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Article

Danielle Mantovani, Eduardo B. Andrade and Paulo H.M. Prado

Previous research has investigated how performance outcome impacts effort and subsequent goal pursuit. However, little is known about the incidental impact of goal (non…

Abstract

Purpose

Previous research has investigated how performance outcome impacts effort and subsequent goal pursuit. However, little is known about the incidental impact of goal (non)attainment on consumer preference via changes in regulatory focus. This paper aims to suggest that performance feedback has a direct impact on consumers’ regulatory focus, which in turn influences their attitudes and preferences toward future events. Additionally, the authors assess the extent to which emotions arising out of goal (non)attainment play a critical role in the process.

Design/methodology/approach

In a series of three experiments, this paper demonstrates that goal (non)attainment induces a specific regulatory focus, which in turn interacts with the frame of an upcoming advertisement to impact consumer preference.

Findings

This research demonstrates that previous goal (non)attainment interacts with the framing of an upcoming message (promotion vs prevention) and impacts consumer preference. The authors also find initial evidence for the role of emotions on the relationship between goal (non) attainment and preferences for regulatory-focused message frames.

Practical implications

The findings have important implications because they reveal consumers’ preferences after goal (non)attainment.

Originality/value

This study complements prior research by integrating two research streams (goal pursuit and regulatory focus) to address an open question of whether/how goal (non)attainment impacts message persuasiveness and consumer preference through changes in regulatory focus. Therefore, this research is intended to contribute to the literature by addressing the interacting effects of goal attainment and regulatory focus on consumer decisions and the role of emotions in this process.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 52 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Book part

Simone Grebner, Achim Elfering and Norbert K. Semmer

New developments in concepts and approaches to job stress should incorporate all relevant types of resources that promote well-being and health. The success resource model…

Abstract

New developments in concepts and approaches to job stress should incorporate all relevant types of resources that promote well-being and health. The success resource model of job stress conceptualizes subjective success as causal agents for employee well-being and health (Grebner, Elfering, & Semmer, 2008a). So far, very little is known about what kinds of work experiences are perceived as success. The success resource model defines four dimensions of subjective occupational success: goal attainment, pro-social success, positive feedback, and career success. The model assumes that subjective success is a resource because it is valued in its own right, triggers positive affect and emotions (e.g., pleasure, cf., Weiss & Cropanzano, 1996), helps to protect and gain other resources like self-efficacy (Hobfoll, 1998, 2001), has direct positive effects on well-being (e.g., job satisfaction, cf., Locke & Latham, 1990) and health (Carver & Scheier, 1999), facilitates learning (Frese & Zapf, 1994), and has an energizing (Locke & Latham, 1990, 2002) and attention-directing effect (Carver, 2003), which can promote recovery by promoting mental detachment from work tasks in terms of absence of job-related rumination in leisure time (Sonnentag & Bayer, 2005).

The model proposes that success is promoted by other resources like job control (Frese & Zapf, 1994) while job stressors, like hindrance stressors such as performance constraints and role ambiguity (LePine, Podsakoff, & LePine, 2005), can work against success (Frese & Zapf, 1994). The model assumes reciprocal direct effects of subjective success on well-being, health, and recovery (upward spiral), and a moderator effect of success on the stressor–strain relationship. The chapter discusses research evidence, measurement of subjective occupational success, value of the model for job stress interventions, future research requirements, and methodological concerns.

Details

New Developments in Theoretical and Conceptual Approaches to Job Stress
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-713-4

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Article

Andres Barrios, Ezequiel Reficco and Rodrigo Taborda

The purpose of this paper is to explore the extent to which hope and perceived goal attainment can be developed in subsistence entrepreneurs through the right training tools.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the extent to which hope and perceived goal attainment can be developed in subsistence entrepreneurs through the right training tools.

Design/methodology/approach

A longitudinal study of a subsistence entrepreneurship training program in three Central American countries was carried out. Participants were divided on the basis of their exposure to training (yes, no), and of the type of training received (none, business plan, business model). The authors carried out three assessments (just before the program, six months and one year after the program) of participants’ business goals and their hope of attaining them. Information was analyzed using linear regression.

Findings

Participants exposed to training reported significant increases in perceived goal attainment and in their hope levels. Training based on the business plan affected hope agency in the short term, as predicted by the logic of causation theory. Training based on the business canvas affected hope pathways, as predicted by the logic of effectuation theory.

Research limitations/implications

Given the data collection process (a non-random sample and selection of participants), the findings are not generalizable without stringent procedures and further replication.

Practical implications

If hope is a reliable predictor of goal attainment, it should be promoted and measured. Given the limited means of gathering data and making reliable projections that most entrepreneurs endure, the business canvas’ contribution to entrepreneurs’ “emotional equipment” ceteris paribus should be more valuable for subsistence entrepreneurs.

