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Book part

Efrat Shokef and Miriam Erez

As part of the globalizing work environment, new forms of organizations have emerged, ranging from international to multinational and transnational organizations. These…

Abstract

As part of the globalizing work environment, new forms of organizations have emerged, ranging from international to multinational and transnational organizations. These forms of organizations require high levels of cross-national interdependence, and often the formation of multicultural teams (MCTs), nested within multinational organizations. Employees who operate in the global multinational context should share common meanings, values, and codes of behaviors in order to effectively communicate with each other and coordinate their activities. What helps global multicultural team members create the social glue that connects them to each other, above and beyond the national cultures to which they belong? We propose that a more macro-level meaning system of a global work culture, which is the shared understanding of the visible rules, regulations, and behaviors, and the deeper values and ethics of the global work context, that is formed outside of the level of national cultures, binds members of MCTs. At the individual level, the representation of these global work values in the self leads to the emergence of a global identity, which is an individual's sense of belonging to and identification with groups (such as MCTs), operating in the global work environment of multinational organizations. The chapter focuses on the potential influence of a global work culture, and of a global identity on the effectiveness of MCTs.

Details

National Culture and Groups
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-362-4

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Article

Valerie Rosenblatt

Previous research has documented emergence of global work values and an important function of multinational organizations (MNOs) in their diffusion. However, studies on…

Abstract

Purpose

Previous research has documented emergence of global work values and an important function of multinational organizations (MNOs) in their diffusion. However, studies on the processes supporting the diffusion of global work values have been limited. This study seeks to conceptually explore the roles of institutional mechanisms and moderating functions of social network structures and cultural values in diffusion of global work values within the context of MNOs.

Design/methodology/approach

Adopting a multilevel approach and grounding the arguments in the neo‐institutional framework, this work synthesizes cross‐cultural research with organizational theory research to present a conceptual model of the diffusion of global work values in the context of MNOs.

Findings

It is proposed that the level of diffusion of global work values by members of MNOs is positively related to the level of institutionalization of these values within and between MNOs by means of regulative and normative institutional processes. The arguments also suggest that regulative and normative institutional processes are likely to diffuse global work values more efficiently among members of MNOs with collectivistic value orientations and tight dense social networks with closures.

Practical implications

The findings may be useful for managers looking to implement global corporate culture and values programs, searching for the right mechanisms to diffuse values among units with certain cultural backgrounds, social network structures and institutional contexts.

Originality/value

This paper combines diverse research streams to elaborate on the dynamic interfaces of global work values diffusion and lays groundwork for future empirical investigations.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

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Article

Joo‐Young Lee, Eun‐Sook Ko, Hyo‐Hyun Lee, Jae‐Young Kim and Jeong‐Wha Choi

The purpose of this paper is to examine differences between thermal insulation calculated by a global and a serial method using a thermal manikin, in comparison with human trials.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine differences between thermal insulation calculated by a global and a serial method using a thermal manikin, in comparison with human trials.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 150 single garments and 38 clothing ensembles were assessed using the manikin; 26 seasonal clothing ensembles were selected for human trials.

Findings

The results showed that total insulation of single garments was 16 percent higher in the serial method than in the global method. The difference was higher in garments with smaller covering area per unit garment mass (e.g. winter garments). For seasonal clothing ensembles, the serial values were 39.2 percent (0.18 clo) for spring/fall wear, 62.6 percent (0.15 clo) for summer wear and for winter wear 64.8 percent (0.69 clo) greater than the global values. The clothing insulation by the global method was systemically lower in all 26 seasonal ensembles than values by human trials, which suggests that the values by the global calculation can be more accurately corrected with human testing data.

Originality/value

The paper shows that values by the serial calculation were lower in spring/fall and summer ensembles but greater in winter garments than values collated by human trials. It suggests that the serial values had a lower validity when compared with thermal insulation values collated from human trials.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 23 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article

Arpita Khare

The purpose of this paper is to examine affect of cosmopolitanism and consumers’ susceptibility to interpersonal influence on Indian consumers’ fashion clothing…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine affect of cosmopolitanism and consumers’ susceptibility to interpersonal influence on Indian consumers’ fashion clothing involvement. Moderating effect of demographics was studied.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey technique through self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection in both metropolitan and non-metropolitan cities in India.

Findings

Utilitarian, value expressive factors of normative influence and cosmopolitanism influence Indian consumers’ fashion clothing involvement. Type of city, income, and education moderated influence of normative values and cosmopolitanism on fashion clothing involvement.

Research limitations/implications

One of the major limitations of current research was that it had a large number of respondents in the age group of 18-40 years. Future research can attempt to reduce age biasness.

Practical implications

The findings can prove helpful to international apparel brands marketing luxury and fashion clothing in India. However, since conformance to social norms was important for Indians, clothing manufacturers should use reference groups, opinion leaders, and celebrities to generate awareness. A blend of global and local lifestyle should be used. International luxury brands can customize their products to combine ethnic tastes.

