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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2009

Ali A. Hebeish, Essam S. Abdel-Halim, Ibrahim A. Hamdy, Sanaa M. El-Sawy, Mervat S. Ibrahim and Fikry A. Abdel-Mohdy

Linear electron beam radiation has been used to induce irradiation grafting of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), glycidyl methacrylate/β-cyclodextrin (GMA/β-CD), and glycidyl

Abstract

Linear electron beam radiation has been used to induce irradiation grafting of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), glycidyl methacrylate/β-cyclodextrin (GMA/β-CD), and glycidyl methacrylate/monochlorotriazinyl-β-cyclodextrin (GMA/MCT-β-CD) onto cotton fabrics. The effect of radiation dose, GMA concentration and CDs concentration on graft yield, epoxide content and the bonded amount of CDs was investigated. Results obtained reveal that the amount of CDs bonded within the fabric; the add-on and the epoxide content are directly related to the CDs concentration, GMA concentration and the irradiation dose. Graft yield and epoxide content increase with the increase of radiation dose to a certain extent, and they decrease due to degradation of GMA at higher irradiation doses. Results also reveal that although the bonded amount of CDs is nearly proportional to the concentration of CDs in the treatment solution, the accessibility ratio of CDs decreases with increasing CDs concentration. Treatment of fabrics grafted with GMA (Cell-g-GMA) and GMA/CDs mixtures (Cell-g-GMA/CDs) in a sequel step with the corresponding CDs increases the amounts of CDs fixed onto the fabrics, while epoxide content decreases. The treatment of the cotton fabrics with GMA and CDs was established on the basis of spectral data studies.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 1983

Americus

Acrylic resins are formulated into protective coatings in several ways. Most important volumewise are waterborne formulations based either on pure acrylics or on…

Abstract

Acrylic resins are formulated into protective coatings in several ways. Most important volumewise are waterborne formulations based either on pure acrylics or on acrylic‐vinyl copolymers. Second most important are solvent‐based enamels and lacquers widely used for product finishes particularly in the automotive and appliance industries. An innovation of a decade or so ago is proving popular in this area, namely two component coatings based on hydroxyl‐containing acrylics and di‐ or polyisocyanates. These combine many of the good features of acrylics and urethanes and provide hard thermoset coatings. Yet they cure at temperatures as low as ambient.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 12 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 6 November 2017

Wei Ding, Kaimei Peng, Tao Zou, Ruonan Wang, Jinshan Guo, Wei Ping Tu, Chao Liu and Jianqing Hu

The purpose of this paper is to develop non-leaching and eco-friendly antimicrobial waterborne polyacrylates with excellent antibacterial properties by grafting…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop non-leaching and eco-friendly antimicrobial waterborne polyacrylates with excellent antibacterial properties by grafting antibacterial vinyl monomer, glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) modified polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride (PHMG).

Design/methodology/approach

PHMG of different molecular weights were modified by GMA to synthesize antibacterial vinyl monomer, GMA-modified PHMG (GPHMG). Different content and molecular weights of GPHMG were used to synthesize antimicrobial waterborne polyacrylates through emulsion polymerization.

Findings

The addition of GPHMG gained by modifying PHMG showed little influence on thermal stability of the films, but decreased the glass transition temperature(Tg). Meanwhile, the tensile strength decreased, while the breaking elongation increased. The antibacterial properties of the antibacterial films with different GPHMG contents were studied, when GPHMG content was around 0.9 Wt.%, antibacterial films showed excellent antibacterial activity (antibacterial rate >= 99.99 per cent). When weight content of GPHMG in the films remained constant, antibacterial property of films increased first and then decreased with the increase of molecular weight of GPHMG. The structural antibacterial polymer film had more perdurable antibacterial activity than the blended one.

Research limitations/implications

The grafting efficiency of GPHMG to antimicrobial waterborne polyacrylates could be further improved.

Practical implications

Antimicrobial waterborne polyacrylates with excellent antibacterial properties can be used to antibacterial coating and adhesive.

Originality/value

The antibacterial properties of films with different molecular weight of GPHMG were studied, and the durability and stability of antibacterial properties between structural antimicrobial films and blended antimicrobial films were also investigated by ring-diffusion method.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 46 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2014

Xugang Zhang, Bin Zhang, Mingming Sun, Jianhui Li, Lei Wang and Chuanli Qin

– In order to obtain functionalized core-shell nanoparticles (CSNPs) as excellent toughening agents for epoxy resins. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Abstract

Purpose

In order to obtain functionalized core-shell nanoparticles (CSNPs) as excellent toughening agents for epoxy resins. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Functionalized CSNPs containing epoxy groups on the surface were synthesized by emulsion polymerization with butyl acrylate as the core and methyl methacrylate copolymerizing with glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) as the shell. CSNPs were used as toughening agents for epoxy resins and their chemical structure was characterized by FT-IR. The morphology of modified epoxy networks (MEPN) was analyzed by SEM and TEM. Both the mechanical properties and thermodynamic properties were studied.

