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African American males experience acute or chronic stress from discriminatory treatment and racial microaggressions, decreasing their biopsychosocial health. Racial…
African American males experience acute or chronic stress from discriminatory treatment and racial microaggressions, decreasing their biopsychosocial health. Racial microaggressions include but are not limited to merciless and mundane exclusionary messages, being treated as less than fully human, and civil and human rights violations. Racial microaggressions are key to understanding increases in racial battle fatigue (Smith, 2004) resulting from the psychological and physiological stress that racially marginalized individuals/groups experience in response to specific race-related interactions between them and the surrounding dominant environment. Race-related stress taxes and exceeds available resilient coping resources for people of color, while many whites easily build sociocultural and economic environments and resources that shield them from race-based stress and threats to their racial entitlements.
What is at stake, here, is the quest for equilibrium versus disequilibrium in a society that marginalizes human beings into substandard racial groups. Identifying and counteracting the biopsychosocial and behavioral consequences of actual or perceived racism, gendered racism, and racial battle fatigue is a premier challenge of the twenty-first century. The term “racial microaggressions” was introduced in the 1970s to help psychiatrists and psychologists understand the enormity and complications of the subtle but constant racial blows faced by African Americans. Today, racial microaggressions continue to contribute to the negative experiences of African American boys and men in schools, at work, and in society. This chapter will focus on the definition, identification, and long-term effects of racial microaggressions and the resultant racial battle fatigue in anti-black misandric environments.
This study examines employees of Australian firms engaged in sports sponsorship activity. Where theemployee is aware of that sponsorship, we consider the ways in which the…
This study examines employees of Australian firms engaged in sports sponsorship activity. Where the employee is aware of that sponsorship, we consider the ways in which the general beliefs and attitudes of employees towards sponsorship link to their specific attitudes towards the sponsorship activity of their employer and whether these attitudes may influence their behaviour within the organisation. A model linking employees' attitudes towards their employers' sponsorship activity, the creation of favourable attitudes towards working for that employer and behaviours that can benefit the employing organisation is tested and supported. Implications of results include: a stronger focus on using sports sponsorship for internal marketing purposes; involvement of employees in determining the sponsored activity or organisation; and reassessing the overall benefits that derive from sports sponsorship.
Framing “Polynesia” as a touristic commodity needs to be critically tied to the cultures of imperialism that practiced both scientific racism and produced the commodity…
Framing “Polynesia” as a touristic commodity needs to be critically tied to the cultures of imperialism that practiced both scientific racism and produced the commodity spectacle as means to rationalize the often-violent project of “civilizing.” In the late 1800s, during the second wave of European and American colonization, the cultural realm mitigated the violence and facilitated the undertaking of empire by the masses as well as providing a space for uneven and heterogeneous responses to colonialism (Pease, 1993). Foremost among these cultural technologies were the advertising industry and the world's fairs. Displaying the technological prowess and progress of American and European civilization alongside the sideshows of “other,” less civilized cultures, the fairs worked to sell the project of expansion to its audience. For Robert Rydell (1987), these world's fairs were an effective tool of “the legitimizing ideology offered to a nation torn by class conflict” as well as racial and gender discord (p. 193). Empire was seen to solve these domestic pressures by offering a unifying national project of Manifest Destiny.
This paper describes the home run as a dramatic offensive accomplishment in baseball linked to the five dramaturgical dimensions (act, scene, agent, agency, and purpose…
This paper describes the home run as a dramatic offensive accomplishment in baseball linked to the five dramaturgical dimensions (act, scene, agent, agency, and purpose) defined by Burke. Such an accomplishment also pertains to two types of social pasts – categorical and crystallized – that can serve as correlates to the five dramaturgical dimensions. Owing to its dramaturgical and temporal significance, the home run symbolizes a celebrated sign of prowess that contributes to a home run hitter's or slugger's rarified status. Further, as a dramaturgical moment, the home run calls forth specified responses (especially on the part of announcers) that contribute to its distinctive meaning in the game.
The number of investigations and investigators of vitamines seems to be increasing in geometric proportion, yet the sum total of our knowledge accumulates but little. The reason for this interest may be found in the unusual though well‐deserved concern aroused by the new light thrown on the all‐important problem of nutrition. Research has been stimulated as never before, and it is to be feared that workers have plunged ahead with great enthusiasm for the broader aspects of the subject and with but insufficient attention to the finer technical points. There is urgent need for more intensive and less extensive research if we are to arrive at a final understanding of the nature of the vitamines and their rôle in nutrition. A brief survey of the facts and a consideration of the present status of the subject may not be out of place.