Originality/value

This is the first study comparing the short- and long-term effects of two entrepreneurial learning devices on entrepreneurs’ hope and business goal attainment.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 61 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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Article

Ofer I. Atad and Anthony M. Grant

This study aimed to examine how the effects of traditional tertiary education (lecture format) on various outcomes – including goal attainment, psychopathology (stress…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aimed to examine how the effects of traditional tertiary education (lecture format) on various outcomes – including goal attainment, psychopathology (stress, anxiety and depression), resilience, solution-focused thinking and self-insight – compare to effects of traditional education supplemented by health coaching, delivered through Zoom video-conferencing.

Design/methodology/approach

The study, which involved mature-age Israeli undergraduate students enrolled in a health promotion course (n = 178), used a randomized controlled between-subjects (pre-post) design. Participants were each randomly assigned to a traditional-education condition (n = 90) or to a coaching condition (n = 88). All participants attended 13 weekly course lectures; those in the coaching condition also participated in weekly Zoom-based coaching sessions, with trained health coaches. Each participant completed online questionnaire measures at the beginning and at the end of the semester. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA.

Findings

Compared with participants in the traditional-education condition, those in the coaching condition showed, over the course of the semester, significant improvement in goal attainment, solution-focused thinking, self-insight, resilience and psychopathology. Participants in the traditional-education condition showed no change in these measures.

Originality/value

The authors’ findings suggest that health coaching, as a supplement to traditional lectures, can enhance undergraduates' goal attainment and multiple facets of their mental well-being. These findings may have significant practical implications for the vast numbers of students struggling to cope in higher education systems worldwide. The authors further suggest a range of alternative, coaching-inspired interventions that do not require development of a full coaching program.

Details

International Journal of Mentoring and Coaching in Education, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6854

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Article

Vincent Chong and Simon Tak-wing Leung

The purpose of this paper is to examine the joint effects of performance feedback, assigned goal levels and types of compensation schemes (i.e. fixed-pay, piece-rate and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the joint effects of performance feedback, assigned goal levels and types of compensation schemes (i.e. fixed-pay, piece-rate and goal attainment bonus) on subordinates’ task performance.

Design/methodology/approach

A laboratory experiment was employed to collect data. The subjects consisted of a total of 133 Australian business executives. The study used ANCOVA for data analyses, controlling subject’s practice trial scores as covariate.

Findings

The results provide strong support for a three-way interaction between performance feedback, assigned goal levels and types of compensation schemes on subordinates’ task performance. Specifically, the results reveal that the reliance of a piece-rate compensation scheme resulted in higher task performance when compared to fixed-pay and goal attainment bonus compensation schemes in the presence of performance feedback and assigned difficult goal levels situations. In addition, the results reveal that a goal attainment bonus compensation scheme leads to higher task performance when compared to a fixed-pay compensation scheme in the presence of performance feedback and assigned difficult goal levels situations.

Originality/value

These findings have important implications for compensation schemes design in firms that aim to achieve higher employees’ performance and organizational effectiveness.

Details

Asian Review of Accounting, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1321-7348

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Article

Jason Skues, Sarah-Louise Alexander and Lisa Wise

The purpose of this paper was to examine whether there is a relationship between goal attainment and overall training satisfaction among vocational education and training…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to examine whether there is a relationship between goal attainment and overall training satisfaction among vocational education and training (VET) completers, and in turn whether this relationship varies across the different goals for undertaking training in a VET course.

Design/methodology/approach

A request was made to the National Centre for Vocational Education Research in Australia for access to the unit record data from the 2016 Student Outcomes Survey. Approval was obtained. The final sample comprised 149,632 students who completed a VET course in 2016, where 55 per cent of the sample were women and the average age was 36.55 years (SD=13.17).

Findings

Students who achieved or did not yet know whether they had achieved their training goal were more satisfied with their overall training compared with those who partly achieved their goal, who in turn were more satisfied than those who did not attain their goal across the various training goals. However, participants who were training for personal reasons or reasons other than for employment or pursuing further study, and either partly achieved, did not achieve or did not know yet whether they had achieved their training goal reported the lowest levels of training satisfaction, although these participants were still satisfied overall with their training.

Originality/value

These results highlight the importance of understanding the impact of goals on achievement-related activities and should be used to inform learning and teaching approaches as well as the provision of support services in the VET sector.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 61 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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Book part

Michael L. Wehmeyer, Karrie A. Shogren and Hyojeong Seo

Promoting the self-determination of youth and young adults with disabilities has become best practice in the field of special education. Such efforts have been shown to…

Abstract

Promoting the self-determination of youth and young adults with disabilities has become best practice in the field of special education. Such efforts have been shown to positively impact student educational goal attainment, access to the general education curriculum, student involvement in educational and transition planning, and more positive postschool outcomes. This chapter discusses the self-determination construct, reviews the literature pertaining to what is known about promoting self-determination and goal attainment, and introduces assessments, evidence-based practices, and strategies for promoting student involvement.

