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Article

María Ascensión Molina Huertas, Francisco J. Del Campo Gomis, David Bernardo López Lluch and Asunción María Agulló Torres

The aim of this article is to analyse the opinions (and the differences among them) of golf players, golf courses managers and the general population about the economic…

Abstract

The aim of this article is to analyse the opinions (and the differences among them) of golf players, golf courses managers and the general population about the economic and social impact of golf courses in a tourist destination (Alicante province, in Spain) from the data collected in three surveys. Golf players and golf courses managers have a more positive opinion about this economic and social impact than the population in the province. This is due to the knowledge of the first group about golf industry benefits. Therefore, communication about these social and economic benefits of golf courses has to be increased with the population in the area in order to improve their opinion about them.

Details

World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 6 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5961

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Article

Michelle M. Arthur, Robert G. Del Campo and Harry J. van Buren

The purpose of this paper is to consider whether golf functions as a networking barrier for women in professions that require networking for career success.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to consider whether golf functions as a networking barrier for women in professions that require networking for career success.

Design/methodology/approach

Data from 496 golf courses, in addition to demographic data and data about salaries in sales, managerial, and marketing and sales professions in the USA, were used to assess if differences in tee box placement between men's and women's tees would predict participation and salaries in networking‐oriented professions.

Findings

The analyses indicate that differences in tee box placement between men's and women's tees did predict differences in participation and salaries in networking‐oriented professions. It was found that the greater the distance between men's and women's tees, the lower the salaries and participation rate for women. This effect was greatest for the marketing and sales profession.

Research limitations/implications

Golf is one networking barrier among many, and so other networking barriers that have deleterious effects on women's advancement and success should be explored. Further research might include observational studies of mixed‐gender golf groups, and might also explore whether women choose not to pursue networking occupations or women are not selected for jobs that require networking on the golf course.

Social implications

Companies should be aware of how venues selected for networking might have disparate impacts for men and women, and select venues that are as gender‐neutral as possible.

Originality/value

This paper is, to the authors' knowledge, the first empirical investigation of gender relations in non‐traditional work settings with female participation and earnings in occupations that require networking for career success.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article

William Deddis

Notes that the development appraisal seeks to establish thepotential use value of land as a golf course. Points out that achievingoptimum productivity may be seriously…

Abstract

Notes that the development appraisal seeks to establish the potential use value of land as a golf course. Points out that achieving optimum productivity may be seriously hampered by the “conservatism” of planning authorities reluctant to allow added value in the form of other facilities, particularly any associated housing development and especially in metropolitan greenbelts. Concludes that developers will recognise the need to initiate market researched appraisal‐led schemes and planners will have to reconcile market forces with environmental objectives.

Details

Journal of Property Valuation and Investment, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-2712

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Article

Jinsoo Hwang, Heesup Han and Seung-woo Choo

The purpose of this study was to examine the antecedents and consequences of brand prestige in the private country club industry. More specifically, it was proposed that…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to examine the antecedents and consequences of brand prestige in the private country club industry. More specifically, it was proposed that five attributes of a private country club form brand prestige: golf course conditions, service quality during a round, food and beverage cart service, golf shop and clubhouse food and beverage service. In addition, it was also hypothesized that brand prestige can result in three managerial outcomes: social value, brand attachment and brand loyalty. During the theory-building process, it was proposed that brand consciousness moderates the relationship between brand prestige and its outcome variables.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the theoretical relationships between the conceptual constructs, a model was proposed and then tested utilizing data collected from 290 amateur golfers in the USA.

Findings

Data analysis results show that four attributes of a private country club (all except for food and beverage cart service) help to enhance brand prestige and, thus, aid in the creation of social value, brand attachment and brand loyalty. Lastly, brand consciousness plays a moderating role in the relationship between brand prestige and brand loyalty.

Practical implications

First, private country clubs are required to consider golf course management before (e.g. hiring top golf architects) and after operating the club (e.g. hiring competent golf course managers). Second, private country clubs need golf course rangers with much experience who can properly manage pace of play. Third, the golf shop needs to prepare diverse souvenirs that well symbolize the private country club. Fourth, the clubhouse at private country clubs needs to provide services at the same level as that found in fine dining restaurants.

