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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2019

Dyah Mutiarin, Achmad Nurmandi, Hazel Jovita, Mukti Fajar and Yao-Nan Lien

This paper aims to explore the dynamic context of the sharing economy in the transportation sector. This paper looks into the development of government regulations on the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the dynamic context of the sharing economy in the transportation sector. This paper looks into the development of government regulations on the growing business of transportation network companies in Indonesia, the Philippines (represented as middle-income countries) and Taiwan (high-income country). How do government regulations and policies respond to the growing online-enabled transportation service (OETS) in Indonesia, the Philippines and Taiwan?

Design/methodology/approach

This study is qualitative-comparative research. Data on the transportation sector of each country have been gathered from reputable online sources.

Findings

Authors found evidence that the policy responses made by the Governments of Indonesia, Philippines and Taiwan to the sharing economy in the transportation sector are incremental and trial-error based policies.

Research limitations

This paper has not addressed the policy issues’ relationship between driver and platform companies.

Practical implications

The future of the relationship between sharing firms and local governments suggests that the focus should be on stronger consumer protections, deeper economic redistribution and achievement of other policy aims (Rauch and Schleicher, 2015).

Originality/value

This is a comparative study on different levels of economy, particularly between low- or middle-income and high-income country.

Details

Digital Policy, Regulation and Governance, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-5038

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2017

Tri Jatmiko Wahyu Prabowo, Philomena Leung and James Guthrie

This paper examines whether public sector reforms in a developing country is consistent with the principles of new public management (NPM). It examines whether Indonesian…

Abstract

This paper examines whether public sector reforms in a developing country is consistent with the principles of new public management (NPM). It examines whether Indonesian public sector reforms from the late 1990s to 2015, specifically the adoption of accrual accounting, are motivated by NPM philosophy. Reviewing and analysing Government regulations and reports, the study finds that the reforms are an attempt to implement NPM, specifically in relation to five financial management aspects (i.e. market-oriented, budgeting, performance management, financial reporting and auditing systems). However, the reforms are inconsistent with the NPM philosophy of efficiency and effectiveness in public service provisions. By requiring the use of the existing system, the reforms actually created inefficiency. This research is novel in investigating the gap between 'ideal concepts' and examining practices in an emerging country context.

Details

Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1096-3367

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Article
Publication date: 10 May 2011

Marianne Ojo

The primary purpose of the paper is to demonstrate how corporate responsibility and accountability could be fostered through monitoring and the involvement of governments

Abstract

Purpose

The primary purpose of the paper is to demonstrate how corporate responsibility and accountability could be fostered through monitoring and the involvement of governments in the regulation of firms.

Design/methodology/approach

In considering why practices which stimulate incentives for private agents to exert corporate control should be encouraged, this paper highlights criticisms attributed to government control of banks. However, the theory relating to the “helping hand” view of government is advanced as having a fundamental role in the regulation and supervision of banks.

Findings

Governments have a vital role to play in corporate responsibility and regulation given the fact that banks are costly and difficult to monitor – this being principally attributed to the possibility that private agents will lack required incentives or the ability to supervise banks.

Research limitations/implications

Banks are costly and difficult to monitor – this being principally attributed to the possibility that private agents will lack required incentives or the ability to supervise banks.

Practical implications

The paper illustrates how structures which operate in various systems, namely, stock market economies and universal banking systems, function (and attempt) to address gaps which may arise as a result of lack of adequate mechanisms of accountability.

Social implications

The paper also draws attention to the impact of asymmetric information (generally and in these systems), on levels of monitoring procedures and how conflicts of interests which could arise between banks and their shareholders, or between governments and those firms being regulated by the regulator, could be addressed.

Originality/value

Through its supervision of banks, governments also assume an important role where matters related to the fostering of accountability are concerned – not only because banks may have the power to affect firm performance, but also because some private agents are not able to afford internal monitoring mechanisms.

Details

Journal of Financial Regulation and Compliance, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1358-1988

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Article
Publication date: 6 September 2013

Shintaro Hamanaka

This paper aims to examine obstacles to international services trade in tertiary education. It specifically analyzes Japan's international trade in education from three…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine obstacles to international services trade in tertiary education. It specifically analyzes Japan's international trade in education from three different angles: status of international transactions of tertiary education services; the restrictions on international education services transactions as well as domestic regulations in education sectors; and the relevancy of domestic regulations in the education sector.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper first argues that obstacles to international education services transactions usually take the form of domestic regulations rather than direct restrictions, using the case study of Japan. Japan is an interesting case to assess since it has a strong desire to regulate the education sector and has been conducting regulatory reforms recently. The paper then considers the relevancy of domestic regulations in Japan's education sector by comparing them against regulations in other sectors where governments also have a strong desire to maintain regulatory powers, such as in legal and banking services.

