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Article
Publication date: 12 September 2016

Satoshi Sugahara and Kim Watty

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the overall perceptions of accounting academics from Japan and Australia about global convergence of accounting education; and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the overall perceptions of accounting academics from Japan and Australia about global convergence of accounting education; and their beliefs about the contextual factors affecting the goal of global convergence.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample of this research was collected via a questionnaire-based survey of accounting academics who were teaching at the undergraduate and postgraduate level in tertiary institutes in Japan and Australia. This study adapted the questionnaire originally used by Sugahara (2013) to extend the survey of accounting academics in Japan, to accounting academics in Australia. The questionnaire administered in this research asked their overall perceptions regarding the convergence of accounting education and associated contextual factors.

Findings

Findings reveal some similarities and differences across contextual factors that influence academic perceptions about global convergence. Further the authors identify a link between academic position and respondent views of global convergence.

Originality/value

The findings of this cross-country study provide insights for the International Accounting Education Standards Boards (IAESB) about the views of a key stakeholder group, accounting academics. Further the authors recommend the development of a communications strategy that targets accounting academics, and better explains the work of the IAESB and the intended value of global convergence using IES.

Details

Asian Review of Accounting, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1321-7348

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Article
Publication date: 31 July 2014

Lisa Baudot

The purpose of this paper is to add to the literature on accounting change in explaining a decade-long effort by the FASB and IASB to develop a set of global accounting…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to add to the literature on accounting change in explaining a decade-long effort by the FASB and IASB to develop a set of global accounting standards accepted by markets worldwide. This research studies the effort as one of “convergence” in accounting standards and aims to bring theoretical and empirical clarity as to how we can conceptualize the notion of convergence.

Design/methodology/approach

Through a longitudinal study of 23 key FASB-IASB projects undertaken between 2002 and 2011, this paper analyzes processes of accounting change using a blend of institutional theory and political economy. A process perspective provides a method to unfold variants of accounting change by identifying patterns that help us to understand the conditions for and characteristics of convergence.

Findings

The author highlights specific variants of accounting change observed during the convergence effort – direct emulation, difference reduction and progressive redesign – as analogous to institutional processes. Where direct emulation and difference reduction reflect institutional processes of imitation and editing or translation, respectively, the author shows how progressive redesign of accounting standards goes beyond these classical categorizations to encompass the notion of “institutional co-construction” (Djelic, 2008).

Research limitations/implications

A longer (shorter) period of study and a greater (lesser) number of projects could be argued for a more comprehensive (more detailed) study; however, limiting the period and project to the terms of the formal convergence program allows for forces driving this particular process to be isolated and their effects extrapolated to broader thinking on accounting and global regulation.

Originality/value

This research informs the global standard-setting community of the evolution of convergence and the factors which impact that evolution by revealing the influence of various institutions, actors and events over time. In particular, the author identifies the impact of the competitive and cooperative conditions under which the FASB-IASB convergence effort operated and reveal how these conditions were influenced by the macro-level economic and political developments occurring over the period.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 27 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

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Article
Publication date: 23 June 2014

Andrey Korotayev and Julia Zinkina

A substantial number of researchers have investigated the global economic dynamics of this time to disprove unconditional convergence and refute its very idea, stating the…

Abstract

Purpose

A substantial number of researchers have investigated the global economic dynamics of this time to disprove unconditional convergence and refute its very idea, stating the phenomenon of conditional convergence instead. However, most respective papers limit their investigation period with the early or mid-2000s. In the authors’ opinion, some of the global trends which revealed themselves particularly clearly in the second half of the 2000s call for a revision of the convergence issue. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Several methodologies for measuring the global convergence/divergence trends exist in the economic literature. This paper seeks to contribute to the existing literature on unconditional β-convergence of the per capita incomes at the global level.

Findings

In the recent years, the gap between high-income and middle-income countries is decreasing especially rapidly. The gap between high-income and low-income countries, meanwhile, is decreasing at a much slower pace. At the same time, the gap between middle-income and low-income countries is actually widening. Indeed, in the early 1980s GDP per capita in the low-income countries was on average three times lower than in the middle-income countries, and this gap was totally overshadowed by the more than ten-time abyss between the middle-income and the high-income countries. Now, however, the GDP per capita in low-income countries lags behind the middle-income ones by more than five times, which is largely the same as the gap (rapidly contracting in the recent years) between the high-income and the middle-income countries. This clearly suggests that the configuration of the world system has experienced a very significant transformation in the recent 30 years.

