. This paper aims to understand how these changes impacted the marketing communication of mobility through the…

Abstract

Purpose

The interwar period was a time of technological and social change. This paper aims to understand how these changes impacted the marketing communication of mobility through the lenses of safety and of the changing place and role of women in society.

Design/methodology/approach

The research is based on a review of over 2,000 posters together with visual and textual material from the contemporary specialist press and company brochures, magazine advertisements and promotional film.

Findings

As women’s place in society developed during the interwar period, they became travellers and decision makers in their own right. Companies responded to and influenced these changes by encouraging women to take opportunities previously beyond their reach. However, even within this context, women were seen to retain a priority for safety linked to their more traditional societal roles. This message was set within the context of a wider safety communication dependant on the maturity of the mobility technology. Established modes of transport took a connotative approach whilst the new technologies (cars and airlines) were far more explicit in their claims.

Research limitations/implications

The paper provides an approach to understanding the impact of advertisers’ technologies (new or established) on the style and content of their marketing. As such it can be used in other areas besides those discussed in this paper: for example, in a comparison between traditional car engine technologies and emergent “green” alternatives.

Originality/value

To the best of the author’s knowledge, this is the first cross-modal comparison of marketing communications by companies representing the majority of key mobilities. Further, whilst there is considerable discussion on topics such as gender and motoring, other sectors (for example, women airline passengers) have been given scant research attention.

Details

Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-750X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 November 2017

David Clampin and Nicholas J. White

The purpose of this paper is to explore the nature of marketing communications of British shipping lines in the period from c.1840 to c.1970 to establish the extent to which these…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the nature of marketing communications of British shipping lines in the period from c.1840 to c.1970 to establish the extent to which these outputs reflect extant scholarship which points to the lack of innovation as a key reason for the demise of these lines.

Design/methodology/approach

The research is built on a survey of >450 posters plotting the shifting nature of advertising messages over this long period in response to the market. This is supported by reading trade press contemporary to the period to establish broader trends in marketing and whether this product sector was aberrant.

Findings

What is revealed is a generally static response in the promotion of British shipping lines throughout the timeframe, at odds with trends elsewhere. What stands out is the widespread criticism of the time singling out the shipping poster. This suggests an advanced appreciation of the role of the poster and the effectiveness of promotional messages focussing on emotions- versus a product-centred approach.

Originality/value

Whilst there is an established literature which suggests that the British merchant marine was hamstrung by a pattern of family ownership making adaptation slow, no research to date has expressly read marketing as a window onto that culture. This paper shows that whilst there may have been change within the sector which these British shipping lines responded to, when it came to presenting themselves in public via their communications strategy, they adopted a staid, conservative approach. British shipping lines, throughout the period, had a very fixed idea about who they were and what best represented their business irrespective of dramatic shifts in attitudes concerning how best to reach consumers. Interrogating promotional material, and particularly the ubiquitous shipping poster, provides another insight into the conservative and debilitating corporate culture of British shipping.

Details

Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-750X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 1966

THINGS have travelled full circle. There was a time when the Swedes were busy learning from our enterprise and experiences, especially in the fields of industry and commerce; now…

Abstract

THINGS have travelled full circle. There was a time when the Swedes were busy learning from our enterprise and experiences, especially in the fields of industry and commerce; now the position is somewhat reversed and we are eager to profit from them in such diverse fields as social welfare, labour relations, modern design generally, and what is more relevant here, librarianship. Sweden has also much to offer from its cultural life through its novelists, poets, artists and musicians, many of whom deserve wider audiences both here and in other countries.

