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Book part
Publication date: 9 August 2016

Jörg Hruby, Lorraine Watkins-Mathys and Thomas Hanke

Within the literature of global mindset there has been much discussion of antecedents. Few attempts have been made, however, to analyze the outcomes of a global mindset…

Abstract

Within the literature of global mindset there has been much discussion of antecedents. Few attempts have been made, however, to analyze the outcomes of a global mindset. Our chapter undertakes a thematic analysis of global mindset antecedents and outcomes in the 1994–2013 literature. Adopting an inductive approach and borrowing methods from international business and managerial cognition studies, we map, assess, and categorize 42 empirical and 10 theoretical studies thematically. We focus on the antecedents and outcomes at individual, group, and organizational levels. We conceptualize corporate global mindset as a multidimensional construct that incorporates global mindset at the individual level and is dependent on a robust communications infrastructure strategy for its cultivation throughout the organization. Our study categorizes antecedents and outcomes by level and identifies the gaps in global mindset outcomes and firm performance for future researchers to address.

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Advances in Global Leadership
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-138-8

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Article
Publication date: 9 November 2015

Sarah De Meulenaer, Nathalie Dens and Patrick De Pelsmacker

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how the globalization (vs localization) of different cues (advertising copy, brand name, spokesperson, brand logo) influences…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how the globalization (vs localization) of different cues (advertising copy, brand name, spokesperson, brand logo) influences consumers’ perceived brand globalness.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted conjoint analyses for two products differing in product category involvement (chocolates vs computer) with 200 consumers from the Netherlands. Additionally, based on cluster analysis, the authors divide respondents into two groups: local vs global consumer culture individuals, and the authors compare the results of the conjoint analysis for these two clusters.

Findings

Advertising copy is most important in determining perceived brand globalness. The spokesperson and the brand logo determine perceived brand globalness more strongly for a low-involvement product, whereas the brand name is more important for a high-involvement product. Further, the spokesperson and the brand logo are relatively more important for global consumer culture individuals, while local consumer culture individuals find the brand name and advertising copy relatively more important.

Practical implications

The most important cue to position a brand as global is the advertising copy. Brand managers of a low-involvement product and/or targeting global-minded consumers should concentrate on the spokesperson and the brand logo to position their brand. Managers of a high-involvement product and/or targeting local-minded people should focus on the brand name.

Originality/value

While a number of researchers have emphasized the importance of perceived brand globalness for international consumer behavior, the present study is the first to the authors’ knowledge to investigate the relative importance of different cues in creating perceptions of brand globalness.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 32 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 6 January 2021

Rexford Abaidoo

This study examines dynamics of global and regional financial market efficiency; and how specific features of the market and other conditions influence variability in such…

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines dynamics of global and regional financial market efficiency; and how specific features of the market and other conditions influence variability in such efficiency.

Design/methodology/approach

The study employs fixed effects statistical approach in its examination of how specific features of financial markets influence variability in its efficiency.

Findings

This study finds that individual IMF defined economic regions tend to exhibits significantly different financial market efficiency characteristics given specific market features and conditions. In regional level comparative analysis (e.g. Europe, Africa, Asia–Pacific etc.) this study finds that incidence of financial market uncertainty is the dominant condition with significant effect on financial market efficiency across all the IMF regions. In the global level analysis, empirical estimates presented suggest that financial market uncertainty, financial institutional depth and financial institutional efficiency tend to have significant positive influence on global financial market efficiency all things being equal. In the same analysis however, this study finds that financial market and financial institutional access growth has significant negative impact on financial market efficiency.

Originality/value

The uniqueness of this study compared to related ones found in the literature stems from its focus on financial market efficiency at the global, and IMF defined regional block level instead of on a specific economy as often found in the literature. Additionally, in contrast to other related studies, this study further examines the role of global financial market uncertainty in its financial market efficiency analysis. Financial market uncertainty variable may be unique to this study because the variable is derived through an econometric process from a base variable.

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American Journal of Business, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1935-5181

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2019

Cristiane Oliveira Viana, Hermes Carvalho, José Correia, Pedro Aires Montenegro, Raphael Pedrosa Heleno, Guilherme Santana Alencar, Abilio M.P. de Jesus and Rui Calçada

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the fatigue process through the dynamic analysis of the global structural model and local static sub-modelling in a critical…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the fatigue process through the dynamic analysis of the global structural model and local static sub-modelling in a critical detail using the hot-spot stress approach. The detail was studied in three different positions at the “Alcácer do Sal” access viaduct, and the methodologies from the IIW and Eurocode EN 1993-1-9 were compared.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the fatigue life process based on the hot-spot stress approach was evaluated using a global dynamic analysis and a local sub-modelling based on a static analysis of welded connections in the “Alcácer do Sal” railway structure, Portugal, taking into consideration the recommendations from IIW and Eurocode EN 1993-1-9. The hot-spot stresses were calculated through the static analysis of the sub-model of the welded connection for each vibration mode with the aim to obtain the temporal stresses using the modal coordinates and modal stresses of the extrapolation points. The Ansys® and Matlab® softwares were used for the numerical analysis and the hot-spot stress calculations, respectively.

