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Article
Publication date: 28 May 2020

András Jakab, Viktor Hlavicka, Ágoston Restás and Eva Lubloy

During the building designing, it is very important to deal with the fire resistance of the structures. The designed materials for escape routes should be selected to…

Abstract

Purpose

During the building designing, it is very important to deal with the fire resistance of the structures. The designed materials for escape routes should be selected to ensure the usability of the structures until the time of escape. Planning affects the glass structures similarly, so these can also be partition walls and load bearing structures, although the latter is less applied on escape routes. The heat protection of the glasses can be improved with heat-protective foils, while fire protection is provided by gel intumescent material.

Design/methodology/approach

To research the topic of fire resistance, laboratory experiments were carried out on small-scaled glass elements with thermal protection foil at Budapest University of Technology and Economics at the Department of Construction Materials and Technologies.

Findings

Fire protection of small model specimens was tested with blowtorch fire and furnace heat load. During the experiments, six foils were tested. Single pane glass, double layered and triple glazed specimens were tested with blowtorch fire.

Originality/value

Fire protection of small model specimens was tested with blowtorch fire and furnace heat load. During the experiments, six foils were tested. Single pane glass, double layered and triple glazed specimens were tested with blowtorch fire. In case of heat-protected glazing, the foils on the “protected” side of the single pane glass do not have a fire protection effect based on blowtorch fire test. For double glassed specimens, the P35 foil has a perceptible effect, even for the requirements of the flame breakthrough (E, integrity), when the foil is placed on the inner side (position 3) of the second glass layer. The stratification of each triple glazed specimens was effective against blowtorch fire load (3 M, S4&P35), so (EI, integrity and isolation) it can meet the requirements of flame breakthrough and thermal insulation.

Details

Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-2317

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1977

M.J. Aggleton

Non‐woven glass epoxy laminates are compared with paper phenolic and woven glass epoxy, indicating the advantages and limitations of the newer materials. Certain…

Abstract

Non‐woven glass epoxy laminates are compared with paper phenolic and woven glass epoxy, indicating the advantages and limitations of the newer materials. Certain electrical properties are compared together with thermal and dimensional stability performances. This paper was presented at the Institute of Metal Finishing Printed Circuit Group Symposium “Circuits 77” in London during March 1977.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2006

Shobha Manikandan, Jagannath, V.K. Shrikhande and G.P. Kothiyal

To study the degradation behaviour of borosilicate glass, which is suitable for hermetic sealing with Molybdenum and Kovar (Fe/Co/Ni) alloys, as a function of…

Abstract

Purpose

To study the degradation behaviour of borosilicate glass, which is suitable for hermetic sealing with Molybdenum and Kovar (Fe/Co/Ni) alloys, as a function of concentration and temperature in both acidic and alkaline media for long durations, up to 160 h.

Design/methodology/approach

The degradation (weight loss in mg/cm2 of the glass sample) was determined by immersing the glass sample in HCl and NaOH solutions at different temperatures for different periods extending up to 300 h. The damage to the glass surface was seen under an optical microscope and the chemical species on the corroded surface were identified by electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis.

Findings

The borosilicate glass, having the nominal composition 0.70 SiO2, 0.039 Na2O, 0.028 K2O, 0.21 B2O3, 0.01 Al2O3 was synthesized by melt and quench techniques. Degradation (corrosion) behaviour of this glass was investigated by immersing glass samples in 5 and 10 per cent HCl and 5 per cent NaOH solutions at different temperatures up to 90°C, for different periods and measuring dissolution rate (weight loss in mg/cm2 of the sample). Dissolution rates were found to be 5.47 mg/cm2 and 46.77 mg/cm2 in 5 per cent NaOH at 60 and 90°C, respectively, whereas they were comparatively low (2.59 and 5.80 mg/cm2 at 60 and 90°C, respectively, in 5 per cent HCl medium) after 160 h of total immersion period. The plot of dissolution rates against the temperatures showed the nonlinear behaviour at higher temperatures, probably due to the change in mechanism of corrosion. XPS studies exhibited the chemical species on the corroded surfaces. The optical microscopy of the corroded surface revealed that the corrosion mechanisms were different in acid and alkali media.

Research limitations/implications

The degradation behaviour of borosilicate glass having a specific composition has been investigated as a function of concentration and temperature in both acid and alkaline media. The mixed alkali effect on the degradation behaviour may be studied by varying relative amount of Na2O and K2O in the glass composition.

Practical implications

The glass composition under the present study has been used for fabrication of matched type glass‐to‐metal (GM) seals with kovar alloy. In this respect the present study is significant in deciding the environmental conditions for its use.

Originality/value

The degradation behaviour of borosilicate glass having alkali and alkaline earth metal oxides has been investigated as a function of concentration and temperature in both acid and alkali media. The findings in this paper have the potential implications in deciding the environmental conditions for use of GM seals fabricated using this glass.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 53 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1997

B. Josey

Examines the use of glass for glazing in buildings, concentrating on the four basic types: ordinary annealed glass; toughened glass, laminated glass and wired glass

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Abstract

Examines the use of glass for glazing in buildings, concentrating on the four basic types: ordinary annealed glass; toughened glass, laminated glass and wired glass. Claims that, if the limitations of glass are understood, we have a wonderful, versatile, economic and durable material with as yet unexplored potential.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1961

FOLLOWING extensive alterations to the aircraft‐glass department at the Kings Norton, Birmingham Factory of Triplex Safety Glass Company Limited, we were recently invited…

