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Article
Publication date: 20 May 2019

Dyah Mutiarin, Achmad Nurmandi, Hazel Jovita, Mukti Fajar and Yao-Nan Lien

This paper aims to explore the dynamic context of the sharing economy in the transportation sector. This paper looks into the development of government regulations on the…

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1759

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the dynamic context of the sharing economy in the transportation sector. This paper looks into the development of government regulations on the growing business of transportation network companies in Indonesia, the Philippines (represented as middle-income countries) and Taiwan (high-income country). How do government regulations and policies respond to the growing online-enabled transportation service (OETS) in Indonesia, the Philippines and Taiwan?

Design/methodology/approach

This study is qualitative-comparative research. Data on the transportation sector of each country have been gathered from reputable online sources.

Findings

Authors found evidence that the policy responses made by the Governments of Indonesia, Philippines and Taiwan to the sharing economy in the transportation sector are incremental and trial-error based policies.

Research limitations

This paper has not addressed the policy issues’ relationship between driver and platform companies.

Practical implications

The future of the relationship between sharing firms and local governments suggests that the focus should be on stronger consumer protections, deeper economic redistribution and achievement of other policy aims (Rauch and Schleicher, 2015).

Originality/value

This is a comparative study on different levels of economy, particularly between low- or middle-income and high-income country.

Details

Digital Policy, Regulation and Governance, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-5038

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Article
Publication date: 11 February 2014

David D'Hollander and Axel Marx

Private certification systems (PCS) have emerged as governance tools for sustainable development, regulating social and environmental standards through global supply…

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1535

Abstract

Purpose

Private certification systems (PCS) have emerged as governance tools for sustainable development, regulating social and environmental standards through global supply chains. PCS are seen as essentially private and market-driven, but governments have engaged with them in various ways. There are also substantial differences in the institutional design of PCS with regard to the standard-setting process, ex-ante conformity assessment and ex-post verification procedures. Consequently, what determines the institutional design of PCS has attracted growing attention. This article argues that governments, through public regulation, influence the design of PCS, which in turn affects their effectiveness. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

First, a review of academic literature, policy and legal documents presents how PCS have become institutionalized in government policy, focusing on sustainable public procurement (SPP) regulation. Second, the authors explore the link between effectiveness and the institutional design of PCS by empirically assessing the variations between institutional parameters conducive to effectiveness. Data from the Ecolabel Index database were used to assess the presence or absence of four institutional design parameters related to the rule-making and monitoring mechanisms of PCS.

Findings

Public procurement regulations are important drivers influencing the institutional design of PCS. The buying power and market share of government spending is a potential tool for policy-makers not only to stimulate the adoption of PCS, but also for shaping their design and effectiveness. However, the impact of such policies is highly dependent upon the market-share of public procurement within a given sector. In addition to public procurement frameworks, other factors drive the institutional evolution of PCS.

Originality/value

The article connects two themes within the study of non-state market regulation; the growing interaction of governments with PCS, and the institutional variety and development of these systems.

Details

Sustainability Accounting, Management and Policy Journal, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8021

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Article
Publication date: 10 April 2020

Hong Yang, Yimei Hu, Han Qiao, Shouyang Wang and Feng Jiang

The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on the interactive conflicts between business and governmental authorities in the regulatory process of an emerging business…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on the interactive conflicts between business and governmental authorities in the regulatory process of an emerging business model: sharing economy. Focusing on bike sharing system, the study also investigates the conflict-handling strategy of bike sharing companies and government regulation.

Design/methodology/approach

An evolutionary game model is introduced to illustrate the interactive conflict between bike sharing companies and government regulation, combined with system dynamics (SD) to simulate the evolutionary conflict-handling strategies between the two players.

Findings

The dynamic strategies of the two players are observed, and under five conditions the conflict outcomes are evolutionary stable states. Simulations show that each party sacrifices part of its interest and adjust its strategy according to that of the other, indicating the conflict-handling strategy as a compromising mode. Furthermore, the strategies of bike sharing companies are sensitive to additional operation and maintenance costs for producing low-quality bicycles and costs of positive regulation, which provides theoretical guidance for regulatory authorities.