Originality/value

Despite the important role played by the prestigious image, no research has attempted to empirically test its influence on the private country club industry. Therefore, this study is the first to apply the concept of brand prestige to the private country club industry. In this regard, the study extends the existing literature on brand prestige by finding the antecedents and consequences in the private country club industry.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 27 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article

Vivienne Shaw and Justin Alderson

Presents the findings of a study of the marketing activities of 61new golf developments opened since 1990. Suggests that, owing toincreasing demand for golf, developers…

Abstract

Presents the findings of a study of the marketing activities of 61 new golf developments opened since 1990. Suggests that, owing to increasing demand for golf, developers should have no difficulty in attracting golfers, but finds that the majority of the new facilities have failed to understand the nature of the demand. Concludes that it is their failure to employ marketing activities which has led, in many cases, to a mismatch between supply and demand.

Details

Journal of Marketing Practice: Applied Marketing Science, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2538

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Article

Hyun-Duck Kim and Angelita Bautista Cruz

The purpose of this paper is to summarize the results of existing studies that addressed the relationship between the selection attributes of golf businesses and golfers…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to summarize the results of existing studies that addressed the relationship between the selection attributes of golf businesses and golfers’ satisfaction in South Korea.

Design/methodology/approach

Studies on the relationship between selection attributes and satisfaction per golf facility type were retrieved from the Korean Citation Index. Using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis version 2, the effect sizes (ESs) for the following relationships were calculated: between selection attributes and satisfaction with golf facilities in general; between selection attributes and satisfaction per distinct golf facility types (outdoor golf courses vs screen golf facilities); and between the sub-factors of selection attributes and satisfaction per golf facility.

Findings

Medium ESs were found between selection attributes and satisfaction with golf facilities in general (0.394), outdoor golf courses (0.336) and screen golf facilities (0.370). The choice attribute factors of accessibility, employees and concession had large effects on golfers’ satisfaction with outdoor golf courses, while services and concession had large effects on golfers’ satisfaction with screen golf facilities.

Originality/value

Among many Asian countries, golf is extremely popular and attracts more business than other sports; however, changes in consumer viewpoints and business trends necessitate consistent refinement. This meta-analytic approach offered a macro perspective on how golf facility administrators might sustain and develop their businesses by highlighting what choice attributes matter most to golf consumers.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article

Agustín Sánchez‐Medina, Leonardo Romero‐Quintero and Ángel Gutiérrez‐Padrón

Given the significant proliferation of golf courses in recent years, with around 6,500 in Europe alone, and the impact of their exploitation on the environment, it would

Abstract

Purpose

Given the significant proliferation of golf courses in recent years, with around 6,500 in Europe alone, and the impact of their exploitation on the environment, it would be interesting for those responsible for golf courses to have an easy‐to‐use tool that contributes to the control of environmental management and the environmental impact of those courses. The objective of the work is to provide an easy‐to‐use tool that permits an evaluation of the environmental behaviour of golf courses.

Design/methodology/approach

The research methodology applied in this work was the review of secondary sources of data and, more importantly, in‐depth interviews with experts.

Findings

The proposed model comprises two dimensions – operational behaviour and environmental management – with different categories established for each. Each category comprises a series of indicators that facilitate the measurement of the categories. The model permits comparisons at an overall level, for each dimension or category and even for each indicator.

Practical implications

The principal implications concern golf course managers and greenkeepers, who will have a tool that contributes to the integrated and simple control of the most important environmental variables.

Originality/value

The main contribution lies in establishing a tool which, in the fashion of the Balanced Scorecard, includes the principal environmental impacts of golf courses in a coherent and integrated manner. Moreover, by means of a simple indexing system, the tool enables measures to be established that synthesise impacts of a similar character in a single value, which will make more effective control possible.