Abstract

FOLLOWING extensive alterations to the aircraft‐glass department at the Kings Norton, Birmingham Factory of Triplex Safety Glass Company Limited, we were recently invited to witness the production of high‐strength glass panels for aircraft. The Triplex aircraft‐glass division, which was originally established to produce thick bullet‐proof glass for military aircraft during the last war, is now processing similar high‐strength glasses for such diverse uses as drive‐in banks, bullet‐proof vehicles, ships' bridges, diesel locomotives and, of course, military and civil aircraft clear vision panels. The Company at present supplies approximately 95 per cent of the aircraft glass used in this country, including panels for the V‐bombers, the VC.10, Trident, TSR.2, Buccaneer, Vanguard, Comet, Sea Vixen, Hunter and Viscount. Windscreens for the Bristol T.188 are also being produced.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Article
Publication date: 30 January 2007

B. Das, S.K. Sahu and B.C. Ray

The objective of the present work is to ascertain the failure modes under different loading speeds along with change in percentage of constituents of FRP composites.

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of the present work is to ascertain the failure modes under different loading speeds along with change in percentage of constituents of FRP composites.

Design/methodology/approach

This involves experimental investigation of FRP composites with woven roving fibers and matrix. Different types of composites, i.e. glass: epoxy, glass: polyester and (carbon+glass): epoxy are used in the investigation with change in percentage of constituents. The variability of fiber content of the composite is in the range of 0.55‐0.65 weight fractions. The matrix dominated property, like inter laminar shear strength (ILSS) has been studied by three point bend test using INSTRON 1195 material testing machine with increasing five cross head velocities.

Findings

The variation of ILSS of laminates of FRP composites is significant for low loading speed and is not so prominent for high speed. The variation of ILSS are observed to be dependent on the type and amount of constituents present in the composites. The laminates with carbon fiber shows higher ILSS than that of glass fiber composites. The laminates with epoxy matrix shows higher ILSS than polyester matrix composites for the same fiber. There is no significant variation of ILSS beyond loading speed 200 mm/min and this can be used for specifications of testing. Matrix resins such as polyester and epoxy are known to be highly rate sensitive. Carbon fiber are relatively rate independent and E‐glass fibers are rate sensitive. Woven roving carbon glass fiber reinforced polymer shows small rate dependence and woven roving glass fiber reinforced polymer shows significant rate sensitivity.

Originality/value

The findings are based on original experimental investigations in the laboratories of the institute and can be used for characterization of composites.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 79 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2001

Yasuyuki Kimura

A developmental project has been initiated to create a new type of glass fabric, whose fibers are to be uniformly distributed in the laminate so as to comply with the…

Abstract

A developmental project has been initiated to create a new type of glass fabric, whose fibers are to be uniformly distributed in the laminate so as to comply with the requirement of homogeneity. As a result, various types of glass fiber fabrics have successfully woven through the uniquely developed “MS process”, and it has been verified that each of the glass fabrics possesses the most suitable structure to attain uniform distribution in the laminates. The laminates, using the newly developed glass fabrics, have proved that the micro‐diameter drilling, that is laser drilling and mechanical drilling with 0.1mm diameter, can be performed very easily with less drill bit breakage, and produces uniform drill holes. It has also been proved that the laminates with the new glass fabrics reveal improved mechanical properties such as lower CTE, decreased warp and twist and better dimensional stability compared with conventional laminates of glass epoxy. Various styles of new glass fabric cover the wide range of thickness from 100 microns down to 27 microns.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1964

J.R. Beattie

The mechanism of stress formation in glass under‐going conditions of rapid cooling, and the factors affecting the properties of the toughened glass produced are discussed…

Abstract

The mechanism of stress formation in glass under‐going conditions of rapid cooling, and the factors affecting the properties of the toughened glass produced are discussed. The application of techniques for measuring the temperature of glass, to the control and study of the toughening process are described.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 36 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1964

A.J. Holland

The construction of windscreen panels for modern aircraft is described and the role of each component in meeting the requirements for pressure strength, bird resistance…

Abstract

The construction of windscreen panels for modern aircraft is described and the role of each component in meeting the requirements for pressure strength, bird resistance and optical performance is discussed. The influence of the physical properties of the windscreen components on the performance of complete laminated windscreens is discussed and the limitations imposed by these properties indicated. Silicone inter‐layers are beginning to replace polyvinyl butyral inter‐layers in high‐speed aircraft laminated transparencies when the temperatures reached are above the working limit of the conventional interlayers. New types of glass capable of withstanding prolonged exposure to higher temperatures than soda lime silica glass without loss of toughening stress, and also capable of withstanding more severe thermal shock without fracture, have been developed.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 36 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1987

N.M. Davey and F.W. Wiese

Silver‐glass die attach materials represent a significant advance in silicon packaging technology and are expected to displace gold‐silicon eutectic bonding as the…

Abstract

Silver‐glass die attach materials represent a significant advance in silicon packaging technology and are expected to displace gold‐silicon eutectic bonding as the preferred method of die attachment for high reliability applications. In this paper the rle of the glass in the adhesion mechanism of silver‐glass to gold and chromium/gold backed die has been determined using thermal analysis and X‐ray diffraction in addition to scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalysis of the sintered film. An adhesion mechanism is proposed in which the glass of the silver‐glass system migrates to the die interface during the firing cycle and chemically bonds to the silicon which is present at the surface of the gold‐silicon eutectic. Adhesion between the die back and the silver of the die attach material is by means of a simple mechanical bond between ‘fingers’ of glass and the sintered silver matrix. Thermodynamic and kinetic considerations suggest that insufficient silicon dioxide may be formed using chromium/gold backed die for acceptable adhesion. Processing changes are proposed which resolve this adhesion problem.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

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