Search results

1 – 10 of over 52000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2015

Md Shah Azam

Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to…

Abstract

Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to economic and non-economic activities. Researchers have increasingly focused on the adoption and use of ICT by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) as the economic development of a country is largely dependent on them. Following the success of ICT utilisation in SMEs in developed countries, many developing countries are looking to utilise the potential of the technology to develop SMEs. Past studies have shown that the contribution of ICT to the performance of SMEs is not clear and certain. Thus, it is crucial to determine the effectiveness of ICT in generating firm performance since this has implications for SMEs’ expenditure on the technology. This research examines the diffusion of ICT among SMEs with respect to the typical stages from innovation adoption to post-adoption, by analysing the actual usage of ICT and value creation. The mediating effects of integration and utilisation on SME performance are also studied. Grounded in the innovation diffusion literature, institutional theory and resource-based theory, this study has developed a comprehensive integrated research model focused on the research objectives. Following a positivist research paradigm, this study employs a mixed-method research approach. A preliminary conceptual framework is developed through an extensive literature review and is refined by results from an in-depth field study. During the field study, a total of 11 SME owners or decision-makers were interviewed. The recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed using NVivo 10 to refine the model to develop the research hypotheses. The final research model is composed of 30 first-order and five higher-order constructs which involve both reflective and formative measures. Partial least squares-based structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) is employed to test the theoretical model with a cross-sectional data set of 282 SMEs in Bangladesh. Survey data were collected using a structured questionnaire issued to SMEs selected by applying a stratified random sampling technique. The structural equation modelling utilises a two-step procedure of data analysis. Prior to estimating the structural model, the measurement model is examined for construct validity of the study variables (i.e. convergent and discriminant validity).

The estimates show cognitive evaluation as an important antecedent for expectation which is shaped primarily by the entrepreneurs’ beliefs (perception) and also influenced by the owners’ innovativeness and culture. Culture further influences expectation. The study finds that facilitating condition, environmental pressure and country readiness are important antecedents of expectation and ICT use. The results also reveal that integration and the degree of ICT utilisation significantly affect SMEs’ performance. Surprisingly, the findings do not reveal any significant impact of ICT usage on performance which apparently suggests the possibility of the ICT productivity paradox. However, the analysis finally proves the non-existence of the paradox by demonstrating the mediating role of ICT integration and degree of utilisation explain the influence of information technology (IT) usage on firm performance which is consistent with the resource-based theory. The results suggest that the use of ICT can enhance SMEs’ performance if the technology is integrated and properly utilised. SME owners or managers, interested stakeholders and policy makers may follow the study’s outcomes and focus on ICT integration and degree of utilisation with a view to attaining superior organisational performance.

This study urges concerned business enterprises and government to look at the environmental and cultural factors with a view to achieving ICT usage success in terms of enhanced firm performance. In particular, improving organisational practices and procedures by eliminating the traditional power distance inside organisations and implementing necessary rules and regulations are important actions for managing environmental and cultural uncertainties. The application of a Bengali user interface may help to ensure the productivity of ICT use by SMEs in Bangladesh. Establishing a favourable national technology infrastructure and legal environment may contribute positively to improving the overall situation. This study also suggests some changes and modifications in the country’s existing policies and strategies. The government and policy makers should undertake mass promotional programs to disseminate information about the various uses of computers and their contribution in developing better organisational performance. Organising specialised training programs for SME capacity building may succeed in attaining the motivation for SMEs to use ICT. Ensuring easy access to the technology by providing loans, grants and subsidies is important. Various stakeholders, partners and related organisations should come forward to support government policies and priorities in order to ensure the productive use of ICT among SMEs which finally will help to foster Bangladesh’s economic development.

Details

E-Services Adoption: Processes by Firms in Developing Nations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-325-9

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 March 1993

Abbass F. Alkhafaji

Discusses the issue of privatization and its relationship with thegovernment. Answers the question of who should perform certaingovernmental services and why they should…

Abstract

Discusses the issue of privatization and its relationship with the government. Answers the question of who should perform certain governmental services and why they should be performed by that particular organization. Compares the privatization process in the United States and European countries. Finally explains why politicians do not resort to more private services.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 February 1993

Douglas Sikorski

There is no general theory of public enterprise, and the miscellanyof separate theorizations on the subject has created a conceptualquagmire. Examines the rather confusing…

Abstract

There is no general theory of public enterprise, and the miscellany of separate theorizations on the subject has created a conceptual quagmire. Examines the rather confusing state of the research on public enterprise performance and behaviour. Contrary to conventional wisdom, it seems that in certain circumstances (as in the case of Singapore) public enterprise can be quite efficient, as well as an effective form of national competition.