Originality/value

The station-less bike sharing come up in China recently, and it is an important research field of entrepreneurship. Owing to the uniqueness and novelty of the phenomenon, conflicts and challenges exist during the regulation process. Thus, the study practically contributes to the conflict-handling strategies of businesses and government under the context of sharing economy. Methodologically, as a novel issue with less available data to carry out empirical research, this study combines evolutionary game theory with SD to shed light on the complex interactions between businesses and government. The research method can be applied to other entrepreneurial studies.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Book part
Publication date: 7 December 2016

Songshan (Sam) Huang

Laws, regulations, and policies, including specific intergovernmental visa agreements, exert significant influences on people’s mobility and cross-border travels. Such…

Abstract

Laws, regulations, and policies, including specific intergovernmental visa agreements, exert significant influences on people’s mobility and cross-border travels. Such forces are powerful in shaping the emerging Asian tourism market. This chapter provides a critical review and analysis of the laws and regulations that have shaped Chinese outbound tourism. It first reviews the evolution of China’s policies and government attitude toward outbound tourism. The three tourism administration regulations promulgated by the State Council are then reviewed and their implications for outbound tourism are discussed. The Tourism Law enacted in 2013 is reviewed and discussed separately due to its significance and supreme power in China’s legal system. Finally, the chapter discusses the impact of intergovernmental visa facilitation arrangements on Chinese outbound tourism.

Details

The World Meets Asian Tourists
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-219-1

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Article
Publication date: 12 December 2016

Desmond Tutu Ayentimi, John Burgess and Kerry Brown

The authors propose a strategic-balance approach to local content laws in which less developed economies in sub-Sahara Africa can develop investment incentive policies for…

Abstract

Purpose

The authors propose a strategic-balance approach to local content laws in which less developed economies in sub-Sahara Africa can develop investment incentive policies for attracting multinationals and direct foreign investment but, at the same time, have a structured and operational framework for the enforcement of local content laws. The purpose of the paper is to identify the elements involved in the equation: the incentives, the potential spillovers and the criteria for evaluation.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach involves a review of the literature and the operational details and limitations of local content laws in sub-Sahara Africa.

Findings

The paper develops a conceptual model for a holistic understanding and management of this dilemma by policymakers and development practitioners to maximize the benefits of natural resources to less developed countries in sub-Sahara Africa towards the fight against poverty and underdevelopment.

Research limitations/implications

This paper provides the opportunity to influence policy direction in relation to the adoption of investment incentive policies and programs and the enforcement of local content policy guidelines and regulations in sub-Sahara Africa.

Practical implications

Multinational companies (MNCs) operating in less developed and emerging economies in sub-Sahara Africa should consider how their economic and corporate social responsibility activities can help develop the capabilities of the local workforce through training and development activities; develop domestic firms’ capabilities via enterprise development programs; and develop local firm’s absorptive capacities through knowledge transfers and innovation systems to support development activities.

Social implications

Policymakers in less developed and emerging economies in sub-Sahara Africa need to strike a balance in adopting investment incentives policies towards attracting foreign investments and the enforcement of local content regulations to make sure they derive the maximum benefits from their strategic resources. It is important for policymakers to understand that the mere attraction of MNCs into an economy does not explicitly guarantee domestic job creation; rather, it depends on how MNCs respond to local content policy regulations through their business strategies. Linking investment incentives with local content policy regulations at a critical point could potentially support and strengthen industrial development in sub-Sahara Africa.

Originality/value

This paper is among the first to examine the challenges of both attracting foreign direct investment and enforcing local content laws and regulations in sub-Sahara Africa. This paper contributes to the understanding of this dilemma and how less developed economies can manage such a crucial and important issue using our proposed strategic-balance approach. The contribution of local content laws and the design and adoption of investment incentives policies and programs to attract foreign investment to promoting sustainable domestic growth and development must depend on the balance between the enforcement of local content policy guidelines and the provision of such investment incentive packages to attracting foreign investment.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2005

David J. Slattery and Joseph G. Nellis

The paper examines how product innovation in the UK banking industry has been affected and is likely to be affected by changes in regulation and in government policy. It…

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6852

Abstract

Purpose

The paper examines how product innovation in the UK banking industry has been affected and is likely to be affected by changes in regulation and in government policy. It considers the issues faced by banks in pursuing a market‐oriented approach in this environment.

