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The research proposition of this paper is that multinational enterprises (MNEs) were important in the process of growth and divergence that took place in the world in the…
The research proposition of this paper is that multinational enterprises (MNEs) were important in the process of growth and divergence that took place in the world in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The rate of growth of GDP per capita was unprecedented, but it was coupled with an increasing gap between the developed and the developing countries. MNEs are even more important in the growth and convergence process that started at the beginning of the twenty-first century where the gap is closing. Global sourcing is the strategy that has led to closing the gap while high growth continues. The paper aims to discuss these issues.
The study is based on macroeconomics general equilibrium model in an imperfect market and on looking at the inventive process as the driving process of the development and the location of MNEs. Using a financial economics model of assets and liabilities, it is shown that MNEs affect the geopolitical distribution of income and wealth through expanding their liabilities. The methodology is a combination of applying economic model and using historical and current data to motivate the use of the model and to validate the models and the conclusions derived from them.
MNEs and major global companies before the name MNE was used were shaped by major macroeconomic processes like the inventive process and the same time they were the prime movers of the two major economic processes of the last 200 years: growth and divergence and growth and convergence. The ideas-led growth model shows why MNEs are becoming larger. As MNEs became bigger they start to import inputs through value maximizing strategy of global sourcing. This led to transfer of value to suppliers in emerging markets that grow over time and eventually it led to new MNEs from emerging markets large countries like China and from smaller countries in Asia and elsewhere. The growth convergence process and the resulting changes in the geopolitical distribution of MNEs is assisted by rapid changes in technology that reduces transactions cost. The continuation of rapid changes in transactions costs is likely to change the current structure, strategy and the location of MNEs and may reverse the growth convergence process once more.
The study begins with aggregate macroeconomic processes and relates them to the development of MNEs and in particular to the development of MNEs from emerging markets. It highlights the importance of global value chains and global sourcing in the process of growth and divergence and the turning of the “Wheel for Fortune” toward China and India as it has been prior to the sixteenth century.
The ability to operate global distribution channels of products is commonly considered a critical determinant of a manufacturer’s competitiveness. Nowadays, many products…
The ability to operate global distribution channels of products is commonly considered a critical determinant of a manufacturer’s competitiveness. Nowadays, many products are often complemented with value-added services challenging the efficacy of the status quo of distribution channels. Investigating this rather new phenomenon, the purpose of this paper is to provide an initial understanding of the implications of servitization for manufacturers’ global business-to-business (B2B) distribution.
The aim is to elaborate service-dominant logic (SDL) in the context of global B2B distribution. The study builds on case study data collected from a medium-sized European manufacturing company offering production equipment and solutions, and three of its global distributors.
The results indicate that the co-producing customer value, the increasing role of operant resources of both a distributor and a manufacturer, and triadic co-creation between a manufacturer, a distributor and an end customer have increasing importance in the indirect distribution network.
Data are limited to data collected from a single in-depth case study. The results of this study should be investigated by collecting more data in a broader context in the form of surveys.
Several guidelines related to global distribution are developed for managers, and current distributor selection criteria are completed to meet the needs of this servitization approach.
Empirical research on servitizing manufacturers with global B2B distribution is scarce. This paper employs SDL to provide an in-depth understanding of the implications of servitization for distribution.
Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination…
Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination of some legal aspects concerning MNEs, cyberspace and e‐commerce as the means of expression of the digital economy. The whole effort of the author is focused on the examination of various aspects of MNEs and their impact upon globalisation and vice versa and how and if we are moving towards a global digital economy.
Globalization of organizations necessitates the development of a network organizational configuration. This new form of organization requires managers to become boundary…
Globalization of organizations necessitates the development of a network organizational configuration. This new form of organization requires managers to become boundary spanners between the various organizations aligned in the global business network. The question becomes how are these boundary‐spanning managers going to be identified and selected for global assignments. This paper examines the staffing options for marketing managers of integrative (i.e. relational) and market (i.e. transactional) modes of norm‐based control of global channels of distribution. Both transaction cost analysis and focus theory are used to identify which control mechanism would be most appropriate for each inter‐organizational situation.
