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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2011

Chuanjie Zhang, Li Cui, Ping Zhu and Yun Liu

Glutaraldehyde is chosen as a novel non-formaldehyde durable press finish for cotton fabrics in this investigation. The optimum technique conditions and influences of…

Abstract

Glutaraldehyde is chosen as a novel non-formaldehyde durable press finish for cotton fabrics in this investigation. The optimum technique conditions and influences of glutaraldehyde concentration and catalysts, pH value, and curing conditions for the properties of the finished fabric have been investigated in detail. The finished fabric achieves the best performance with a pH value in the range of 4 to 4.5 for the glutaraldehyde finishing bath, magnesium chloride as the catalyst, and curing conditions of 160oC for 3 minutes. In addition, in contrast to low formaldehyde resin and non-formaldehyde finishers sold in the market, the wrinkle recovery angle of the fabric finished with glutaraldehyde is better than that finished with FREEREZ NFR (DHDMI), but not as satisfactory as that finished with FREEREZ 880 (low formaldehyde 2D). However, its strength is greater than the fabric finished with FREEREZ 880, but less so than that finished with FREEREZ NFR.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

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Article
Publication date: 21 October 2019

Khaled Mostafa and Azza El-Sanabary

This study aims to explore the incorporation of the authors previously prepared chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs) of size around 60-100 nm in the cross-linking formulation of…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore the incorporation of the authors previously prepared chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs) of size around 60-100 nm in the cross-linking formulation of viscose fabrics to see CNPs impact in terms of imparting multi-functional characteristics such as tensile strength, dry wrinkle recovery angles and antibacterial properties.

Design/methodology/approach

CNPs of size around 60-100 nm were incorporated in cross-linking formulations for viscose fabrics, including different concentrations of glutaraldehyde as a non-formaldehyde cross-linking agent and magnesium chloride hexahydrate as a catalyst. The formulations were applied at different curing times and temperatures in 100 mL distilled water, giving rise to a wet pickup of ca. 85 per cent. The fabrics were dried for 3 min at 85°C and cured at specified temperatures for fixed time intervals in thermo fixing oven according to the traditional pad-dry-cure method.

Findings

The above eco-friendly method for finished viscose fabrics was found to obtain high dry wrinkle recovery angle and maintain the tensile strength of the finished fabric within the acceptable range, as well as antibacterial properties against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus as a gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, respectively. Both, scanning electron microscope and nitrogen percent on the finished fabric confirm the penetration of CNPs inside the fabric structure. Finally, viscose fabrics pageant antibacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria assessed even after 20 washing cycle.

Research limitations/implications

CNPs with its flourishing effect with respect to cationic nature, biodegradability, reactivity, higher surface area and antimicrobial activity; in addition to glutaraldehyde as non-formaldehyde finishing agent can be used as multi-functional agents for viscose fabrics instead of DMDHEU, polyacrylate and monomeric composites as hazardous materials.

Practical implications

CNPs as cationic biopolymers were expected to impart multi-functional properties to viscose fabrics especially with obtaining reasonable dry wrinkle recovery angle and tensile strength in addition to antibacterial properties.

Originality/value

The novelty addressed here is undertaken with a view to impart easy care characteristics and antibacterial activities onto viscose fabrics using CNPs as antimicrobial agent and glutaraldehyde as non-formaldehyde durable press finishes to-replace the traditional formaldehyde-based resins. Besides, to the authors’ knowledge, there is no published work so far using the above cross-linking formulation written above.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 49 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 20 July 2010

Fardin Yousefshahi, Mohammad Reza Khajavi, Mohammad Anbarafshan, Patricia Khashayar and Atabak Najafi

The aim of this study is to compare the effects of Sanosil and glutaraldehyde 2 percent in disinfecting ventilator connecting tubes in an intensive care unit (ICU) environment.

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study is to compare the effects of Sanosil and glutaraldehyde 2 percent in disinfecting ventilator connecting tubes in an intensive care unit (ICU) environment.

Design/methodology/approach

The 12‐week open‐labelled clinical trial was conducted in the surgical ICU of a teaching hospital from March to May 2005. In the first phase of the study, high level disinfection was performed using glutaraldehyde 2 percent, whereas Sanosil was used as the disinfectant agent of the second phase. Samples for microbial culture were obtained from the Y piece, the expiratory limb proximal to the ventilator and the humidifier in different stages; the results were then compared.

Findings

Positive culture was more frequently reported in Y pieces, humidifiers and expiratory end of ventilators. Comparing the two groups, there were more positive cultures in the glutaraldehyde group (p value=0.005); multiple organism growths, gram negative, gram positive and fungi were also more frequent in this group (p value=0.01; 0. 007; 0. 062; 0.144, respectively).

Originality/value

The paper shows that Sanosil is an effective agent in reducing the contamination risk in the tubes used in ICUs.