Details

Transition of Youth and Young Adults
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-933-2

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Article

Harm van Vijfeijken, Ad Kleingeld, Harrie van Tuijl, Jen A. Algera and Henk Thierry

To evaluate a proposed prescriptive model for the design of effective combinations of performance goals and pay‐for‐performance plans for the performance management of teams.

Abstract

Purpose

To evaluate a proposed prescriptive model for the design of effective combinations of performance goals and pay‐for‐performance plans for the performance management of teams.

Design/methodology/approach

The idea underlying the model – in which task, goal, and reward interdependence and their fit play a dominant role – is that a pay‐for‐performance plan should support the team goals and the goals of individual team members as well as support the way in which team members need to cooperate. To obtain a first notion on the model's validity, it was applied to evaluate a pay‐for‐performance plan for management teams at a large IT company. This evaluation consisted of an in‐depth study of three management teams, using a case study methodology.

Findings

Combinations of fit among type of team, performance goals, and pay‐for‐performance plan (established by a fit between the interdependence constructs and/or by an overlap in the content of the goal and pay indicators) are more effective than combinations of misfit.

Research limitations/implications

The case study was limited to intra‐team interdependence relationships and did allow for a analysis of the separate effects of a fit between the interdependence constructs versus content fit.

Practical implications

This study shows that pay‐for‐performance plans should not be designed in isolation, but rather in alignment with performance goals and existing task interdependencies.

Originality/value

This is the first study to investigate the three inter‐dependence constructs in conjunction in a field setting.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article

Kwasi Dartey-Baah

The purpose of this study was to present a conceptual analysis of how the issue of corruption in Ghana’s public sector can be curbed through an integration of individual…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to present a conceptual analysis of how the issue of corruption in Ghana’s public sector can be curbed through an integration of individual (public sector worker) and organisational goals (the public sector itself). It further sought to explain this possibility by focusing on a goal integration process through transformational leadership.

Design/methodology/approach

To meet this end, the study conducted a review of literature on goal, goal-setting, corruption, employee motivation and transformational leadership to develop a conceptual framework to explain this link between goal integration through transformational leadership and corruption reduction.

Findings

Findings from this study showed that dissatisfaction with work (especially pay) amongst Ghana’s public sector workers is a major factor necessitating the emergence of corruption in the country. It is also shown in the study that through the transformational leadership approach, individual worker concerns such as concerns with pay (a facet of job satisfaction) when treated as an institutional concern and appropriately dealt with could curb corruption in the public sector.

Research limitations/implications

Based on these findings, the study recommends that leaders in Ghana’s public sector (both political and administrative) must exhibit qualities of transformational leaders to foster individual and organisational growth as a means to curb corruption in the sector. The study also recommends that training programmes be organised for leaders to equip them with the needed knowledge and practice of transformational leadership. Furthermore, the study recommends that further studies could be done by other researchers on the training programmes that could be useful in equipping these leaders, as well as how and when to organise these programmes.

Originality/value

The study is novel in that it demonstrates the relevance of integrating individual and organisational goals through the application of the transformational leadership concept as a tool for reducing corruption in Ghana’s public sector.

Details

Journal of Global Responsibility, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2041-2568

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Article

Syed Muhammad Fazel-e-Hasan, Gary Mortimer, Ian Lings and Judy Drennan

Occasionally, retail employees “break the rules” in order to help customers. Currently, there is little research on the mechanisms by which a sales assistants’ positive…

Abstract

Purpose

Occasionally, retail employees “break the rules” in order to help customers. Currently, there is little research on the mechanisms by which a sales assistants’ positive deviance intentions help them attain specific personal and organisational goals. The purpose of this paper is to examine one mechanism, hope, which develops employees’ deviance intentions to provide benefits to the customer, themselves and the organisation.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey captured responses from 270 frontline employees from the retail and services sector. AMOS 23 was used to conduct measurement, path and mediation analyses.

Findings

This study highlights the role of employee hope in developing employees’ positive deviance intentions, and improving perceptions of organisational performance. Results demonstrate that the direct positive impact of hope on positive deviance intention was significant. Furthermore, positive deviance intention was found to positively impact employee goal attainment and perceived organisational performance. The authors’ employee hope model offers a better understanding of positive outcomes of employee deviance, suggesting that retail managers should invest resources to build strong employee–organisation relationships.

Originality/value

This is the first study to empirically demonstrate that employee hope can explain how customer-oriented positive deviance intentions help employee goal attainment and improve their perceptions of organisational performance.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 47 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

Keywords

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