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Article
Publication date: 26 September 2008

Goitom Tesfom and Clemens Lutz

The lack of detailed statistics in many developing countries makes it very difficult to assess the effect of export support services on the firm's export performance…

Abstract

Purpose

The lack of detailed statistics in many developing countries makes it very difficult to assess the effect of export support services on the firm's export performance. Moreover, a fundamental factor that creates confusion is the lack of a straightforward causal relationship between a specific export support activity and changes in actual trade patterns. Despite these difficulties, the purpose of this paper is to show that an assessment of the effectiveness of export promotion and support services can be made on the basis of the perceptions of the manufacturers involved. The method is simple and informative.

Design/methodology/approach

This research is based on a survey of 88 footwear and textile manufactures from a small new African country, Eritrea. The sample size accounts for 90 percent of the overall population.

Findings

On average, the quality of the export support services is rated as satisfactory. This can be considered as rather low, as the export promotion policy of the government is much more ambitious. The results of the discriminant analysis are in line with the literature and show that small enterprises in Eritrea have less access to export support services than larger firms. This can be considered as a major failure of the policy as in the modern entrepreneurial export economy small firms play a crucial role.

Research limitations/implications

Although the sample size accounts for 90 percent of the population, it is relatively small. To verify the results it would be interesting to conduct a comprehensive survey that includes all export manufacturing industries in Eritrea.

Practical implications

The findings of this study are useful for export policy makers in developing countries. The presented method shows that it is possible to measure the perception of the manufacturers with regard to the effectiveness of export promotion and support services. It also allows to compare the performance of those services and to identify priorities for the policy agenda.

Originality/value

The study develops a simple evaluation tool for the effectiveness of export support services in developing countries.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 August 2011

Goitom Tesfom and Nancy J. Birch

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether switching barriers in the retail banking industry affect different age groups differently.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether switching barriers in the retail banking industry affect different age groups differently.

Design/methodology/approach

Questionnaires were administered to 188 bank customers of different age groups, measuring their perception of variables related to relational benefits, switching costs, availability and attractiveness of alternatives, service recovery and retention.

Findings

Results from independent two‐sample t‐tests and logistic regression support all five hypotheses, confirming that young and older bank customers differ significantly in their perception of switching barriers: relational benefits, switching costs, availability and attractiveness of alternatives, service recovery and the duration of time they intend to end their relationship with their banks.

Research limitations/implications

This study was conducted among employees of two higher education institutions. Thus, further research needs to test the research results in a diverse population.

Practical implications

Since younger customers are more likely to change their banks easily, if retail banks want to retain younger customers they need to offer more meaningful incentives to younger customers than they offer to older customers. In terms of practice the findings in this research highlight the need for managers to design different switching barrier packages for each customer age group.

Originality/value

Researchers in the past have found a close association between customer age and bank product usage and have shown that switching barriers play an important role in binding the customer to the service organization. However this research not only validates the switching barrier variables that affect different age groups differently but also elevates the role of age in banks switching barrier design.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 25 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 3 October 2008

Goitom Tesfom and Nancy J. Birch

The purpose of this paper is: to determine how offshore outsourcing firms in the USA are involved in providing assistance to education and training the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is: to determine how offshore outsourcing firms in the USA are involved in providing assistance to education and training the downsized/unemployed; and to conduct inter‐industry comparisons among offshore outsourcing firms to determine if there are differences in their degree of involvement in assisting education and training the downsized/unemployed.

Design/methodology/approach

This research is based on a survey of 51 firms in the USA that are listed as major offshore outsourcers and exporters of American jobs in “CNN's Lou Dobbs Exporting America website”.

Findings

The findings show that out of eight areas of corporate social activities included in the survey, offshore outsourcing firms indicated that they were least involved in providing or supporting training programs to the downsized/unemployed. However, we also found that offshore outsourcing firms were highly involved in providing assistance to charities and supporting private and public education.

Research limitation/implications

The response rate in this survey was similar to other response rates for research conducted on similar topics. However, the sample size for the study is relatively small and results from larger sample sizes are required to make empirical generalizations with confidence.

Practical implications

The findings of this study are useful for USA policy makers who are dealing with the negative effects of offshoring. It also provides direction to offshoring firms on how to alleviate negative attitudes toward offshore outsourcing.

Originality/value

The paper is the first to investigate the contributions of offshore outsourcing firms to education and training the downsized/unemployed as part of their corporate social responsibility. Thus, it makes a significant contribution to the literature.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2004

Goitom Tesfom, Clemens Lutz and Pervez Ghauri

The article presents a qualitative model, derived from the transaction cost and resource dependence theory, to compare the business relationships in the marketing channels…

Abstract

The article presents a qualitative model, derived from the transaction cost and resource dependence theory, to compare the business relationships in the marketing channels between footwear buyers in The Netherlands and Uganda, and their suppliers. The observed business relationships are used to design an export‐marketing channel for Eritrean footwear manufacturers looking for new export market opportunities. The findings show that the design of the export marketing channels for Uganda and The Netherlands differs as a result of the transaction costs involved. Taking into account the weak resource base of the Eritrean manufacturers, we conclude that it may be easier for them to enter the Dutch market than the Ugandan market.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 21 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2006

Goitom Tesfom and Clemens Lutz

The objective of the study is to derive a classification of export problems of SMEs from developing countries on the basis of a comprehensive literature study.

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of the study is to derive a classification of export problems of SMEs from developing countries on the basis of a comprehensive literature study.

Design/methodology/approach

The study performed a comprehensive and systematic literature review of 40 articles published over a period of 25 years (1980‐2004). The export problems are classified into company barriers, product barriers, industry barriers, export market barriers and macro environment barriers.