Details

New Library World, vol. 67 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1996

Richard Harwood

Enforcement of regulatory controls has traditionally been left to the criminal law. In the last 15 years there has been an increasing interest in using civil remedies for this…

Abstract

Enforcement of regulatory controls has traditionally been left to the criminal law. In the last 15 years there has been an increasing interest in using civil remedies for this purpose. Most of the attention has been on financial services, but there have been recent developments in the UK planning system, which provide interesting parallels.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

Article
Publication date: 17 August 2018

Muhammad Kashif, P.M.P Fernando and S.I. Wijenayake

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of patriotism, nostalgia, drama and excitement of the game, and interest in star players to predict fans’ intentions to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of patriotism, nostalgia, drama and excitement of the game, and interest in star players to predict fans’ intentions to follow one-day cricket in near future. Furthermore, social influence is positioned as a moderator to enrich the understanding of fans’ motives to follow one-day cricket.

Design/methodology/approach

The data are collected by means of a cross-sectional survey conducted among 609 university students enroled in Pakistani and Sri Lankan universities. The collected data are analysed by employing a structural equation modelling procedures to reach meaningful conclusions.

Findings

The variables of patriotism, nostalgic associations, excitement and drama of the game, and interest in star players are found to positively relate to the fans’ intentions to follow one-day cricket in near future. However, the moderating effects of social influence only moderated with interest in star players, which has practical and theoretical implications.

Originality/value

The study is an original contribution to the field of sports marketing. The proposed relationships are based on social identity theory paradigm. Furthermore, the moderating effects of social influence and a multi-country data are unique to this study. Finally, in previous studies, football fans’ motivation and test-match cricket fans’ motivations are studied, hence one-day cricket as a context is also unique to this study.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1998

Craig Standing

Examines two myths in relation to information systems development and management. Explores them from the political perspective of securing identities. Uses two recent case studies…

721

Abstract

Examines two myths in relation to information systems development and management. Explores them from the political perspective of securing identities. Uses two recent case studies of Australian organisations to illustrate this. Argues that myths often serve to secure the identities of groups of employees. The use of the myths provides a way of exploring the political nature of IS development and management. IS departments often portray the image of being technical departments which rely on technical tools and techniques. In reality, it can be seen from the two case studies that the organisations have a number of informal approaches in the development and management of IT which in some cases can be described as being politically staged.

Details

Work Study, vol. 47 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0043-8022

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 1914

UP to the present the war strain has not had a great effect upon the libraries of this country. Issues have naturally fallen in some departments—particularly in districts where…

Abstract

UP to the present the war strain has not had a great effect upon the libraries of this country. Issues have naturally fallen in some departments—particularly in districts where there is a large floating population of aliens—but this has been counterbalanced by increased use in other directions. Many libraries have already been made the local headquarters of relief committees, special constabulary, the National Reserve, boy scouts' associations, etc., and as recruiting stations, and where there is sufficient accommodation, it is proper that the familiar library building should be so used for these emergency national affairs.

Details

New Library World, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

Article
Publication date: 1 May 1969

THERE has recently sprung up a great interest in antiques, probably due to Arthur Negus and his TV and broadcast programmes, and perhaps it is this which has made county…

Abstract

THERE has recently sprung up a great interest in antiques, probably due to Arthur Negus and his TV and broadcast programmes, and perhaps it is this which has made county librarians also, think about their past and their beginnings. Gloucestershire was the first to become aware of the fact that its library was fifty years old, and that a genuine antique, in the shape of its first librarian, still existed and could be questioned about the early days. So in December, 1967, the Gloucestershire Library Committee staged a most successful 50th birthday party, and invited me to cut the birthday cake, on which were 50 candles! And a very great occasion it was.

Details

New Library World, vol. 70 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2008

André Richelieu

Today, in the sports arena, the status of a sports team brand is vital. The purpose of this paper is to describe and explain how a team can become an international global brand…

2079

Abstract

Today, in the sports arena, the status of a sports team brand is vital. The purpose of this paper is to describe and explain how a team can become an international global brand. Following a conceptual approach, it articulates a model for a team's brand internationalisation and proposes four strategies relevant to the sports arena - Brand Reputation; Brand Affinity; Brand Challenger; and Brand Conquistador. It illustrates this internationalisation process via three case studies: Football Club Barcelona, Paris Saint-Germain and Olympique de Marseille.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

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