Global e‐commerce, created by the convergence of information and communication technologies, transcends business boundaries while changing the landscape of the…
Global e‐commerce, created by the convergence of information and communication technologies, transcends business boundaries while changing the landscape of the twenty‐first century global economy. Although still in an infancy stage its impact has already been colossal in just a few years. Various constituencies (such as individuals, institutions, governments, and nations) around the world are recognizing its benefits. Given its importance and unprecedented growth potential, there is a need for research addressing various e‐commerce issues, especially the dimensions influencing its growth and role as a new electronic distribution channel. This article provides a framework for analyzing the issues involved in leveraging the Internet as a global distribution tool. While focusing on this theme, the article also presents the discussion of the key building blocks impacting the diffusion of global e‐commerce and future research directions.
The purpose of this paper is to research the relationship between terrorism and multinational enterprises (MNEs), focusing on operational costs, marketing planning, supply…
The purpose of this paper is to research the relationship between terrorism and multinational enterprises (MNEs), focusing on operational costs, marketing planning, supply chain management, and distribution activities. Terrorism is a growing threat to internationally active firms, but there has been no empirical research to address the distinctive challenges that terrorism poses for the international marketing activities of firms.
The paper opted for an exploratory investigation, following a two-phase research design. In the first phase it was based on qualitative interviews with internationally active firms. In the second phase, an online survey of a large sample of international firms based in the USA was performed. All measures were developed specifically for the study.
The paper provides empirical insights about how terrorism affects MNEs, especially those operating in emerging markets. It suggests that terrorism accounts for significant costs in the international marketing budget of MNEs, as well as in planning, and the design of supply chains and distribution channels. Findings also reveal that firms with significant resources and international experience appear to cope better with terrorism’s effects.
Given the early stage of empirical research on terrorism and international marketing, this study was necessarily exploratory.
The paper includes implications and suggestions for multinational companies to increase the security of their businesses through the development of corporate preparedness.
Terrorism represents not only an organizational crisis at the level of a firm, but it affects the whole society.
This paper fulfills an identified need to study the relationship between the growing threat of terrorism and international business.
This paper presents a systematic method for classifying research on international channels of distribution. It is used to examine 79 articles published during an 18‐year…
This paper presents a systematic method for classifying research on international channels of distribution. It is used to examine 79 articles published during an 18‐year period (1988‐2005). Based on content analysis, each article is classified by its primary research framework. Two frameworks are identified: (1) structural ‐ based on the economic and organizational aspects of international channels of distribution; and (2) behavioral ‐ based on the exchange relationship between channel members from different national environments. This simple organizing system offers a comprehensive way to analyze scholarship that has emerged in the field. For managers, it can bring the theoretical and practical developments together in an understandable fashion as they seek to interpret and apply research findings. For scholars, it may bring focus to an increasingly complex area of international business and guide future research efforts.
This paper deals with the dynamics of internationalisation and globalisation of the freight‐forwarding and logistics service providers. A case study, based on E.ON…
This paper deals with the dynamics of internationalisation and globalisation of the freight‐forwarding and logistics service providers. A case study, based on E.ON, Stinnes, Schenker, BTL and other European and non‐European firms, is presented in order to illustrate the process. The organisation and strategies developed by the firms under study with the aim to expand their activities on European, transnational and global levels are presented. The information was gathered using the Internet as a research tool. Focus is placed on the organisational routes used by the firms in order to expand their activities outside of their home base, and on their business strategies.
This paper explores how key insights from highly cited and well-used frameworks that describe the strategies and structures of MNCs are reflected in the international…
This paper explores how key insights from highly cited and well-used frameworks that describe the strategies and structures of MNCs are reflected in the international configurations of US MNCs. After reviewing existing frameworks that highlight different MNC choices regarding the integration, responsiveness, and dispersion of firm value chain activities, I perform a cluster analysis on a comprehensive and confidential database of US MNCs. The results reveal five configurations which both support the importance of key insights from existing frameworks while at the same time highlighting underexplored configuration characteristics, like the low levels of integration in US MNCs, the global sourcing arrangements for accessing foreign inputs and distribution, different approaches to regional expansion, and the limited geographic expansion of US MNCs pursuing product diversification. I argue that these underexplored characteristics suggest directions for future research to better reflect the international configuration choices of MNCs.