Findings

The proposed methodology/approach to obtain fatigue assessment is based on the modal analysis of the global structural model and local static sub-modelling. The modal analysis was used to extract the boundary conditions to be used in the local model to determine the temporal stresses of the extrapolation points. Based on the modal superposition method, the stresses as function of time were obtained for fatigue life evaluation of a critical detail by the hot-spot stress approach. The detail was studied in three different positions.

Originality/value

In the present study, a global-local fatigue methodology based on dynamic analysis of the global structural model and local static sub-modelling of the critical detail using the hot-spot stress approach is proposed. Herein, the modal analysis of the global structural model supported by the modal superposition method was used to obtain the matrix of modal coordinates. The static analysis of the local sub-model for each mode from the modal analysis of global structural model was done to estimate the hot-spot stresses. The fatigue damage calculation was based on S-N curve of the critical detail and rainflow method. The IIW recommendation proved to be more conservative compared to the proposed rules in the Eurocode EN 1993-1-9. The global-local modelling based on dynamic analysis is an important and effective tool for fatigue evaluation in welded joints.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

Mohammad Malekan, Felício Barros, Roque Luiz da Silva Pitangueira, Phillipe Daniel Alves and Samuel Silva Penna

This paper aims to present a computational framework to generate numeric enrichment functions for two-dimensional problems dealing with single/multiple local…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a computational framework to generate numeric enrichment functions for two-dimensional problems dealing with single/multiple local phenomenon/phenomena. The two-scale generalized/extended finite element method (G/XFEM) approach used here is based on the solution decomposition, having global- and local-scale components. This strategy allows the use of a coarse mesh even when the problem produces complex local phenomena. For this purpose, local problems can be defined where these local phenomena are observed and are solved separately by using fine meshes. The results of the local problems are used to enrich the global one improving the approximate solution.

Design/methodology/approach

The implementation of the two-scale G/XFEM formulation follows the object-oriented approach presented by the authors in a previous work, where it is possible to combine different kinds of elements and analyses models with the partition of unity enrichment scheme. Beside the extension of the G/XFEM implementation to enclose the global–local strategy, the imposition of different boundary conditions is also generalized.

Findings

The generalization done for boundary conditions is very important, as the global–local approach relies on the boundary information transferring process between the two scales of the analysis. The flexibility for the numerical analysis of the proposed framework is illustrated by several examples. Different analysis models, element formulations and enrichment functions are used, and the accuracy, robustness and computational efficiency are demonstrated.

Originality/value

This work shows a generalize imposition of different boundary conditions for global–local G/XFEM analysis through an object-oriented implementation. This generalization is very important, as the global–local approach relies on the boundary information transferring process between the two scales of the analysis. Also, solving multiple local problems simultaneously and solving plate problems using global–local G/XFEM are other contributions of this work.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 34 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Book part
Publication date: 4 March 2021

Donald R. Lessard

Strategic analysis in a global setting involves competition in industries that extend across national boundaries and among firms with different national home bases that…

Abstract

Strategic analysis in a global setting involves competition in industries that extend across national boundaries and among firms with different national home bases that may tap into strategic resources in more than one location. Such analysis involves multiple levels: the global order, the global industry, individual countries, the firm (and its ecosystems), and specific activities within the firm. The international business (IB) field, during these three decades, has developed useful analytical frameworks for each of these levels, but integrating them across these levels has often been a challenge. The key integrating concept is value: how is value created, captured, and delivered. As the IB environment becomes more volatile and unpredictable, the importance of identifying and integrating useful frameworks for conducting global strategic analysis is even greater.

