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The purpose of this article is to describe some recent experiences at the United Kingdom Open University (UKOU) in setting up computer‐mediated communication (CMC) support…
The purpose of this article is to describe some recent experiences at the United Kingdom Open University (UKOU) in setting up computer‐mediated communication (CMC) support for housebound disabled or otherwise isolated students. The driving force behind this experiment was the important role that CMC has as an educational tool; it empowers and reduces isolation of remote learners. This feature of CMC has received little attention, for, hitherto its application within education has been linked mainly to its use as a teaching aid. Educators concerned with the issue of widening access to higher education may be interested in learning about the OU project and its outcomes. The note first describes the context of this application, by reviewing the multimedia approach to home‐based, parttime, distance education used by the UKOU. The key lessons learned from the use of CMC as an educational tool since 1988 are summarized. The current housebound student project is then described, both in terms of the design stages through to implementation of network activity and interim evaluation and review. Finally, some key points for others interested in implementing a similar scheme are summarized.
This paper examines the internationalization strategy of Gordon Ramsay Holdings Ltd (GRH) from its base in London. While a substantial body of research on the strategic…
This paper examines the internationalization strategy of Gordon Ramsay Holdings Ltd (GRH) from its base in London. While a substantial body of research on the strategic prerequisites for successful internationalization already exists, little attention has been given within this literature to the international growth of small, informally organized and entrepreneurially‐driven firms. The discussion also identifies the challenges facing GRH as it strives to continue its international expansion.
The paper utilizes various published sources from the general press, business press and trade journals to examine the international expansion of GRH on the back of the personal brand the charismatic Gordon Ramsay has achieved in culinary and media circles. The growth of the GRH organization is interpreted through a theoretical framework of strategic capabilities and relationships.
The analysis illustrates how critical resources and capabilities, branded reputation, and strategic relationships established in GRH's home market have been leveraged effectively overseas. The most fundamental challenge facing GRH going forward is balancing the opportunities and pressures for growth against the need to maintain the highest levels of quality in existing establishments. This “balancing act” has to unfold within an empire in which the entrepreneur‐emperor (Ramsay) has less and less time to devote to any particular activity or establishment.
The case illustrates the importance of developing and leveraging strategic capabilities and relationships in support of successful international expansion. Some of the unique challenges associated with the internationalization of small, informally organized and entrepreneurially‐driven (and branded) firms are addressed in terms of both problems and solutions.
The primary purpose of this study is to investigate the association between the family status and corporate social responsibility disclosure (sustainability reporting) of…
The primary purpose of this study is to investigate the association between the family status and corporate social responsibility disclosure (sustainability reporting) of large US companies.
The authors gathered data from GRI database as well as from Compustat. They use both univariate and multivariate statistical analyses.
The authors find that there is no statistically significant difference in the likelihood of sustainability reporting between family and non‐family firms of the S&P 500. They document important associations among the propensity to issue sustainability reports, the level of details of sustainability reports and certain firm‐specific and industry characteristic variables.
This study is focused on S&P 500 firms and may not be generalizable to smaller firms. Differences among family firms such as stock ownership and management control may affect sustainability reporting and are important topics for future research.
Society should be aware of the motivations and incentives that govern sustainability reporting decisions by both family and non‐family firms. The authors show that both family and non‐family companies use voluntary disclosure in general and sustainability reporting in particular as a way of mitigating regulatory, political and litigation costs.
No prior study, to the authors' knowledge, has examined the association between sustainability reporting and the family status of firms. The authors include suggestions for future research in this area and hope that their study will provide motivation and guidance to researchers to study this topic further.
Law enforcement social control policies over black Americans can be traced back to early policing. From the development of the “patroller” system (established in 1794 to…
Law enforcement social control policies over black Americans can be traced back to early policing. From the development of the “patroller” system (established in 1794 to systematically police slaves) to contemporary police militarization, the relationship between black Americans and the police has been defined by bitter conflict that continuously results in outward expressions of discontent and protests. Recent examples abound, including the Los Angeles riots in the 1990s, the aftermath of the murder of Michael Brown in Ferguson, Missouri, as well as the protests sparked by the deaths of Eric Garner and Freddie Gray. Indeed, social, political, and media speculation has placed police behavior under heavy scrutiny. Questions abound regarding the fairness, appropriateness, legality, and legitimacy of police methods, as critics have accused policing agencies of adopting punitive and repressive measures that target communities of color (and act as provocation for rioting). This chapter will use a critical lens to first investigate the historical social control strategies used against communities of color by law enforcement (beginning with antebellum “beat companies” to more contemporary “broken windows” policies). Next, the author observes that, in addition to institutional evolution, police behavior (specifically related to community policing and responses to community protests) have accordingly shifted since the nineteenth century. For example, the author discusses the three current strategies of protest management (escalated force, negotiated management, and strategic incapacitation) that have all been embraced to varying degrees with relationship to police response to black community protests. Last, the author explores the iterative process of police “command and control” policies and black community protests, noting that these competing forces have “coevolved,” mirroring one another, and feature antagonistic attitudes from both sides.
This paper presents the theoretical rationale for further development of a model for the assessment and management of intraorganizational conflict. The purpose of such a…
This paper presents the theoretical rationale for further development of a model for the assessment and management of intraorganizational conflict. The purpose of such a model would be to assist employees, managers, human resources practitioners, and external service providers in selecting the most appropriate conflict management strategy for a given conflict. The framework presented builds on the previous work of Sheppard (1984) and Elangovan (1995, 1998) in suggesting that a contingency‐based model of strategy selection must include attention to characteristics of the conflict, desired outcomes of the participants, and awareness of available conflict management strategies. By expanding the range of conflicts and conflict management strategies typically included within a single model, the framework presented here forms the basis of a comprehensive model for dealing with intraorganizational conflict.
Discusses the 6th ITCRR, its breadth of textile and clothing research activity, plus the encouragement given to workers in this field and its related areas. States that…
Discusses the 6th ITCRR, its breadth of textile and clothing research activity, plus the encouragement given to workers in this field and its related areas. States that, within the newer research areas under the microscope of the community involved, technical textiles focuses on new, ‘smart’ garments and the initiatives in this field in both the UK and the international community at large. Covers this subject at length.
At a recent inquest upon the body of a woman who was alleged to have died as the result of taking certain drugs for an improper purpose, one of the witnesses described himself as “an analyst and manufacturing chemist,” but when asked by the coroner what qualifications he had, he replied : “I have no qualifications whatever. What I know I learned from my father, who was a well‐known ‘F.C.S.’” Comment on the “F.C.S.” is needless.
Understanding and predicting the emergence of venture initiation entails research to explore the antecedents of entrepreneurial intention (EI) and behavior. This book…
Understanding and predicting the emergence of venture initiation entails research to explore the antecedents of entrepreneurial intention (EI) and behavior. This book chapter aims to provide an overview on the role of exogenous factors (entrepreneurship education), contextual and environmental factors (perceived entrepreneurial motivators and barriers) in developing EIs and behavior among the university graduates. It also highlights the different strands of opinion and research on the role that formal entrepreneurship programs may (or may not) play in developing EI and action. This book chapter further provides some developments on the factors mentioned above among the different Asian countries while using Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM). Since 1999 GEM reports have been a key source of comparable data across a large variety of countries on attitudes toward entrepreneurship, start-up, established business activities, and aspirations of entrepreneurs for their businesses.