Details

International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, vol. 23 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0952-6862

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 19 September 2018

Amit Madhu and J.N. Chakraborty

Enzymatic desizing using α-amylase is the conventional and eco-friendly method of removing starch based size. Conventionally, enzymes are drained after completion of…

Abstract

Purpose

Enzymatic desizing using α-amylase is the conventional and eco-friendly method of removing starch based size. Conventionally, enzymes are drained after completion of process; being catalysts, they retain their activity after reaction and need to be reused. Immobilization allows the recovery of enzymes to use them as realistic biocatalyst. This study aims to recover and reuse of α-amylase for desizing of cotton via immobilization.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper investigates the application of α-amylase immobilized on Chitosan and Eudragit S-100 for cotton fabric desizing. A commercial α-amylase was immobilized on reversibly soluble-insoluble polymers to work out with inherent problems of heterogeneous reaction media. The immobilization process was optimized for maximum conjugate activity, and immobilized amylases were applied for grey cotton fabric desizing.

Findings

The desizing performance of immobilized amylases was evaluated in terms of starch removal and was compared to free enzyme. The immobilized amylases showed adequate desizing efficiency up to four cycles of use and were recovered easily at the end of each cycle. The amylase immobilized on Eudragit is more efficient for a particular concentration than chitosan.

Practical implications

Immobilization associates with insolubility and increased size of enzymes which lead to poor interactions and limited diffusion especially in textiles where enzymes have to act on macromolecular substrates (heterogeneous media). The selection of support materials plays a significant role in this constraint.

Originality/value

The commercial α-amylase was covalently immobilized on smart polymers for cotton fabric desizing. The target was to achieve immobilized amylase with maximum conjugate activity and limited constraints. The reversibly soluble-insoluble polymers support provide easy recovery with efficient desizing results in heterogeneous reaction media.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

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Article
Publication date: 5 January 2015

N.F. Lokman, F. Suja', H. Abdullah and A.A. Abu Bakar

This purpose of this study is to investigate the structural and morphology of hybrid silver-crosslinked chitosan thin films potentially for surface plasmon resonance (SPR…

Abstract

Purpose

This purpose of this study is to investigate the structural and morphology of hybrid silver-crosslinked chitosan thin films potentially for surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor application. Silver, silver-chitosan and silver-crosslinked chitosan (annealed) thin films also were prepared as controls for this study.

Design/methodology/approach

Silver was firstly coated on top of the glass substrate by magnetron sputtering method. Different chitosan solutions (with and without glutaraldehyde) were coated on top of the substrate by spin coating method. Annealing treatment was carried out for one of silver-crosslink chitosan sample. The structural and morphology of all the thin films were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The SPR curves also were measured by the SPR sensor with air and deionised (DI) water as analytes.

Findings

The structure of silver-crosslinked chitosan thin film presented a monoclinic structure with high crystallinity of 131.71 nm at the prominent peak by XRD analysis. The FESEM and AFM analyses revealed the morphology to be rough in surface attributed to enhanced contact with analytes in SPR measurement compared to other thin films.

Research limitations/implications

In the present study, the glutaraldehyde used to crosslink the thin film increased hydrophobicity and allows for more binding capacity.

Originality/value

The proposed silver-crosslinked chitosan thin film may prove beneficial for biosensing such as in environmental applications by SPR sensor.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 44 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2011

Ying Li, Steven S. Hepperle and Yiqi Yang

Although new wheat protein fibers have been reported to be crosslinked to obtain good mechanical properties, the effect of formaldehyde-free chemical crosslinking…

Abstract

Although new wheat protein fibers have been reported to be crosslinked to obtain good mechanical properties, the effect of formaldehyde-free chemical crosslinking conditions on the mechanical properties of crosslinked wheat gluten fibers has not been studied in detail. In this paper, new wheat gluten fibers are crosslinked by glutaraldehyde in various conditions, and the quantitative relationship between the breaking tenacities of crosslinked wheat gluten fibers and the crosslinking conditions are developed. This study shows that the reaction follows pseudo 0.6 order, which is lower than pseudo 1.2 order for the reaction between citric acid and gliadin fibers.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2011

Ying Li and Yiqi Yang

This paper discusses various methods of formaldehyde-free crosslinking of plant proteins and the chemistry of the crosslinking reaction based on recent developments…

Abstract

This paper discusses various methods of formaldehyde-free crosslinking of plant proteins and the chemistry of the crosslinking reaction based on recent developments. Currently, there are increasing demands for replacing petroleum-derived raw materials with renewable biodegradable materials. The abundant availability of zein, soy protein, wheat gluten and gliadin from industrial byproducts at low prices leads to the increase of use of renewable plant proteins to produce zein, soy protein, wheat gluten and gliadin fibers. However, poor mechanical properties and weak water stability of these protein fibers are not suitable to meet the needs of industry application. It is necessary to strengthen these renewable protein fibers. This paper reviews various methods related to formaldehyde-free crosslinking of plant proteins. A critical analysis is given on the kinetic study of glutaraldehyde crosslinking of proteins. In this paper, we also discuss a green catalyst for citric acid crosslinking of protein fibers at mild temperatures, the quantitative relationship between the reaction parameters and mechanical properties of crosslinked gliadin fibers, and changes in the molecular weight of the proteins.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

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Article
Publication date: 4 January 2013

A.E.‐S.I. Ahmed, A.M. El‐Masry, A. Saleh and A. Nada

The purpose of this paper is to prepare and optimize the preparation conditions of some new hydrogels and in addition, evaluate their water absorbance at different mediums…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to prepare and optimize the preparation conditions of some new hydrogels and in addition, evaluate their water absorbance at different mediums and their ability to remove ions from aqueous solutions.