Research limitations/implications

The research concentrates upon the dynamics of the gap in per capita income between the high-income, the middle-income, and the low-income countries.

Originality/value

This paper's originality/value lies in drawing attention to the specific changes in the structure of global convergence/divergence patterns and their implications for the low-income countries.

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2001

J.N. Reddy and S. Mukherjee

A practical method for localized h ‐adaptive error estimation is presented based on interior estimates of the Galerkin solution. A previously published hybrid interior…

Abstract

A practical method for localized h ‐adaptive error estimation is presented based on interior estimates of the Galerkin solution. A previously published hybrid interior error estimator is revisited here and proper bounds are established. It is shown that in the present form of the estimator both the local accelerated convergence and the global superconvergence properties are maintained. The estimator is based on energy norms and all the computations are based on groups of connected elements. The resulting form of the estimator is shown to be simpler and more amenable to computational implementation than the previous one. Two plane elasticity problems are chosen as examples and both structured and h ‐adaptive global initial meshes are considered to compute the convergence characteristics of the solution in a few preselected zones. The solutions are benchmarked against conventional global h ‐adaptive superconvergent error estimators.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 18 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Abstract

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Optimal Growth Economics: An Investigation of the Contemporary Issues and the Prospect for Sustainable Growth
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-44450-860-7

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Article
Publication date: 5 March 2020

Noriyuki Tsunogaya and Chris Patel

The paper extends the literature by examining the impact of politics, conflicts and compromises resulting from external pressures (gaiatsu, 外圧) and internal pressures …

Abstract

Purpose

The paper extends the literature by examining the impact of politics, conflicts and compromises resulting from external pressures (gaiatsu, 外圧) and internal pressures (naiatsu, 内圧) on the convergence and globalization of accounting and accountability in Japan.

Design/methodology/approach

Using Japan as a case study, it is examined how and why the stimulus for significant accounting reforms arises, how the government manages and reacts to the powerful forces of gaiatsu and how it balances naiatsu among key stakeholders.

Findings

The ongoing changes in accounting regulations in Japan are neither the result of an unmediated response to gaiatsu nor the outcome of naiatsu. Rather, Japanese accounting changes are the consequence of complex external interactions and internal compromises. Specifically, Japan demonstrates a repetitive pattern of conflict management, which alters the domestic power balance based on naiatsu, and forces the Japanese government to make compromises to policy changes initiated by gaiatsu.

Research limitations/implications

The findings have implications for the development of accounting and accountability, the globalized business world and international accounting research because they challenge claims made by global standards setters that international standards such as International Financial Reporting Standards are superior, are built on so-called “best practices” and are relevant to all countries.

Originality/value

Invoking the concepts of gaiatsu and naiatsu is a critical approach to understanding Japan's convergence toward economic liberalism and Anglo-American models of accounting and accountability.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

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Article
Publication date: 29 March 2011

A.N.M. Waheeduzzaman

The purpose of this paper is to explore the competitiveness and convergence of the G7 and big emerging markets (BEM) nations using various economic, demographic, trade…

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2096

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the competitiveness and convergence of the G7 and big emerging markets (BEM) nations using various economic, demographic, trade, investment, and freedom and governance criteria.

Design/methodology/approach

The two groups of nations, G7 and BEM, are compared on the basis of various longitudinal and cross‐sectional variables. The longitudinal variables are GDP and real GDP growth, per capita GDP, international trade, foreign direct investment, index of ageing, and life expectancy at birth. Cross‐sectional competitive indices are Global competitiveness index, index of economic freedom, Democracy index, Human development index, Gini index, Government effectiveness, and Corruption perception index.

Findings

The findings show that BEM is growing faster than G7 in most economic indicators including GDP, trade, and investment. The growth results in some form of convergence. The freedom and governance infrastructure of the BEM is relatively weak to support their economic growth. The primary challenge of the BEM is coming from the economic interdependence they create in a globalized economy. Overall, the growth presents a new political reality that the world must recognize.

Research limitations/implications

National competitiveness is a long‐term issue. A 30‐year longitudinal analysis may not be long enough to accurately reflect a nation's performance. Evidently, wealth creation in the emerging markets has profound influence in noneconomic areas. Political polarization and military confrontation are not unlikely.

Practical implications

Governments and businesses in G7, BEM, or the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) nations and institutions involved in global governance (e.g. World Bank, IMF, and WEF) may use the findings of the study to determine their policies. We should pay special attention to the global economic interdependence and guard against the negative effects of emerging markets' growth.