Details

Measuring Business Excellence, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-3047

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Book part

Arch G. Woodside

Chapter 16 is an introduction to systems thinking and analyzing the system dynamics of relationships within an organization or between organizations. Systems thinking…

Abstract

Synopsis

Chapter 16 is an introduction to systems thinking and analyzing the system dynamics of relationships within an organization or between organizations. Systems thinking builds on the propositions that (1) all variables or conditions have both dependent and independent relationships, (2) lag effects occur in relationships, (3) feedback relationships occur (e.g., A→B→C→A), and (4) seemingly minor relationships (i.e., “hidden demons”) have huge influence in causing a set of relationships (i.e., a system) to implode or explode. The propositions of building and testing a set of relationships apply in many contexts; this chapter examines systems thinking and system dynamics in one context as an introduction to this stream of case study research. Hall (1976) provides details of an advanced application of systems dynamics research – do not be fooled by the date of the study; Hall (1976) is an exceptional up-to-date case research study using system dynamics modeling. This chapter describes the issues and criticisms concerning golf, tourism, and the environment and considers how golf–tourism–environment relationships might achieve economic well-being for a region while avoiding vicious cycles of destruction to local environments and the quality of life of local residents. The examination proposes the use of systems thinking, cause mapping, and system dynamics modeling and simulations of golf, tourism, and environmental relationships to help achieve workable solutions agreeable to all stakeholders. Sustainable relationships that include golf, tourism, and environmental objectives require crafting government policies via stakeholder participation of all parties that such relationships affect – recognizing and enabling this requirement needs to be done explicitly – to reduce conflicts among stakeholders and avoid system failures.

Details

Case Study Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-461-4

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Article

Donald G. Sinclair and Ernest P. Boger

The purpose of this paper is to advance the sport of golf as a compelling enhancement of the Caribbean region tourism product and assess prospects for the development of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to advance the sport of golf as a compelling enhancement of the Caribbean region tourism product and assess prospects for the development of golf tourism in Guyana, catalysed by World Cup Cricket, 2007.

Design/methodology/approach

Documentation derived from leading researchers in the field certify contemporary golfing's international steep growth curve and global tourism implications. Additional theoretical issues include environmental consequences of Caribbean golf course development are explored. Attention is then directed toward analysis of golfing infrastructure/superstructure in Guyana.

Findings

Participation in the sport of golf is indeed experiencing a major global upswing, especially among non‐traditional devotees, largely due to the high international profiles of non‐traditional golf professionals exemplified by Tiger Woods and Vijay Singh. While some Caribbean destinations will profit considerably, the golf tourism carrying capacity of Guyana will require major upgrading to reap significant benefits.

Research limitations/implications

The implications should constitute a clear wake‐up call to Guyana and other Caribbean regional tourism establishments if golf tourism is to be taken seriously as an enrichment component of the tourism product available to participants of CWC 2007.

Practical implications

Tourism planners and developers will be able to utilize these findings as a road map to establishing or enhancing golf tourism in their respective destinations, particularly in the Caribbean region.

Originality/value

The authors believe that their particular conceptual approach to the challenge of exploiting the potential golf tourism windfall from CWC 2007 represents a valuable contribution to the literature of tourism development and a seminal research piece that will find its way into the Professional Golf Management degree curriculum resources of regional and international universities that have a legacy of post‐colonial national development.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 18 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article

Heesup Han and Jinsoo Hwang

This study was designed with the aim to examine the formation of golfers’ intentions to play golf on traditional golf courses by considering the moderating impact of their…

Abstract

Purpose

This study was designed with the aim to examine the formation of golfers’ intentions to play golf on traditional golf courses by considering the moderating impact of their outcome beliefs regarding the playing of screen golf. Other goals in this research were to test the mediating impact of desires and to identify the relative importance of study variables in generating intention within the proposed conceptual framework. The Model of Goal-directed Behavior (MGB) was utilized to make a precise prediction of golfers’ intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

The dataset was developed by distributing surveys in person at screen-golf cafés. A structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to evaluate the fit of the proposed model and assess the hypothesized relationships. Tests for metric invariance were used to examine the moderating impact of outcome beliefs.

Findings

Results from the SEM revealed that the proposed model predicted golfers’ intentions well, explaining significant amounts of variance. Desire acted as a significant mediator in the proposed conceptual framework. Compared to other study variables, both positive anticipated emotions and subjective norms had superior ability in generating golfers’ intentions to play real golf. Moreover, results from the test for metric invariance indicated that the intensity of golfers’ perceived benefits of playing screen golf affected their decision formation as a moderator, decreasing their intention to play real golf.

Originality/value

Research considering the impact of screen golf on golfers’ decision-making processes is rare in the golf industry. Filling this gap, the present study successfully demonstrated that golfers’ decision formation is sufficiently explained by the MGB, and their perceived outcomes from playing screen golf represent a possible threat to the traditional golf industry.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 26 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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