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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2021

Glenn D. Walters

This study aims to investigate the potential moderating effect of the average annual ambient temperature in 24 European countries on the relationship between criminal thinking…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the potential moderating effect of the average annual ambient temperature in 24 European countries on the relationship between criminal thinking (reactive vs proactive) and juvenile offending (violent vs property).

Design/methodology/approach

The average annual ambient temperatures found in 24 European countries were correlated with measures of reactive vs proactive criminal thinking and violent vs property offending in 56,518 students (50.4% female) from the second International Self-Reported Delinquency Study. These data were analyzed using a multilevel model comprising three Level 1 (student) predictors – age, sex and family structure – one Level 2 (country) predictor – ambient temperature – and two outcome measures – a reactive: proactive criminal thinking index (RPI) and a violent: property offending index (VPI).

Findings

The RPI and VPI correlated significantly with the Level 1 predictors, and the annual ambient temperatures from these 24 countries (Level 2 predictor) correlated positively with RPI and VPI and moderated the effect of reactive criminal thinking (RCT) on violent offending.

Practical implications

These findings indicate that ambient temperature correlates with violent/aggressive offending after the effects of property/non-aggressive offending have been controlled and suggest that ambient temperature may moderate the relationship between RCT and violent offending by affecting the decision-making process.

Originality/value

The contribution made by this study to the literature is that it illustrates how a macro-level influence in the form of average annual temperature can impact on micro-level processes in the form of criminal thinking and violent behavior.

Details

Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3841

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 January 2021

Glenn D. Walters

The purpose of this study was to determine whether core constructs from the control (impulsivity resulting from poor parental discipline leads to crime) and moral (weak moral…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to determine whether core constructs from the control (impulsivity resulting from poor parental discipline leads to crime) and moral (weak moral values lead to crime) models of criminal lifestyle development were capable of predicting crime continuance in early-to-mid adolescent youth.

Design/methodology/approach

Weak parental supervision and lack of remorse for antisocial conduct on the part of the child were correlated with subsequent delinquency in 1,850 (1,685 males, 165 females) early-to-mid adolescent delinquents. Analyses were based exclusively on data extracted from New York City probation, family court and police files.

Findings

Results from a negative binomial regression analysis revealed that both weak parental supervision and lack of remorse for antisocial conduct predicted subsequent delinquency over a period of six months, net the effects of age, sex, ethnicity, prior delinquency, sibling delinquency, negative peer associations, substance use and a felony charge.

Research limitations/implications

These findings provide preliminary support for the control (low parental supervision) and moral (lack of remorse) models of criminal lifestyle development.

Practical implications

Weak parental supervision and failure to express remorse for antisocial actions increased risk of future delinquency by 19% and 29%, respectively. Teaching parents to be more effective disciplinarians and encouraging the development of moral values in youthful offenders may be of value in promoting desistance to crime in early juvenile offenders.

Originality/value

The importance of these results is that they reinforce prior findings obtained using self-report measures with data collected from official records.

Details

Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2009-3829

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 December 2019

Glenn D. Walters

The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how first-time offenders and habitual criminals, while displaying wide differences in offense frequency, appear to follow a similar…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how first-time offenders and habitual criminals, while displaying wide differences in offense frequency, appear to follow a similar pattern in committing crime.

Design/methodology/approach

A conceptual approach is adopted in this paper.

Findings

It is argued that criminal thinking is the common denominator in both patterns, the difference being that habitual criminals have a higher resting level of proactive and reactive criminal thinking than first-time offenders. With an earlier age of onset, the habitual criminal may be more impulsive and reactive than first-time offenders, which partially explains why most low-rate offenders are not identified until adulthood.

Practical implications

Because actual and perceived deterrents to crime correlate weakly, if at all, it is recommended that perceived environmental events and criminal thinking be the primary targets of prevention and intervention programs.

Social implications

Environmental stimuli, such as events that produce general strain, increase opportunities for crime, reinforce criminal associations, irritate the individual and interfere with the deterrent effect of perceived certainty, can both augment and interact with criminal thinking to increase the likelihood of a criminal act in both first-time offenders and habitual criminals.

Originality/value

The unique aspect of this paper is that it illustrates that certain features of crime and criminality are found across offending levels, whereas other features are more specific to a particular level.

Details

Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2009-3829

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 July 2020

Glenn D. Walters

The purpose of this paper is to clarify the relationship between gang affiliation and criminal thinking.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to clarify the relationship between gang affiliation and criminal thinking.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 1,354 youth (1,170 males, 184 females) from the Pathways to Desistance Study served as participants in this study, and a causal mediation path analysis was performed on proactive and reactive criminal thinking, gang affiliation and subsequent offending.

Findings

Using three waves of data, it was determined that the pathway running from reactive criminal thinking to gang affiliation to proactive criminal thinking was significant, whereas the pathway running from proactive criminal thinking to gang affiliation to reactive criminal thinking was not. A four-wave model, in which violent and income offending were appended to the three-wave model, disclosed similar results.

Practical implications

Two separate targets for intervention with youth at risk for gang involvement: proactive and reactive criminal thinking. The impulsive, irresponsible, reckless and disinhibited nature of reactive criminal thinking may best be managed with a secondary prevention approach and cognitive-behavioral skills training; the planned, cold, calculating and amoral nature of proactive criminal thinking may best be managed with a tertiary prevention approach and moral retraining. Trauma therapy may be of assistance to youth who have been victimized over the course of their gang experience.