Design/methodology/approach

Cellulose was extracted from depithed bagasse at two different pulping conditions; 3 and 6 hours cooking times, pulp (I) and (II), respectively. These pulps, in addition to cotton linter for comparison, were grafted with acrylamide followed by cross‐linking with glutaraldehyde. The networks were partially hydrolyzed and the structures of products (before and after hydrolysis) were studied using FTIR, SEM, TGA and X‐ray. The optimum preparation conditions were identified, before and after hydrolysis, to achieve maximum absorbance and the ability of prepared hydrogels to remove ions from solutions was investigated.

Findings

Maximum level of absorption was recorded using hydrogels prepared with monomer concentration =0.8 mol/l, cross‐linker concentration =0.01 mol/l, reaction time =2 hours and temperature =65°C. Hydrogels prepared using pulp (I) showed the best absorbance behavior and a tendency to remove ions from water.

Research limitations/implications

The ability of the prepared gels to remove ions from water could be further investigated to evaluate the ability of their use in a multi‐filtration system for water treatment.

Practical implications

This piece of work has suggested a simple way to convert an agricultural waste to hydrogel able to remove metal ions from water.

Social implications

Consuming this type of waste reduces the risks resulting from its burning in some countries, such as Egypt, that produce large amounts of it.

Originality/value

In this paper, low cost hydrogels, with expected value in water treatment, were prepared using agricultural wastes. They have shown better reactivity than gels prepared using pure cellulosic materials (cotton linter).

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 42 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 4 July 2016

E.Y. Yan, X.Y. Hao, M.L. Cao, Y.M. Fan, D.Q. Zhang, W. Xie, J.P. Sun and S.Q. Hou

The purpose of the study reported in this paper was to investigate the process for the preparation of carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) hydrogel and to characterize such a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the study reported in this paper was to investigate the process for the preparation of carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) hydrogel and to characterize such a hydrogel via various analytical techniques.

Design/methodology/approach

The hydrogel in the aqueous solution was prepared by using CMCS as the raw material and glutaraldehyde as the crosslinking agent. The as-prepared CMCS hydrogel was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectra.

Findings

The CMCS hydrogel possessed a porous structure and the shape of the pore was irregular. Generally, the diameter of the pores ranged from 20 to 70 nm. The results from FTIR, UV-vis and XRD showed that there was no obvious difference between the structures of the CMCS hydrogel and CMCS powder.

Research limitations/implications

The strength of the hydrogel is not high enough and the degree of swelling is relatively small. So, improving the strength and swelling degree of the hydrogel is necessary.

Practical implications

The CMCS hydrogel presented obvious hollow structures and its fabrication was processed absolutely in aqueous phase. Besides, it possessed low toxicity, good biocompatibility and biodegradability. So, the hydrogel will have potential applications in drug delivery and release, tissue engineering and other biomedical fields.

Originality/value

This paper is the first to present the relationship between the structures of the CMCS hydrogel and CMCS micromolecule, and it confirms that there is no fundamental difference between them.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 45 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 18 January 2016

Hamza Usman, Muhammad Hafiz Abu Bakar, Amir Syahir Hamzah and Abu bakar Salleh

This paper aims to estimate the level of histamine in fish and fish products, as it is very important because of their implication in fish poisoning in humans; hence…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to estimate the level of histamine in fish and fish products, as it is very important because of their implication in fish poisoning in humans; hence, ascertaining histamine levels in the aforementioned serves as a chemical index for spoilage.

Design/methodology/approach

A technique was developed to immobilize an ordered multilayer of diamine oxidase (DAO) by means of chemical cross-linking on the biconical taper surface stepwisely alternating between chitosan, glutaraldehyde and the enzyme. A spectrophotometric signal results from horseradish peroxidase catalyzed reduction of H2O2, a secondary product of the oxidative deamination of histamine monitored at 450 nm.

Findings

The biosensor showed a linear response range up to 1.5 mM, a good sensitivity of 0.64 mM-1 with detection and quantification limits towards histamine of 0.086 mM (15.8 ppm) and 0.204 mM (37.7 ppm) and a linear response range of 0-1.5 mM. It showed a response and recovery time of 14 sec and operational stability up to 40 repeated analyses without significant loss of sensitivity.

Practical implications

The developed biosensor has a good potential for use in the quantitative determination of histamine in seafood.

Originality/value

The paper described an outcome of an experimental work on tapered fibre optics (taper)-based biosensor coated with DAO embedded into a chitosan membrane to measure histamine.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

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