Originality/value

Fashion clothing market promises immense growth opportunities in India. There is limited research to examine influence cosmopolitanism on Indian consumers’ consumption behaviour. Knowledge about influence of global lifestyle, brands, mass media, and services on Indian consumers’ behaviour can help in targeting them effectively.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

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Article

M. Morand and L. Rayman‐Bacchus

This paper investigates corporate social responsibility (CSR) policy management in multinational companies (MNCs). The focus is on examining the relationship between…

Abstract

This paper investigates corporate social responsibility (CSR) policy management in multinational companies (MNCs). The focus is on examining the relationship between subsidiaries and headquarters in the management of CSR, in terms of the commonplace notion of ‘think global, act local’. Primary and secondary data was collected in one MNC and a case study produced. The findings show that the initiative to launch a CSR policy is taken and enacted exclusively by the headquarters, mainly as an answer to the financial and legal pressure felt to accompany the present widespread interest in CSR. Findings are articulated around three major steps used to manage CSR initiatives: the determination of values, the integration of those values in action and the evaluation of the policy. Consistency of policy is driven from headquarters, through adoption of a corporate value framework, while the implementation is to some extent localised. Feedback from subsidiaries is collected and shared by the centre, which also seeks out synergies in pursuit of increased efficiency. Corporate structure is therefore linked to CSR management. Implementation is observed to comprise three parts: the headquarters seek to motivate local actions through reference to the company culture, through directive measures, and by pedagogic action. Pedagogy comes out as necessary in order for the CSR policy to permeate the entire organisation and initiate the right actions and reactions in the variety of situations encountered throughout the organisation. Constant scrutiny and evaluation are considered necessary in order to sustain the credibility of the policy in relation to external stakeholders.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. 2 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

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Book part

Jane Ross, Jack Ross and Andrew Creed

Purpose – To integrate agency and stakeholder theories with the Jacobs Value Distinction (JVD) thus presenting a micro and macro reconsideration of the JVD for a finer…

Abstract

Purpose – To integrate agency and stakeholder theories with the Jacobs Value Distinction (JVD) thus presenting a micro and macro reconsideration of the JVD for a finer grained perception of the values underpinning corporate and global governance initiatives.Design/methodology/approach – By extrapolating the JVD – commercial and guardian – this chapter examines the roots of moral malaise in the modern global firm. Examples and a theoretical rationale are given for identifying why and how ethical – moral problems continue to occur.Findings – A metaphorical maelstrom is discernible in the global business environment and more turmoil, especially in balancing business values, is emerging for the managers of today’s corporations. Application of the JVD predicts that under certain conditions the hybrid nature of the firm causes managers and shareholders to engage in morally risky behaviour. In further exploring the value basis of the 10 principles of the United Nations (UN) Global Compact, it is found that similar values conflict, which intensifies the need for international business managers to beware the moral risks.Research implications – This viewpoint draws upon sound theoretical analysis and future studies should collate case analysis and practitioner interview data to further consolidate the findings. The viewpoint gives managers a useful tool for identifying conflicts of values underlying decisions and forms the basis for continuous improvement in the context of operational and strategic actions in international business.Originality/value of chapter – The integration of the JVD with agency and stakeholder theories is new and critique of the 10 principles of the UN Global Compact via the JVD has not happened previously.

Details

Principles and Strategies to Balance Ethical, Social and Environmental Concerns with Corporate Requirements
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-627-9

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Article

John Fraedrich, Othman Althawadi and Ramin Bagherzadeh

The continued rise of the multinational and debate as to what constitutes global business values is predicated on the UN Declaration and Global Business Compact. This…

Abstract

Purpose

The continued rise of the multinational and debate as to what constitutes global business values is predicated on the UN Declaration and Global Business Compact. This research suggests both documents explicitly exclude the existence of a foundational ethereal power creating morals thereby nullifying two thirds of the general population’s belief system. The authors argue against humanism as a global value beginning and suggest theism as a better origin and use the scientific method to introduce mathematical axioms supporting theism and complimenting humanism. Ontologically, the theist becomes a stronger base for the scientific inquiry into morals, values and business ethics. A comparison of major religious morals revealed eight factors: assurance; candor, fairness and honesty; character, integrity, truthfulness and exacting in truth; charity and compassion; environment; perseverance and tolerance; sacrifice; and seriousness. The research suggests that the UN documents do not adequately reflect these morals suggesting a change for businesses especially in Islamic regions.

Design/methodology/approach

A comprehensive review of religious materials emphasizing morals rather than customs, eternal entity description or negative behaviors yielded 1,243 morals and associated synonyms via six religions (Buddhism, Confucianism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam and Judaism) representing 4.5 billion people. All positive morals were cross-referenced and only common items across all six religions were included. With the 29 common morals, the authors completed a word meaning search and did a second comparison that yielded 8 moral factors or constructs.

Findings

Eight moral factors were found to be common in all major religions (assurance, fairness/honesty, character/integrity, charity/compassion, environment, tolerance, sacrifice and seriousness). By using the scientific method (Axioms), the authors argue that theism is a better beginning to researching morals and values within business and marketing.