Originality/value

These findings reveal evidence of a gang selection effect that is independent of the well-documented peer selection effect, in which reactive criminal thinking led to gang affiliation in youthful offenders, particularly non-White offenders, and a gang influence effect, independent of the frequently observed peer selection effect, in which gang affiliation contributed to a rise in proactive criminal thinking.

Details

Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3841

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 June 2018

Glenn D. Walters and Scott A. Duncan

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between differences in performance and verbal intelligence quotients (PIQ and VIQ) and the four facet scores from the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between differences in performance and verbal intelligence quotients (PIQ and VIQ) and the four facet scores from the Psychopathy Checklist–Revised (PCL–R) (Hare, 2003).

Design/methodology/approach

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and PCL–R facet scores provided by 181 male federal inmates as part of a forensic evaluation were analyzed with multiple regression, paired t-tests, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves.

Findings

Of the four PCL–R facet scores, only elevations on Facet 4 (antisocial) produced a significant WAIS-Revised (Wechsler, 1981) PIQ over VIQ (PIQ>VIQ) effect. In addition, only Facet 4 achieved significant ROC accuracy and correlated with the PIQ>VIQ discrepancy after other potentially important variables were controlled. In a follow-up study of 46 male inmates, Facet 4 correlated negatively with the Verbal Comprehension and Working Memory indices of the WAIS–Third Edition (Wechsler, 1997) and accurately classified a significant portion of Perceptual Organization Index (POI)>WMI cases but not a significant portion of POI>VCI cases.

Practical implications

Verbal comprehension and executive function deficits are examined as possible explanations for the relationships observed in this study.

Originality/value

These results have potentially important implications for forensic assessment in that they suggest that only certain specific features of the psychopathy construct are related to the well-known PIQ>VIQ discrepancy.

Details

Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2009-3829

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 July 2016

Morten Hesse and Birgitte Thylstrup

This article presents the Impulsive Lifestyle Counselling program, a time-limited psychoeducational approach to increasing patient awareness of antisocial personality disorder and…

Abstract

Purpose

This article presents the Impulsive Lifestyle Counselling program, a time-limited psychoeducational approach to increasing patient awareness of antisocial personality disorder and its consequences.

Design/methodology/approach

This article describes the ILC program, a program developed as an add-on to treatment for substance use disorders, gives examples of issues and patient-counsellor interactions in the ILC sessions.

Findings

During the ILC sessions the patients engaged with the counsellors in diverse ways, reflecting the varying levels of psychopathology and overall functioning and barriers and incentive for lifestyle changes.

Originality/value

Patients with substance use disorder and comorbid antisocial personality disorder can receive better care with brief counselling that focuses on antisocial behavior and thinking. More diverse evidence-based treatments are needed for this disorder.

Details

Advances in Dual Diagnosis, vol. 9 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-0972

Article
Publication date: 1 February 2004

Abstract

Details

The British Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6646

Abstract

Details

Documents from the History of Economic Thought
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1423-2

Book part
Publication date: 18 February 2004

A.Allan Schmid

The first Wisconsin Ph.D.s who came to MSU with an institutional bent were agricultural economists and included Henry Larzalere (Ph.D. 1938) whose major professor was Asher…

Abstract

The first Wisconsin Ph.D.s who came to MSU with an institutional bent were agricultural economists and included Henry Larzalere (Ph.D. 1938) whose major professor was Asher Hobson. Larzalere recalls the influence of Commons who retired in 1933. Upon graduation, Larzalere worked a short time for Wisconsin Governor Phillip Fox LaFollette who won passage of the nation’s first unemployment compensation act. Commons had earlier helped LaFollette’s father, Robert, to a number of institutional innovations.4 Larzalere continued the Commons’ tradition of contributing to the development of new institutions rather than being content to provide an efficiency apologia for existing private governance structures. He helped Michigan farmers form cooperatives. He taught land economics prior to Barlowe’s arrival in 1948, but primarily taught agricultural marketing. One of his Master’s degree students was Glenn Johnson (see below). Larzalere retired in 1977.

Details

Wisconsin "Government and Business" and the History of Heterodox Economic Thought
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-090-6

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1974

Tom Schultheiss, Lorraine Hartline, Jean Mandeberg, Pam Petrich and Sue Stern

The following classified, annotated list of titles is intended to provide reference librarians with a current checklist of new reference books, and is designed to supplement the…

Abstract

The following classified, annotated list of titles is intended to provide reference librarians with a current checklist of new reference books, and is designed to supplement the RSR review column, “Recent Reference Books,” by Frances Neel Cheney. “Reference Books in Print” includes all additional books received prior to the inclusion deadline established for this issue. Appearance in this column does not preclude a later review in RSR. Publishers are urged to send a copy of all new reference books directly to RSR as soon as published, for immediate listing in “Reference Books in Print.” Reference books with imprints older than two years will not be included (with the exception of current reprints or older books newly acquired for distribution by another publisher). The column shall also occasionally include library science or other library related publications of other than a reference character.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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