Details

International Journal of Public Sector Management, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3558

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 19 June 2007

Stephen M. Mutula and P. Van Brakel

The paper aims to present the findings of an empirical study carried out as part of an ICT (Information and Communications Technology) data‐gathering exercise that would…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to present the findings of an empirical study carried out as part of an ICT (Information and Communications Technology) data‐gathering exercise that would culminate in the promulgation of a national ICT policy for Botswana. The purpose of the study is to characterize the ICT sector in terms of, among other things, the skills needs in the sector for the purpose of powering the emerging digital economy. Moreover, the study – through review of literature – extends, to cover the status of ICT skills for the digital economy both in developed and developing countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used qualitative design. Focus group discussions were used to collect data from key stakeholders in the ICT sector. The stakeholders included: ICT enterprises, Citizen Owned IT companies lobby group (CORBIT), Botswana Telecommunication Corporation, Botswana Power Corporation, business community, academia, and legal experts. Data collected were analyzed using thematic categorization. Results were presented using descriptive and narrative form.

Findings

The findings generally suggest that there is an acute global shortage of high skilled and hands‐on personnel necessary for steering the emerging digital economy in both developed and developing countries including Botswana. In addition, there is a serious skills gap for certified specialists to help develop the sophisticated applications necessary to power the digital economy and more so the applications that depend on it.

Research limitations/implications

The empirical part of the study was limited to the ICT sector of the economy in Botswana. A similar study covering all sectors of the national economy will provide a complete picture of ICT skills needs for the nation and its preparedness to partake in the emerging digital economy.

Practical implications

ICT, particularly the internet, is having a significant impact on the operations of business enterprises and is claimed to be essential for the survival and growth of nations' economies. Botswana Government has realized the folly of depending largely on diamond mining for long‐term economic development. Consequently, it is encouraging the development of the ICT sector as a way to diversify its economy and position itself to play a leading role in the global emerging digital economy.

Originality/value

This study provides a framework for ICT skills development strategies that can enable countries to participate competitively in the emerging digital economy.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 7 June 2013

Thomas Hemphill

On November 1, 2010, the Geneva‐based International Organization for Standardization (ISO) launched ISO 26000:2010, Guidance on Social Responsibility (hereafter ISO SR

Abstract

Purpose

On November 1, 2010, the Geneva‐based International Organization for Standardization (ISO) launched ISO 26000:2010, Guidance on Social Responsibility (hereafter ISO SR international standard), a document that integrates international expertise on the concept of the social responsibility of organizations in society. The purpose of this paper is to identify and critically analyze the reasons for and against business enterprises implementing the ISO 26000 SR international standard.

Design/methodology/approach

This analysis identifies the following reasons for business enterprises to implement the ISO SR international standard: first, the positive image of ISO as a globally reputable and credible organization for establishing international technical standards; second, the development of an international consensus among stakeholders regarding the definition and objectives of social responsibility as it pertains to the economic, environmental, and social impacts of business enterprises on society and the natural environment; and third, as a holistic reference for a management team interested in integrating social responsibility principles into enterprise operations.

Findings

From a general business governance perspective, the ISO 26000 SR international standard is handicapped by it being too broad in scope to be useful in the context of specific industries and sectors, too costly and time‐consuming for many small and medium‐sized enterprises to implement, and, unlike most other ISO international standards, it is not a certifiable management system – therefore leading to weaknesses in assessing its efficacy.

Originality/value

This article provides a comprehensive and thorough analysis of the “strengths and weaknesses” of the recently published ISO 26000 SR international standard as a viable business governance document.