Social implications

Multinationals should be made aware of the disconnect between the underlying problems of the Global Business Compacts’ values and the global morals identified. The results suggest adopting a codification system based on the pertinent morals as related to economic theories: capitalism, socialism and theism. The use of theism as a base to business and marketing ethics includes billions of customers and employees and their belief systems that should increase the validity and reliability of actions associated with corporate social responsibility, the environment and best practices.

Originality/value

The UN Declaration and subsequent Global Business Compact are argued to be flawed by its exclusion of religious morals and the historical period in which it was created. By using the scientific method and creating two axioms, the base to all business and marketing ethics must shift to the common moral factors identified.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

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Book part

Michael Jakobsen, Verner Worm and Xin Li

When analyzing modes of navigating a multi-cultural environment in a multinational corporation (MNC), most studies employ an etic approach that delineates how, for…

Abstract

When analyzing modes of navigating a multi-cultural environment in a multinational corporation (MNC), most studies employ an etic approach that delineates how, for example, multi-cultural companies thrive and maneuver in a likewise multi-cultural business contexts. This approach implies the use of theoretical models and empirical observations that from a methodological view identify an employee as either an objectified agent or as an anonymous “other,” indicating that such approaches are rooted in an ethnocentric academic tradition. Acknowledging the merits of this tradition, we take the methodological approach a step further and introduce an emic or contextualized approach that makes employees themselves provide the bulk of data on how and why they position themselves in a multi-cultural organization the way they do. The main objective of this chapter is thus to discuss how employees develop personal strategies to navigate in a complex multi-cultural organization. The study takes off by developing a theoretical model for how to approach emic studies and then proceeds to suggest a methodological approach that is capable of providing empirical data for a model based on a combination of both etic and emic approaches. This constitutes a first step towards developing a generic model of how to deal with context. In order to test the model, the empirical focus will be on the relationship between the headquarter of the Danish MNC, Maersk Line, in Denmark and its subsidiaries in Asia. This relationship is analyzed on the basis of interviews in the Danish headquarter and in the local offices in Tokyo, Kuala Lumpur, and Penang.

Details

The Responsive Global Organization
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-831-4

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Article

M.H. Saffaripour and M.A. Mehrabian

The purpose of this paper is to predict the global solar radiation intensity in areas where meteorological stations do not exist and information on solar radiation cannot…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to predict the global solar radiation intensity in areas where meteorological stations do not exist and information on solar radiation cannot be obtained experimentally.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach to achieve the objective of the paper is developing multiple regression relations between the global solar radiation intensity (the dependent variable) and geographical, geometrical, astronomical and meteorological parameters (the independent variables). The independent variables used for this purpose were selected based on their ease of measurability outside the meteorological station and without expensive equipment. The number of independent variables is arbitrarily chosen and directly affects the accuracy of predictions.

Findings

Linear regression relations using one, two, three, four, five, six, and seven independent variables were developed to predict the global solar radiation intensity on horizontal surfaces. An advanced computer program based on least square analysis was used to obtain the regression coefficients. The relations having the highest correlation coefficients were selected. The study shows even when only one independent variable (declination angle) is used, the one variable regression relation predicts the global solar radiation with an accuracy that is satisfactory in most engineering applications.

Originality/value

The diversity of regression relations introduced in this paper gives the engineer such a broad freedom of choice, that knowing only an astronomical parameter of the site makes him capable of estimating the global solar radiation intensity within acceptable margins. The predicted values of global solar radiation intensity by this approach can be used for the design and performance estimation in solar applications. The statistical model developed in this research was validated when compared with the measured data in Yazd airport. The measured data used to analyze the model equations were collected in a 13‐year period. No investigation of this type exists having such degree of accuracy in geographical, geometrical, astronomical and meteorological parameters in Iran.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 19 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article

Veronika Tarnovskaya, Ulf Elg and Steve Burt

The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between corporate branding and market driving. This is achieved by focusing on key dimensions of brand identity such…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between corporate branding and market driving. This is achieved by focusing on key dimensions of brand identity such as brand values and staff behaviours, while acknowledging the role of vision and organisational culture. The links between these brand constituents and the actual activities of the firm in a market are explored through interactions with stakeholders.

Design/methodology/approach

This research is based on an in‐depth case study of IKEA at a corporate level and its local market activities in Russia. The single‐case approach is used to generate insights into how corporate branding is related to market driving practices and to identify the mechanisms of market driving in the Russian market.

Findings

The corporate brand provides a further source of the “leap” in customer value recognised as a requirement for a market driving approach. Through a case study of IKEA in Russia it is shown that the core values of the brand guide both the behaviour and activities of internal stakeholders and the relationships with external stakeholders, and the interactions between the corporate “global” brand values and local market level activities are explored.

Originality/value

The paper provides insights on the role of a corporate brand as a driving force of market driving from a broad stakeholder perspective.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 36 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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