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The purpose of this paper is to assess whether firefighters display different decision‐making biases: either a liberal bias to accepting information as true or a…
The purpose of this paper is to assess whether firefighters display different decision‐making biases: either a liberal bias to accepting information as true or a conservative bias to rejecting information, with the former carrying risk of “false alarm” errors and the latter of “misses”.
Situation awareness (SA) and decision‐making biases were examined in Fire and Rescue (FRS) “table‐top” and Breathing Apparatus (BA) training exercises. The former involved showing 50 operational FRS personnel a powerpoint presentation representing the drive‐to, views and information related to the incident. The BA study involved 16 operational FRS personnel entering a smoke‐filled training building in a search‐and‐rescue exercise. True/False answers to statements about the incidents were analysed by a signal‐detection‐type tool (QASA) to give measures of SA and bias.
In both studies, there were two groups showing different bias patterns (either conservative with risk of “miss” errors, or liberal with risk of “false alarms”) (p≤0.001), but not different SA (p>0.05).
Future work will involve more realistic training exercises and explore the consistency of individual bias tendencies over different contexts.
Risk in fireground decision making may be minimised by increasing awareness of individual tendencies to either conservative or liberal bias patterns and the associated risk of respectively making “miss” or “false alarm” errors.
The results may help to minimise fireground risk.
This is the first evidence to show firefighter decision bias in two different exercises.
The Bibliography of American Creative Literature was started in August 1938 under the auspices of the Works Projects Administration of the United States. At that time Dr…
The Bibliography of American Creative Literature was started in August 1938 under the auspices of the Works Projects Administration of the United States. At that time Dr. Luther H. Evans was in charge of the historical projects under the WPA. The University of Pennsylvania agreed to furnish the necessary space and certain of the supplies, and Mr. Edward H. O'Neill, a lecturer in English literature at the university, was placed in charge of the project. He remained in that position until the suspension of the work on 22 April 1942. At that time there had been spent upon this project about $150,000, and a force that varied from forty to sixty workers had been employed.
WHEN the U.S. Army Air Force adopted its specification for anti‐knock petrol (Y‐3557‐B) involving the use of high jacket temperatures, relatively little information was…
WHEN the U.S. Army Air Force adopted its specification for anti‐knock petrol (Y‐3557‐B) involving the use of high jacket temperatures, relatively little information was available concerning the precision of the test, or the agreement to be expected among different laboratories. A short co‐operative programme was arranged, therefore, among several laboratories interested in the subject, to determine for the types of fuel likely to be employed in meeting the Army specification the agreement to bo expected from different laboratories using the specified technique and a brief study of some of the variables likely to be met.
PHYSICISTS are well acquainted with the relationship which exists between naval and the aeronautical problems. Although the specific gravity of water is a thousand times…
PHYSICISTS are well acquainted with the relationship which exists between naval and the aeronautical problems. Although the specific gravity of water is a thousand times greater than that of air, the similitude in their flow goes beyond the limits of mathematical analysis; but experiments in water, which have the advantage of being easy of application, although requiring certain precautions, have yielded a number of conclusions that have proved useful in the case of sections and other component parts of aeroplanes.
SIX years ago the present author contributed a paper on “Aviation Spirit: Past, Present and Future,” before the International Air Congress, London, 1923.
This chapter reviews three main issues in the interactions between air transport and high-speed rail (HSR) in China, namely the interaction between low-cost carriers…
This chapter reviews three main issues in the interactions between air transport and high-speed rail (HSR) in China, namely the interaction between low-cost carriers (LCCs) and HSR, HSR speed effect on airlines, and airline–HSR integration. Studies on these three aspects of airline–HSR interactions have yet been well reviewed, and our chapter aims to fill in this gap. In this chapter, we comprehensively survey literature on the topics, especially studies on Chinese markets that have recently witnessed major HSR developments (and have planned further large-scale HSR expansion in the coming years). Our review shows that, first, compared to full-service carriers, LCCs face fiercer competition from HSR. However, the expansion of HSR network in China can be better coordinated with LCC development. Second, HSR speed exerts two countervailing effects on airline demand and price (the “travel-time” effect and “safety” effect, respectively). Specifically, an HSR speed reduction can have a positive effect on airlines due to longer HSR travel time, but a negative effect on airlines due to improved perception on HSR safety. Third, airline–HSR integration can be implemented through cooperation between airlines and HSR operators and through co-location of airports and HSR stations and can have important implications for intermodal transport and social welfare.
Under this heading are published regularly abstracts of all Reports and Memoranda of the Aeronautical Research Committee, Reports and Technical Notes of the U.S. National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, and publications of other similar research bodies as issued