Findings

While it looks that the Japanese education sector is free from restrictions on international services transactions, domestic regulations are the serious obstacles to trade. Japan's education industry has two principal problems regarding domestic regulations: unclear demarcation between the government and University Council; an emphasis on the restriction on new entrant rather than a smooth solution of “bankruptcy”.

Practical implications

As far as the business operations of foreign universities in Japan are concerned, the emphasis of regulations should be placed on the smooth solution of “bankruptcy” of these universities rather than the restriction of their entry similar to the case of banking sector. It should be also noted that the demarcation between the government and University Council in exercising power is ambiguous. Thus, both parties should maintain transparency in the decision‐making process.

Originality/value

Surprisingly, there are only a few studies that analyze Japan's tertiary education system in terms of the obstacles to international services transactions. This paper is one of the first attempt to examine the status of international transactions of tertiary education services and the restrictions on international education services transactions. It then considers the relevancy of domestic regulations in the education sector in comparison with banking and legal services sectors.

Details

Journal of International Trade Law and Policy, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-0024

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 16 October 2017

Hyukwoo Lee

Regulatory authority officials in Korea have been considerably strong enough to affect citizen’s intentions and alter their incentives to take new challenges. But, from…

Abstract

Regulatory authority officials in Korea have been considerably strong enough to affect citizen’s intentions and alter their incentives to take new challenges. But, from the result of steady regulation reform, absurd bureaucratic interventions have been sharply reduced. Corruption in the process of rent seeking has decreased too. It is impossible to exercise regulatory authority that infringes on the essence of the freedom of the people because people who live in a democratic society would not accept these absurd practices.

This chapter introduces some key features of the regulatory management system in South Korea as well as the challenges that need to be overcome. In particular, the bureaucracy has worked hard to chip away at past regulations that produce rents for various private interest groups but provide little to society at large. Regulatory quality is tied closely to democracy as maintaining a fair and even playing field for entrepreneurs is a key freedom. Introducing checks and balances into the regulatory system can be an important way to facilitate this goal. The Regulatory Reform Committee (RRC) facilitated to strengthen the logic of regulatory necessity and the logic of improving regulation which increased the level of its institutionalization.

Details

The Experience of Democracy and Bureaucracy in South Korea
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-471-2

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Article
Publication date: 13 April 2020

Hong Yang, Yimei Hu, Han Qiao, Shouyang Wang and Feng Jiang

The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on the interactive conflicts between business and governmental authorities in the regulatory process of an emerging business…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on the interactive conflicts between business and governmental authorities in the regulatory process of an emerging business model: sharing economy. Focusing on bike sharing system, the study also investigates the conflict-handling strategy of bike sharing companies and government regulation.

Design/methodology/approach

An evolutionary game model is introduced to illustrate the interactive conflict between bike sharing companies and government regulation, combined with system dynamics (SD) to simulate the evolutionary conflict-handling strategies between the two players.

Findings

The dynamic strategies of the two players are observed, and under five conditions the conflict outcomes are evolutionary stable states. Simulations show that each party sacrifices part of its interest and adjust its strategy according to that of the other, indicating the conflict-handling strategy as a compromising mode. Furthermore, the strategies of bike sharing companies are sensitive to additional operation and maintenance costs for producing low-quality bicycles and costs of positive regulation, which provides theoretical guidance for regulatory authorities.

Originality/value

The station-less bike sharing come up in China recently, and it is an important research field of entrepreneurship. Owing to the uniqueness and novelty of the phenomenon, conflicts and challenges exist during the regulation process. Thus, the study practically contributes to the conflict-handling strategies of businesses and government under the context of sharing economy. Methodologically, as a novel issue with less available data to carry out empirical research, this study combines evolutionary game theory with SD to shed light on the complex interactions between businesses and government. The research method can be applied to other entrepreneurial studies.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2010

Jingyun Ma, Fengming Song and Zhishu Yang

The purpose of this paper is to examine the evolution of China's securities market regulation from 1980 to 2007 and the dual role of the government in this process.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the evolution of China's securities market regulation from 1980 to 2007 and the dual role of the government in this process.