Originality/value

The comparative analysis between the G7 and BEM in terms of competitiveness and convergence is an original contribution. Also, the author's insight beyond economics is a unique section to follow. The author is not aware of any other study that has used the two concepts competitiveness and convergence together to understand the emerging markets.

Details

Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

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Article
Publication date: 29 April 2020

James E. Payne

This survey of the literature on the convergence of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions informs researchers on areas for future research by summarizing the countries examined…

Abstract

Purpose

This survey of the literature on the convergence of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions informs researchers on areas for future research by summarizing the countries examined, the types of convergence tested and the methodological approaches undertaken.

Design/methodology/approach

This survey examines peer-reviewed empirical studies of CO2 emissions convergence with respect to country coverage and alternative approaches to test for various types of convergence.

Findings

For large multicountry studies, the support for convergence is quite limited. However, studies focused exclusively on a subset of countries defined by income classification, geographic region or institutional structure reveal the finding of convergence is more prevalent. Studies at the subnational level have primarily been in the cases of the US and China with the exception of two studies across industry sectors in Portugal and Sweden.

Research limitations/implications

This study focuses exclusively on peer-reviewed published studies.

Practical implications

This study is relevant to the design of mitigation strategies to reduce CO2 emissions and the assumption of convergence underlying climate change models.

Social implications

As a major component of greenhouse gas emissions, CO2 emissions is of global importance in its impact on the environment and climate change.

Originality/value

This study provides the most recent and comprehensive survey of the empirical literature on the convergence of CO2 emissions.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 47 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2017

Shanjun Chen and Haibin Duan

The purpose of this paper is to propose an improved optimization method for image matching problem, which is based on multi-scale Gaussian mutation pigeon-inspired…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose an improved optimization method for image matching problem, which is based on multi-scale Gaussian mutation pigeon-inspired optimization (MGMPIO) algorithm, with the objective of accomplishing the complicated image matching quickly.

Design/methodology/approach

The hybrid model of multi-scale Gaussian mutation (MGM) mechanism and pigeon-inspired optimization (PIO) algorithm is established for image matching problem. The MGM mechanism is a nonlinear model, which can adjust the position of pigeons by mutation operation. In addition, the variable parameter (VP) mechanism is exploited to adjust the map and compass factor of the original PIO. Low-cost quadrotor, a type of electric multiple rotorcraft, is used as a carrier of binocular camera to obtain the images.

Findings

This work improved the PIO algorithm by modifying the search strategy and adding some limits, so that it can have better performance when applied to the image matching problem. Experimental results show that the proposed method demonstrates satisfying performance in convergence speed, robustness and stability.

Practical implications

The proposed MGMPIO algorithm can be easily applied to solve practical problems and accelerate convergence speed of the original PIO, and thus enhancing the speed of matching process, which will considerably increase the effectiveness of algorithm.

Originality/value

A hybrid model of the MGM mechanism and PIO algorithm is proposed for image matching problem. The VP mechanism and low-cost quadrotor is also utilized in image matching problem.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 89 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

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Book part
Publication date: 6 November 2012

David Javakhadze, Stephen P. Ferris and Gregory Noronha

Purpose – The question of whether the corporate governance practices of firms in diverse countries are converging to those of U.S. firms, and the extent of convergence or…

Abstract

Purpose – The question of whether the corporate governance practices of firms in diverse countries are converging to those of U.S. firms, and the extent of convergence or divergence, is examined.

Design/methodology/approach – Company level governance measures of board structure and organization, firm audit attributes, antitakeover defenses, and compensation design attributes of international firms are compared with those of U.S. firms.

Findings – We find that the evidence for convergence is more mixed than previously believed, with firms in some nations converging, others essentially static, and a number diverging from U.S. practices. We further determine that country factors such as measures of national economic freedom, increased shareholder rights, and impartial judiciaries help to explain convergence. Greater participation by banks in the national economy is associated with greater divergence from U.S. governance standards. Firm characteristics which are suggestive of a future need for external equity encourage convergence while those which capture the use of leverage or the ability to service additional debt are correlated with greater divergence.

Research limitations/implications – This study suggests that inquiry into whether convergence is occurring might be the wrong question to ask. Rather, our findings suggest that the research focus should be shifted toward an inquiry of what specific areas of governance are converging and in what countries or regions.

Originality/value – This study helps to describe what constitutes effective corporate governance design for firms worldwide. It provides managers with insights on how governance mechanisms can be tailored to reflect local practices and laws.

Details

Advances in Financial Economics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-788-8

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