Details

Corporate Governance: The international journal of business in society, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 April 2004

Len Asprey

Focuses on the requirement for business and government enterprises to address the problems associated with managing the various types of information assets, such as…

Abstract

Focuses on the requirement for business and government enterprises to address the problems associated with managing the various types of information assets, such as electronic documents, e‐mails, sound files, digital drawings and Web content. Outlines the challenges facing executives in managing digital and physical information assets, in order to fulfil their responsibilities to customers, shareholders or the public. Suggests that information practitioners should develop a thorough understanding of the business imperatives within their organisations, and use applied methodologies to analyse critically business processes, methods and tools. This approach will mean that the various information disciplines within enterprises will have to communicate and share knowledge.

Details

Records Management Journal, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-5698

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 January 2002

Ibrahim Kamal Abdul Rahman, Normah Omar and Dennis W. Taylor

This study examines the impact of privatisation upon the accounting system of a large government trading enterprise, with particular emphasis on the capital budgeting…

Abstract

This study examines the impact of privatisation upon the accounting system of a large government trading enterprise, with particular emphasis on the capital budgeting system. A case study of a major Malaysian enterprise before and after its privatisation revealed substantial improvement of the accounting system, particularly the component of budgeting. However, several difficulties continued to be faced by the accounting department of this enterprise. For example, although accounting emerged as “visible” in the organisation, its function was confined to narrow procedural aspects of budgeting, accountability and performance appraisal. The accounting department was also seen unable to penetrate into the “values” of non‐accountant managers and professionals, such as the engineers. The discussion of the findings in this paper are extended to a consideration of the potential for Malaysian companies undergoing organisational change to emulate Japanese management accounting systems approaches.

Details

Asian Review of Accounting, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1321-7348

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 January 1999

Averil Cook

In Australia, Government Business Enterprises (GBEs) are in the process of review so that they may eventually be run on commercial lines in a competitive environment. Some…

Abstract

In Australia, Government Business Enterprises (GBEs) are in the process of review so that they may eventually be run on commercial lines in a competitive environment. Some of the services that are provided, particularly by the monopolistic utilities, are non‐commercial but are required under various governments’ social policies. The GBEs that can identify and cost these community service obligations can be recompensed from the budget. The problems and benefits of the identification, costing and funding processes are discussed as well as some concerns raised by the corporatisation process.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 26 no. 1/2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 9 October 2009

Lihua Wang, Joel Nicholson and Jun Zhu

The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review and critique of what we already know about pay systems in Chinese state‐owned enterprises, to identify the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review and critique of what we already know about pay systems in Chinese state‐owned enterprises, to identify the gaps in the literature and to stimulate more research in this area.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper first describes the policy issues at the macro‐level (government policies) in order to put micro‐level pay practices in a pertinent context. Then the paper provides a detailed review and critique on current empirical studies on pay practices in Chinese enterprises, their antecedents and consequences. Finally, the paper identifies potential research questions and provides some directions for future research.

Findings

The paper concludes from the extensive review of the current literature that the following research areas merit attention: Why do some firms pay their employees more than other firms? Why do we observe different types of internal pay structures among firms? What are the consequences of these different structures? Why is the link between pay and performance weak in some firms but strong in others? Under what conditions pay‐for‐performance enhances firm performance?

Originality/value

The paper is one of the most comprehensive reviews of the literature on compensation practices of Chinese companies.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 December 2000

Sandra L. Fielden, Marilyn J. Davidson and Peter J. Makin

The success or failure of a new business is often dependent on overcoming a series of potential barriers, eg securing sufficient financial backing, adequate and…

Abstract

The success or failure of a new business is often dependent on overcoming a series of potential barriers, eg securing sufficient financial backing, adequate and appropriate guidance and training etc. Yet, in light of the substantial growth rate of micro and small businesses, there has been little research into the experiences of potential and new business owners during the start‐up of such enterprises. To date there has been no systematic study of this group in the UK, and many questions remain unanswered. This study of micro and small business during the initialisation and formation of new venture creation (eg pre‐start‐up, 0‐6 months and 6‐12 months∥ sought to answer some of those questions. It identifies the needs of new business owners, the barriers they encounter, and the strategies they use to overcome those obstacles. The findings indicate that financial difficulties and the attitudes of banks towards new business owners are the main barriers to successful enterprise creation, with mentors and more specific advice cited as the assistance regarded as affording the greatest benefit to potential and new business owners. In addition, small and micro business owners are going out of business, or are unable to fulfil their potential, because they are denied access to those factors that promote success.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 52000