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The Multiple Dimensions of Institutional Complexity in International Business Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-245-1

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Book part
Publication date: 30 September 2020

Zophia Edwards

In recent decades, it has become clear that the major economic, political, and social problems in the world require contemporary development research to examine…

Abstract

In recent decades, it has become clear that the major economic, political, and social problems in the world require contemporary development research to examine intersections of race and class in the global economy. Theorists in the Black Radical Tradition (BRT) were the first to develop and advance a powerful research agenda that integrated race–class analyses of capitalist development. However, over time, progressive waves of research streams in development studies have successively stripped these concepts from their analyses. Post-1950s, class analyses of development overlapped with some important features of the BRT, but removed race. Post-1990s, ethnicity-based analyses of development excised both race and class. In this chapter, I discuss what we learn about capitalist development using the integrated race–class analyses of the BRT, and how jettisoning these concepts weakens our understanding of the political economy of development. To remedy our current knowledge gaps, I call for applying insights of the BRT to our analyses of the development trajectories of nations.

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Rethinking Class and Social Difference
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-020-5

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Article
Publication date: 11 June 2018

Regina C.G. Leite, Abilio M.P. de Jesus, José Correia, Patricia Raposo, Renato N. Jorge, Marco Paulo Parente and Rui Calçada

Recent studies have proposed the application of local fatigue approaches based on fracture mechanics or on strain-life material relations for the fatigue analysis of…

Abstract

Purpose

Recent studies have proposed the application of local fatigue approaches based on fracture mechanics or on strain-life material relations for the fatigue analysis of metallic structures. However, only few studies in the literature apply local approaches in the riveted bridges analysis; although these approaches can be applied to any type of connections, requiring a detailed stress analysis of joints and, consequently, considerable computational resources costs. The approach based on S-N curves, formulated in nominal or net stresses, is more usual in the fatigue analysis of riveted bridges. Due to economic factors, riveted bridges have had their operating life extended, while changes in the transport system over the years have subjected such structures to overloads different from those originally planned. These bridges, most of them centenary, were not originally designed accounting for fatigue damage; they represent an important group of structures that are very likely subjected to significant fatigue damage indexes. These factors make necessary detailed residual fatigue life studies to substantiate the decisions of extend (or not) the operational period of these bridges. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The present paper presents a methodology aiming at applying the local approaches in the fatigue analysis of riveted joints of metallic bridges, through the use of sub-modeling techniques and procedures automation. The use of such techniques made such an application viable by keeping the computational costs involved at a moderate level. The proposed procedures were demonstrated using the Trezói Railway Bridge, located on the Beira Alta line, Portugal, built shortly after the Second World War. The proposed set of procedures allowed, through finite elements analysis, to obtain the relevant stresses to perform local fatigue damage analysis. A global structural model was constructed, using beam elements, and local models of a critical node were built with solid finite elements. The structure is analyzed under the passage of regulatory trains. The details of the modeling performed and the computation of the principal stresses in the vicinity of a node and the tangential/circumferential stresses at the holes of two critical riveted connections of that node are analyzed and a fatigue damage analysis is carried out.

Findings

In the proposed submodelling approach, disassembling the complex riveted nodes into riveted subassemblies allowed the evaluation of the local stresses at riveted holes at an affordable computational cost.

Originality/value

A methodology is proposed to allow the application of local fatigue analysis in real complex riveted joints, mitigating the computational costs that would result from a full model of the node with all rivets.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

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Article
Publication date: 11 March 2020

Nussaiba Ashraf

This study aims to investigate the decline of American hegemony as one of the most prominent crises of the modern world order, from a broader perspective that transcends…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the decline of American hegemony as one of the most prominent crises of the modern world order, from a broader perspective that transcends narrow traditional interpretations. The paper assumes that the September 11 events in 2001 have launched the actual decline in American hegemony. Tracing the evolution of US global strategy over the past two decades, the study seeks to analyze the main causes and repercussions of the decline of US hegemony, which would provide a bird’s eye view of what the current global system is going through.

Design/methodology/approach

The study investigates the decline in American hegemony through a longitudinal within-case analysis which focuses on the causal path of decline in hegemony in the case of the USA, since the events of September 11, 2001, and tries to identify the causal mechanisms behind this decline. Following George and Bennet (2005), the study uses process tracing to examine its research question. Process-tracing method seeks to identify the intervening causal process – causal chain or causal mechanisms or the steps in a causal process – that leads to the outcome of a particular case in a specific historical context (Mahoney, 2000; Bennet and Elman, 2006). The study chose this method, as it offers more potential for identifying causal mechanisms and theory testing (George and Bennet, 2005); it opted for a specific procedure, among the variety of process-tracing procedures listed by George and Bennet, which is the detailed narrative presented as a chronicle, accompanied by explicit causal hypotheses. Using this process tracing procedure, the study assumes that American hegemony has witnessed dramatic changes in the aftermath of critical junctures, particularly the events of September 11, 2001, and the financial crises, 2008, which contributed significantly to this decline. Consequently, it traces the impact of these events on the state of American hegemony, in light of the review of contributions of different theories on hegemony in the field of international relations, both traditional and critical. Consequently, introducing the theoretical framework used in the study (the four-dimensional model of hegemony), which transcends criticisms of previous theories.