Design/methodology/approach

The rapidly changing regulatory environment in the UK is described and analysed, primarily in the context of the market for mortgage products and medium‐ to long‐term savings products. The paper describes the main events of the last 20 years and analyse their immediate impacts. The paper examines the most recent changes, identify the direction of policy change and consider the implications.

Findings

Empirical evidence suggests that the development of mortgage and pensions products has been closely linked to changes in regulation and government policy. This has resulted in an adverse impact on the brand values and reputations of banks. An analysis of the most recent events identifies two different regulatory approaches which banks now have to manage.

Research limitations/implications

A review of the literature shows that very little detailed research has been carried out into the impact of regulation and government policy on banks and financial services companies.

Practical implications

With this lack of systematic research and analysis, and in the absence of a theoretical framework, it is difficult for banks, regulators and government to make informed decisions.

Originality/value

The paper highlights and analyses an increasingly important issue which has not been addressed in any detail in the literature. The paper puts forward an agenda of research questions and propositions for further research.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

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Book part
Publication date: 25 August 2014

Ayomi Dita Rarasati, Bambang Trigunarsyah and Eric Too

This chapter discusses the opportunity of Islamic project financing implementation for public infrastructure development in Indonesia.

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter discusses the opportunity of Islamic project financing implementation for public infrastructure development in Indonesia.

Design/Methodology/Approach

This chapter, firstly, reviewed existing literature on Islamic finance to explore the applicability of Islamic financing in infrastructure development. Interviews were conducted as the first stage of Delphi method approach. This was then followed by reviewing Indonesia’s government policies and regulations in infrastructure industry and Islamic financing.

Findings

This chapter enlightens the implementation of Islamic financing on infrastructure project financing in Indonesia. The findings indicate that the government policies and regulations on both infrastructure investment and Islamic financing support the implementation of Islamic project financing, whereas, an improvement is still needed in order to overarch infrastructure business and Islamic financing investment.

Research

Financing framework development for Indonesia infrastructure projects.

Limitations/Implications

The result reported comprises the preliminary study of Islamic project paper written based on published research papers and interviews. Furthermore, the data collected for the study are limited to the case of Indonesian infrastructure projects.

Practical Implication

Islamic financing in Indonesia infrastructure projects development has not been optimally implemented. Therefore, this chapter serves as a catalyst to explore alternative financial scheme such as Islamic financing for infrastructure development.

Originality/Value

This chapter highlights possibilities and obstacles in applying Islamic scheme to infrastructure project financing. This provides a framework to analyse the steps to implement Islamic financing successfully in infrastructure development.

Details

The Developing Role of Islamic Banking and Finance: From Local to Global Perspectives
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-817-4

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 15 August 2016

Sarah George Lauwo, Olatunde Julius Otusanya and Owolabi Bakre

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the ongoing debate on governance, accountability, transparency and corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the mining sector…

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3020

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the ongoing debate on governance, accountability, transparency and corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the mining sector of a developing country context. It examines the reporting practices of the two largest transnational gold-mining companies in Tanzania in order to draw attention to the role played by local government regulations and advocacy and campaigning by nationally organised non-governmental organisations (NGOs) with respect to promoting corporate social reporting practices.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper takes a political economy perspective to consider the serious implications of the neo-liberal ideologies of the global capitalist economy, as manifested in Tanzania’s regulatory framework and in NGO activism, for the corporate disclosure, accountability and responsibility of transnational companies (TNCs). A qualitative field case study methodology is adopted to locate the largely unfamiliar issues of CSR in the Tanzanian mining sector within a more familiar literature on social accounting. Data for the case study were obtained from interviews and from analysis of documents such as annual reports, social responsibility reports, newspapers, NGO reports and other publicly available documents.

Findings

Analysis of interviews, press clips and NGO reports draws attention to social and environmental problems in the Tanzanian mining sector, which are arguably linked to the manifestation of the broader crisis of neo-liberal agendas. While these issues have serious impacts on local populations in the mining areas, they often remain invisible in mining companies’ social disclosures. Increasing evidence of social and environmental ills raises serious questions about the effectiveness of the regulatory frameworks, as well as the roles played by NGOs and other pressure groups in Tanzania.