Findings

The results show that nearly spherical CSNPs with the particle size of 50-100 nm are obtained. A certain amount of CSNPs are uniformly dispersed in epoxy resins by the grinding method and the MEPN shows the ductile fracture feature. The miscibility between CSNPs and epoxy matrix increases with the increase of GMA concentration which makes more bonds form between them. Epoxy resins toughened with 10 wt% CSNPs containing 10 wt% GMA show the best mechanical properties and the increase in tensile strength and impact strength of the MEPN is 13.5 and 59.7 percent, respectively, over the unmodified epoxy networks. And the improvement in impact strength is not accompanied with loss of thermal resistance.

Practical implications

The MEPN can be used as high-performance materials such as adhesives, sealants and matrixes of composites.

Originality/value

The functionalized CSNPs are novel and it can greatly increase the toughness of epoxy resins without loss of thermal resistance.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 43 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1994

F.A. Abdel‐Mohdy, A. Waly, A. Higazy and A. Hebeish

Perfluoroheptyl methacrylate was copolymerized with acrylamide using different ratios of these monomers. The copolymers so obtained were methylolated with formaldehyde…

Abstract

Perfluoroheptyl methacrylate was copolymerized with acrylamide using different ratios of these monomers. The copolymers so obtained were methylolated with formaldehyde. The methylolated copolymers were used as multi‐purpose finishing agents for cotton. They impart oil and water repellence. Attachment of the methylolated copolymer to cotton is presumed to involve chemical bonds via reaction of the methylol groups of the copolymer and the hydroxy groups of cotton cellulose. This was evidenced by the wash‐fastness properties; no significant differences were noted in the oil/water repellence of cotton fabric treated with the copolymers in question.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2007

H. Satapathy and A.K. Banthia

To synthesise and characterise homo and copolymer of 4‐nonylphenyl methacrylate (NPMA) and styrene and to determine monomer reactivity ratios by the application of…

Abstract

Purpose

To synthesise and characterise homo and copolymer of 4‐nonylphenyl methacrylate (NPMA) and styrene and to determine monomer reactivity ratios by the application of conventional linearisation methods such as Finemann‐Ross (F‐R) and Kelen‐Tudos (K‐T) methods.

Design/methodology/approach

New methacrylic monomer, NPMA with a pendant nonylphenyl group was copolymerised with styrene. All monomer and polymers (homo and copolymer) are characterised and subsequently the monomer reactivity ratio was determined.

Findings

The monomer reactivity ratios were determined by application of conventional linearisation methods such as F‐R (r1=0.41±0.05; r2=3.47±0.31), K‐T (r1=0.43±0.19; r2=3.54±0.09) methods. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of the polymer in nitrogen reveals that it posses very good thermal stability in comparison to alkyl acrylates due to presence of pendant nonylphnyl group.

Research limitations/implications

New methacrylic monomer, NPMA was synthesised by reacting nonylphenol dissolved in methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) with methacryloyl chloride in the presence of triethylamine as a base. Copolymers of NPMA with styrene were synthesised in MEK using benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as initiator under nitrogen atmosphere at different feed composition.

Practical implications

The method developed is a simple and easy method of copolymerisation of styrene with methacrylate to obtain copolymer of better properties.

Originality/value

The method developed is a novel method for enhancing the thermal, as well as surface adhesion, properties which has several applications in surface coatings and adhesives.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 36 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 28 May 2021

Anand Dixit, Kunal Wazarkar and Anagha S. Sabnis

Epoxy acrylate which is commercially utilized for UV curable coatings although has excellent adhesion, flexibility, hardness and chemical resistance, they lack in…

Abstract

Purpose

Epoxy acrylate which is commercially utilized for UV curable coatings although has excellent adhesion, flexibility, hardness and chemical resistance, they lack in antimicrobial properties. Citric acid (CA) is economical as well as a bio-based compound which possess an antimicrobial activity. So, the purpose of this research investigation is the preparation of CA-based oligomer which can be further incorporated with epoxy acrylate and tri (propylene glycol) Diacrylate (TPGDA) to form uv curable coating and the study of its antimicrobial property.