Findings

The crises of the modern world order and the decline of American hegemony – being the main manifestation of such crises – revealed the inability of the traditional and critical approaches reviewed in the study to interpret this decline and those crises. The reason behind that was the inability of these interpretations to reflect the various dimensions of American hegemony and its decline since the September 11 events. This highlights the importance of using the four-dimensional model, which combines different factors in the analysis and has proved to be an appropriate model for studying the case of American hegemony and its decline after the events of September 11, as it deals with the phenomenon of hegemony as a social relationship based on specific social networks.

Originality/value

Despite the currency and relevance of the decline of US hegemony for both the academic and political world, the topic needed to be analyzed systemically and addressed in a thorough scientific way. Through the application of theoretical concepts into the analysis of empirical data, this study contributes to a field where too often the discourse about decline of American hegemony is led without the required theoretical or conceptual considerations.

Details

Review of Economics and Political Science, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2356-9980

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2015

Steven Landgraf and Abdur Chowdhury

What caused the mid-2000s world commodity price “bubble” and the recent commodity price growth? Some have suggested that rapid global industrial growth over the past…

Abstract

Purpose

What caused the mid-2000s world commodity price “bubble” and the recent commodity price growth? Some have suggested that rapid global industrial growth over the past decade is the key driver of price growth. Others have argued that high commodity prices are a result of excessively loose monetary policy. The purpose of this paper is to extend the current research in this area by incorporating emerging economies, the BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India, and China) nations specifically, into global measures.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses a vector error correction (VEC) model and computes variance decomposition and impulse response functions (IRFs).

Findings

The empirical analysis suggest that the “demand channel” plays a large part in explaining commodity price growth whether BRIC countries are included or excluded from the analysis. However, excess liquidity may also play a part in explaining price growth. In addition, factoring in BRIC country data leads to the conclusion that unexpected movements in liquidity eventually explain more of the variation in commodity prices than unexpected demand shocks. This specific result is not caught in the sample that only incorporates advanced economies.

Research limitations/implications

Despite the theory of Frankel (1986) and the findings of previous global vector autoregression (VAR)/VEC analyses, interest rates, especially shocks, have a minimal impact on consumer and commodity prices. Perhaps future studies should include an interest rate in their analysis that more closely reflects interest rates associated with information used by commodity consumers, producers, and investors. Some analyses such as Hua (1998) use the LIBOR rate, which is highly associated with developed financial markets in the advanced economies. Data quality and availability in the BRIC countries severely limited the length of the time period analyzed and the frequency of the data. Finding longer sample periods or higher frequency data can help to minimize bias in future research. In this paper, monetary aggregates and short-term interest rates were loosely connected to monetary policy. It would also be interesting to directly examine how special programs like quantitative easing influenced global liquidity.

Practical implications

The results of the IRFs and variance decompositions confirm some of the previous findings reported in Belke et al. (2010), Hua (1998), and Swaray (2008) that suggest that positive shocks to liquidity positively impact commodity prices. In particular, both samples suggest that this is a short-run impact that occurs after two quarters. However, in the sample that includes information about liquidity from BRIC countries, excess liquidity positively affects commodity prices after six and seven quarters as well. The insignificant results of Granger causality tests of the effect of monetary variables on commodity prices suggests that this relationship is limited to movements in liquidity that is unexpected by agents in the system. These “shocks” could be attributed to a number of factors including exogenous monetary policy changes such as the unprecedented responses by the Federal Reserve during and after the 2008 global financial crisis.

Social implications

First, empirical research that claims to analyze relationships at a “global” level needs to account for the growing influence of emerging economies and not simply the advanced economies. Otherwise, results may be biased as they were when too much of the forecast error variance in commodity prices was attributed to shocks to output when it should have been attributed to shocks to excess liquidity. Second, those who criticize expansionary monetary policy in the advanced countries, especially by the Federal Reserve, for pushing up commodity prices should also direct their attention toward monetary authorities elsewhere, especially the BRIC countries, since information on excess liquidity from these countries adds to the influence that global excess liquidity has on commodity prices. Third, monetary policymakers in the advanced countries need to closely monitor liquidity in the BRIC countries, since the discrepancies between the ALL and ADV samples suggests that BRIC excess liquidity affects commodity prices in a way that cannot be captured by examining advanced country data alone.

Originality/value

No other paper in this area looked at the BRIC countries.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 42 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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