Practical implications

By empowering local NGOs through educational, capacity building, technological and other support, NGOs’ advocacy, campaigning and networking with other civil society groups can play a pivotal role in encouraging corporations, especially TNCs, to adopt more socially and environmentally responsible business practices and to adhere to international and local standards, which in turn may help to improve the lives of many poor people living in developing countries in general, and Tanzania in particular.

Originality/value

This paper contributes insights from gold-mining activities in Tanzania to the existing literature on CSR in the mining sector. It also contributes to political economy theory by locating CSR reporting within the socio-political and regulatory context in which mining operations take place in Tanzania. It is argued that, for CSR reporting to be effective, robust regulations and enforcement and stronger political pressure must be put in place.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 29 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2015

Martin Samy, Henry Itotenaan Ogiri and Roberta Bampton

The purpose of this paper is to examine the public policy perspective of corporate social responsibility (CSR) implementation in Sub-Saharan Africa. There has been an…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the public policy perspective of corporate social responsibility (CSR) implementation in Sub-Saharan Africa. There has been an increase in the number of countries adopting a national policy for CSR practice, particularly in the Western society. Despite the growing awareness about the role of government in CSR promotion, governments in Sub-Saharan Africa are yet to evolve policies that could help promote CSR in the region. As drivers of CSR, governments hold resources, like access to regulated parts of society that makes the inclusion of CSR opportunities relevant to strategic and operational management. From the extant literature, the role of government in defining and shaping the field of CSR is gaining wider acceptability.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a qualitative research approach, this paper examines the current status of CSR implementation, particularly from the public policy perspective in selected Sub-Saharan African countries. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with policymakers and policy implementers. The study adopted a thematic analysis and developed a rigorous phenomenological design to reveal the insights to CSR policy-making.

Findings

The findings established that the status of CSR implementation in Sub-Saharan Africa is influenced by absence of national CSR policy, CSR being mainstreamed in government constitution and CSR being a company initiative action to comply with international code of business conduct.

Practical implications

The results of this study could have policy implications for both executive and MPs of national governments for CSR regulatory policies.

Originality/value

In most developing countries, including Sub-Saharan African countries, the aforementioned institutional conditions are often an exception. There are both no legal and regulatory frameworks for Multinational Corporation activities and their socio-ecological impact, or such regulations may exist but are not adequately enforced (Rwabizambuga, 2007). This situation, unfortunately, has created a huge reporting gap between what organisations do and what they report regarding CSR. Hence, this original study adds to the body of knowledge for this region by revealing the central issues around the phenomenon.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

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Article
Publication date: 13 September 2011

FangLee Cooke

The purpose of this paper is to chart the sharp rise of informal employment in urban China in the last decade. It investigates the role of labour market regulations in…

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1434

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to chart the sharp rise of informal employment in urban China in the last decade. It investigates the role of labour market regulations in shaping employment relations for those engaged in this form of employment and their employment outcome. It also examines various forms of organization and representation of these workers and the extent to which these mechanisms meet their needs.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper draws on secondary and first‐hand empirical data. The secondary data come mainly from media sources and academic publications in China. The empirical data from interviews that the author has conducted with the labour authorities, trade union officials, workers, senior managers and owner CEOs of private firms in several cities.

Findings

The paper concludes that the inadequacy of the function of employment agencies, the absence of a functioning social security system for workers in informal employment, and the lack of effective enforcement of employment‐related regulations mean that the majority of the growing force of workers in this category will continue to be under‐protected and disadvantaged.

Research limitations/implications

This paper draws information from secondary data and a small number of interviews with key stakeholders in employment relations. Future research should conduct a larger study focusing on the views and experience of workers in the informal sector.

Practical implications

This study reveals some skills gaps and training needs for trade union officials. It also brings to the policy makers' attention some loopholes in the labour regulations and their implementation.

Social implications

The paper argues that providing decent employment conditions and work environment remains a key challenge to all concerned but is crucial to the well‐being of workers and their families.

Originality/value

The paper examines the efficacy of labour regulations in protecting workers in the informal sector in China by investigating the roles of different institutional actors. It adopts a relational and institutional approach to study the issue.

Details

Journal of Chinese Human Resources Management, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8005

Keywords

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