Findings

The study provides a modified qualitative model that can be used by future researchers to further their research endeavour in export problems of firms from developing countries. It also identifies the similarities and differences of export problems in developed and developing countries.

Research limitations/implications

The lack of extensive research on export problems limited the number of articles reviewed in this study. Thus, the results of this paper should be considered as a stepping stone for future research.

Practical implications

The export problems identified in this study can be used to develop a questionnaire for a regional or global survey of SME's exporters from developing countries.

Originality/value

The paper provides an important reference for researchers who intend to study export problems in developing countries. Moreover, policy makers in developing countries can use it to identify export problems that firms face and provide timely and effective assistance to SMEs.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2003

Pervez Ghauri, Clemens Lutz and Goitom Tesfom

The objective of this paper is to review the literature on how networks can be used in developing countries to encounter export‐marketing problems. Several case studies of…

Abstract

The objective of this paper is to review the literature on how networks can be used in developing countries to encounter export‐marketing problems. Several case studies of export‐grouping and subcontracting networks, involving small‐ and medium‐sized enterprises in developed and underdeveloped countries, are reviewed. The paper presents a qualitative model that identifies the determining factors for successful export network organisations: a clearly defined market problem or market opportunity; a willingness to respond together; development of solidarity, coherence and commitment; initiating foreign market activities. This model is useful to study similar initiatives in developing countries.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 37 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 January 2017

Sanjeev Shrivastava and Shrivastava R.L.

The purpose of this paper is to survey the technical performance of the cement industry including those related to procedures; groundwork of raw materials, fuels and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to survey the technical performance of the cement industry including those related to procedures; groundwork of raw materials, fuels and semi-finished products for processing; accessibility of machinery, plant and equipment for various operations; arrangement and process control management.

Design/methodology/approach

A broad range of survey and research was reviewed, and all revealed the methods to recognize the key influences for development of green technology. The study explores the present scenario of green manufacturing (GM) strategies of Indian cement companies and provides the industrial ecology, ways of reducing energy consumption, environmental impact data collection, design and control of manufacturing systems and integration of product and manufacturing system. It also reveals the problems in decision-making systems owing to the impact of the green product design. Here, in this paper, all information is obtained by the medium of internet, journals, articles, and magazines.

Findings

This paper describes a problem of global warming, gas, water and other wastages emissions at the time of cement manufacturing and put forward a path that enables decision makers to assess the perception of GM in their organization and in prioritizing GM efforts.

Originality/value

This perspective survey is to provide an integrative outlook of performance methods for GM practices in the Indian cement industries. It gives important information, which expectantly will help in cement industry to adopt GM practices. This paper fills the gap in the literature on identification, establishment, and validation of performance measures of GM for Indian cement industries.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 34 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 11 June 2021

Kingsley Obi Omeihe, Isaac Amoako and Veronika Gustafsson

In this chapter, the authors examine trust and social networks among entrepreneurs operating in a developing market context. At the centre of this study, trust emerges…

Abstract

In this chapter, the authors examine trust and social networks among entrepreneurs operating in a developing market context. At the centre of this study, trust emerges from the interplay of a range of cultural-specific factors, each of which describes how social relations shape economic action. Using case studies of exporting Nigerian small and medium sized enterprises, the authors document how exporting arrangements are enforced across West African markets. Interview data reveal how entrepreneurs take advantage of indigenous trust-based relationships to enforce exporting agreements. It is clear that exporting activities are shaped by trust and networks of kinship and market associations that permeate the West African region. This chapter facilitates a better understanding of trust and the range of indigenous relationships that underpin exporting activities in Nigeria and particularly across West Africa.

Details

Enterprise and Economic Development in Africa
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-323-9

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 23 September 2013

Nicholas Adu-Gyamfi and Tor Korneliussen

The purpose of this paper is to provide a framework for understanding the relationships between resource commitment, management experience, firm size…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a framework for understanding the relationships between resource commitment, management experience, firm size, internationalization, internal export barriers and export performance in firms. Specifically, this paper empirically investigates the impact of resource commitment, management experience, firm size, and internationalization on export performance, using internal export barriers as an intervening variable. These antecedents of export performance are selected because they are constraints that managers have an opportunity to influence. This study is therefore relevant to the managerial process.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey design using firms from Ghana was chosen. This was expected to be an appropriate population from which data could be gathered to investigate the authors' hypotheses. In order to test these hypotheses, questionnaires were designed to collect data from small and medium export firms in an emerging market. Data on resource commitment, management experience, firm size, internationalization, internal export barriers and export performance were collected. The data was then analysed by applying path analysis using LISREL 8 in testing the hypotheses.

Findings

Results from the study shows that in this market, firm size is related positively to internal export barriers, firm size and internal export barriers are related positively to export performance, and that internationalization is related negatively to export performance. The observation suggests that a large firm size and a good internationalization strategy are the most effective strategic options for enhancing firm export performance in this market. Another observation from the study was that firms in emerging markets lack the needed resource commitment to export.

Practical implications

Results of this study add to prior literature by identifying variables which contribute to the improvement of both internal export barriers and export performance in an emerging market (sub-Saharan Africa). The study provides advice to managers who are trying to improve the export performance of a firm in an emerging market and to policy makers about how an emerging market can improve its export industry.

Originality/value

This research work serves as an important guide for future researchers who intend to study export problems in other emerging economies. Policy makers in emerging economies may refer to this work to identify export problems that firms face in order to provide timely and effective assistance to small and medium scale enterprises engaged in export ventures. The paper believes the benefit of internationalization is realized as managers' leverage the learning opportunities accumulated over the years through exposure to the international market. Managers need to develop considerable capabilities and competencies to identify the specific barriers they must overcome in order to formulate appropriate export strategies.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

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