Design/methodology/approach

A UV-curable unsaturated oligomer (CUV) was synthesized from CA and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA). The chemical structure of CUV was confirmed by FTIR, 1H NMR, GPC, hydroxyl value, acid value and iodine value. Further, CUV was assimilated as an antimicrobial as well as crosslinking agent to copolymerize with epoxy acrylate oligomer and a series of UV-cured antimicrobial coatings were concocted by employing UV-curing machine. The consequence of varying the fraction of CUV on the mechanical, chemical, thermal and antimicrobial properties of UV-cured wood coatings was explored.

Findings

Results exhibited good mechanical, chemical and thermal properties. In addition, it was perceived that the zone of inhibition against S. aureus got enlarged with increasing content of CUV in the coating formulation.

Originality/value

The synthesized bio-based CUV reveals an extensive potential to ameliorate the antimicrobial properties of UV-curable coatings.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2011

Essam S. Abdel-Halim, Moustafa M.G. Fouda, Sanaa M. El-Sawy, Ibrahim A. Hamdy and Fikry A. Abdel-Mohdy

Glycidyl methacrylate/monochlorotriazinyl-β-cyclodextrin mixture (GMA/MCT-β-CD) is grafted onto cotton fabric by an irradiation technique that uses linear electron beam…

Abstract

Glycidyl methacrylate/monochlorotriazinyl-β-cyclodextrin mixture (GMA/MCT-β-CD) is grafted onto cotton fabric by an irradiation technique that uses linear electron beam radiation for initiating the grafting reaction. The obtained grafted fabric (cell-g-GMA/MCT-β-CD) is loaded with chlorohexidin diacetate (an antimicrobial agent) and subjected to several washing cycles. Grafted cotton fabrics (before and after loading with the antimicrobial agent) and control cotton fabrics are characterized for antimicrobial activity against different kinds of bacteria and fungi by using the diffusion disk method.

Grafted fabrics that are loaded with an antimicrobial agent show very good antimicrobial activity in comparison with control and grafted fabrics which are not loaded with an antimicrobial agent. The results in this study also demonstrate that GMA/MCT-β-CD grafted fabrics that are loaded with an antimicrobial agent retain a good deal of their antimicrobial activity after five washings. Good retention of antimicrobial activity is due to the cavities that are present in the cyclodextrin moieties which are used to host and keep the antimicrobial agent.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1987

Gilbert Kuhl

Polymethacrylates are distinguished by transparency as well as by chemical and mechanical resistivity. This overview of the current status of the thermoplastic methacrylate

Abstract

Polymethacrylates are distinguished by transparency as well as by chemical and mechanical resistivity. This overview of the current status of the thermoplastic methacrylate solid resins discusses synthesis, production processes, binder characteristics, and major areas of application.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 16 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 3 May 2016

Yuanfeng Jia, Nana Ren, Huadong Yue, Jianru Deng and Yali Liu

The paper developed a novel gallic acid-based rust conversion emulsion (RCE) that is applied in the treatment of rusted steels. The purpose of this paper is to investigate…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper developed a novel gallic acid-based rust conversion emulsion (RCE) that is applied in the treatment of rusted steels. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the methods for the synthesis of RCE and study the mechanism of rust conversion.

Design/methodology/approach

Conversion emulsion was prepared using styrene, acrylate and self-developed gallic acid (GA)-based rust converter (GRC) via seed emulsion polymerisation. The polymerisable GRC was synthesised by the ring-opening reaction of glycidyl methacrylate with natural GA. The effects of the GRC dosage and its feeding modes on the RCE synthesis were analysed. The corrosion resistance, surface morphology, composition and mechanism of rust conversion coatings were studied using electrochemical tests, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively.

Findings

The results showed that conversion coating on rusted steels treated with RCE, with various dosages of GRC (weight per cent), synthesised using seed emulsion polymerisation, exhibited the best adhesion and corrosion resistance. Raman spectroscopy revealed that RCE converted the original multiphase rust into stable crystalline phases of α-Fe2O3 and Fe3O4. According to XPS and energy dispersive X-ray analysis, the phenolic hydroxyl groups of RCE were proposed to chelate with Fe ions to form macromolecular ferrum compounds.

Research limitations/implications

The pre-rusted steels demonstrated a better corrosion resistance than rust-free steels after treatment with RCE.

Practical implications

The paper developed a novel GA-based RCE with high efficiency and environment-friendly method.

Originality/value

This work is expected to replace the conventional rust conversion paints and cause a significant impact on extending the service life of rusted steels.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 45 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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