Design/methodology/approach

When the government is simultaneously the owner and regulator of the securities market, the evolution of securities market regulation follows a path of compulsory institutional change. China's Government authorities have played a dual role in this process by acting both as the securities market regulator and the controlling owner of the stock exchanges. The paper uses the evolution of China's securities market regulation from 1980 to 2007 to illustrate this theoretical framework.

Findings

Using the case of China, this paper provides unique evidence of how securities regulation evolves in response to government direction and supervision if the government is both the owner and the regulator of the securities market.

Originality/value

The paper offers insight into issues of securities market regulation in China and other emerging markets.

Details

Journal of Financial Regulation and Compliance, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1358-1988

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 November 2012

Andrew G. Parsons and Christoph Schumacher

The purpose of this paper is to examine the regulation of advertising by considering market‐driven firms (those seeking to keep within the boundaries set by social and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the regulation of advertising by considering market‐driven firms (those seeking to keep within the boundaries set by social and industry norms) and market drivers (those seeking to stretch boundaries to gain a competitive advantage). Thought is also given to the costs of regulation and tolerance to the social purse, and the benefits gained by compliance and violation.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors develop a conceptual argument for boundary stretching where market drivers are present in a marketplace dominated by market‐driven firms. The authors then apply a game theory model to examine the conditions, the firm responses, and Government responses. In doing so the authors investigate incentives for non‐compliant behavior in a self‐regulated market and show that a firm can achieve a market advantage by stretching advertising boundaries.

Findings

Results suggest that when government takes a “wait‐and‐see” approach of partial tolerance, then the market driver can become the focal point for the market‐driven, and a shift will take place in the regulatory boundary. If the government is the boundary shifter then social engineers are taking advantage of artificial boundaries they know will not be enforced, with implications for campaigns such as drink‐driving, smoking, and domestic violence. Also, the market driver will gain a competitive advantage by entering a market‐driven marketplace through boundary shifts, even after incurring an initial penalty.

Research limitations/implications

The research demonstrates a need for research into marketing regulation to consider firm types, violation types, and tolerance levels. The study contributes to our understanding of marketer activity with two implications; first the firm is shifting the boundaries and redefining the market focal point as themselves, rather than violating the boundaries and setting themselves outside the rules. Second, depending on the level of tolerance that government has with the regulation of advertising, there is a cost to both the social purse and to market‐driven firms associated with boundary shifters.

Practical implications

A market driver, looking for growth opportunities, should try to enter markets dominated by market‐driven firms, and which have self‐regulation, while market driven firms should either look for regulatory protection or act collectively to wield power over third parties – for example forcing media outlets not to carry market driver advertising.

Originality/value

By introducing the concept of boundary stretching and allowing for market drivers and market driven firms, the authors show the effects of regulation (or tolerance) in a realistic setting and allow for the real‐world dynamics of a marketplace where new ideas create new focal points for social acceptance. This study also provides a clear illustration of the usefulness of game theory in marketing studies.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 46 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2005

Andrew Goddard

This paper is an attempt to theorise the recent changes to accounting practices in local government in the UK. The principal theory used is regulation theory, which…

Abstract

This paper is an attempt to theorise the recent changes to accounting practices in local government in the UK. The principal theory used is regulation theory, which incorporates aspects of hegemony theory and governance. Regulation theory attempts to explain major changes in national economic structures by examining underlying systems of capital accumulation, regulation and hegemony. Central to these structures and systems are the role and operation of the state and its institutions. Changes in economic structures will result in conditions, which favour different governance structures for these institutions; comprising markets, hierarchies, civil society, and heterarchic combinations. Several researchers in these areas have characterised “traditional” institutional practices as Fordist and are associated with a particular approach to regulation. However, the underlying economic structure is seen to be in crisis and a new Post‐Fordist regime may be emerging. Post‐Fordism is associated with new institutional practices, particularly decentralised management, contracting out of public services, extended use of public private partnerships and concerns for value for money, charters and league tables. The introduction of such practices may therefore be explained by the changes in underlying structures rather than as a teleological development of accounting. Moreover, some researchers have characterised such changes as representing a fundamental shift from government to governance. The very nature of the relationship between governance, accountability and accounting may therefore have also changed. These issues are explored in the paper.

Details

Journal of Accounting & Organizational Change, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1832-5912

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2003

Georgios I. Zekos

Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination…

Abstract

Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination of some legal aspects concerning MNEs, cyberspace and e‐commerce as the means of expression of the digital economy. The whole effort of the author is focused on the examination of various aspects of MNEs and their impact upon globalisation and vice versa and how and if we are moving towards a global digital economy.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 45 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

Keywords

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