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Book part

Lynn Ilon and M'zizi Samson Kantini

For generations, higher education in much of Sub-Saharan Africa has been disengaged from the problems of local communities largely due to the design of colonial education

Abstract

For generations, higher education in much of Sub-Saharan Africa has been disengaged from the problems of local communities largely due to the design of colonial education and the later thinking of industrial models of education where knowledge was received from experts at the top of the knowledge ladder. But new knowledge economics, the possibility of building collective learning frameworks and the need to solve globally linked problems that involve local communities is changing this thinking. Globally linked problems such as disease, environment, social and political stability and globalisation manifest locally and create challenges locally in various ways. This chapter explores the leadership of Zambia’s flagship university in serving the needs of local communities’ sustainable development with research and service resources of its graduate education system and its network. Understanding that knowledge is now formed both by collectives of people at the community level that is linked through major networks, it is particularly important that universities take a leadership role in building linkages to local communities. Specifically, leadership in the following community linkage areas are examined: community service schemes, consultancy services, research and project partnerships, community field tours and capacity development.

Details

Collective Efficacy: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on International Leadership
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-680-4

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Article

Mary Tyler E. Holmes

The purpose of this paper is to explore the challenges facing the higher education system in Egypt particularly in the area of education quality. It builds upon several…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the challenges facing the higher education system in Egypt particularly in the area of education quality. It builds upon several existing studies conducted in Egypt to make the case for improving education outcomes while analyzing the social, political, and economic ramifications of the current higher education system.

Design/methodology/approach

Samples were drawn from existing studies conducted in Egypt by experts in the education field.

Findings

Results suggest that the higher education admissions process should become more competitive thereby limiting the number of enrollments. More resources should be devoted towards higher education with a particular emphasis on workforce development and Egypt should seek the help of donor agencies and experts to advise and reform the system.

Research limitations/implications

The findings were based on existing literature and were not conducted in Egypt which somewhat limited qualitative analysis.

Originality/value

A contribution is made to the literature as the research reinforces the view that the lack of quality in the higher education system fails to prepare graduates to the workforce and impacts on the social stability of Egypt. By questioning aspects of the current higher education system and calling for more freedom of research and expression, the research raises interesting questions about the impact of closed societies on education systems.

Details

Education, Business and Society: Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-7983

Keywords

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Case study

Muhammad Nadeem Dogar

This case study aims to expect the following learning outcomes. A better understanding of the nature of a psychological contract being developed by employees in non-profit…

Abstract

Learning outcomes

This case study aims to expect the following learning outcomes. A better understanding of the nature of a psychological contract being developed by employees in non-profit organizations, especially working in the areas of social development and the impact of this contract on employee commitment. Enhanced understanding of conflict of interest (personal versus public) in social development organizations and its implications. Identification of issues of task conflict versus interpersonal conflict and its impact on organizational functions. Identification of dynamics of exclusion of internal stakeholders from organizational strategic decision-making process along with its impact on organizational performance and sustainability. Devising a mechanism to avoid such conflicts in social development organizations, in particular, and organizations in general.

Case overview/synopsis

This case highlights five issues as follows: it identifies and discusses conflict of interest between privileged class possessing decision-making positions in the board of directors and implementers working at the grassroots level at ANMOL (a non-governmental organization working for poor girls education in Baluchistan-hub of China–Pakistan Economic Corridor); it discusses the basis for formulation of psychological contracts and impact of its violation on stakeholder’s commitment and motivation; it discusses the implications of difference of opinion of both stakeholders regarding organizational vision and possible drawbacks of converting task conflict into interpersonal conflict on individuals, organization and end-users; it explores implications of exclusion of key stakeholders from organizational decision-making and its impact on organizational smooth working and sustainability; and it suggests a mechanism to avoid conversion of task conflict into interpersonal conflict and smooth functioning of an organization. Hence, this case discusses theories of conflict of interest between top-leadership and workforce, psychological contract and implications of its breach on employee motivation and organizational sustainability in the context of social development organizations.

Complexity academic level

This case provides sufficient material to be discussed at master level courses (management sciences – master of business administration (MBA) level) such as human resource management (dynamics of psychological contract and conflict resolution), leadership and change management in social development organizations (social enterprises).

Supplementary materials

Teaching Notes are available for educators only.

Subject code

CSS 7: Management Science.

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Article

Talat Afza and Muhammad Amir Rashid

The purpose of this exploratory paper is to explore and categorize the impediments which surround the remote women entrepreneurs and limit their growth opportunities to be…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this exploratory paper is to explore and categorize the impediments which surround the remote women entrepreneurs and limit their growth opportunities to be successful entrepreneurs in Pakistan.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on the primary data collected through interviews and focus group discussions with the remote women entrepreneurs from selected cities across four provinces of Pakistan.

Findings

Social and gender discrimination, lack of access and control over resources, limited educational opportunities, weaker family support, absence of self‐actualization, and little entrepreneurial orientation are few impediments classified as barriers to the growth of remote women entrepreneurs in Pakistan.

Research limitations/implications

Research findings will help the future researchers understand the characteristics of remote women entrepreneurs residing in Pakistan, moreover, the findings of this paper also provide a panoramic view about the social and working conditions prevailing in Pakistan for women entrepreneurs.

Practical implications

The findings of this paper will provide the baseline information to the government and strategists to develop a policy framework to boost the entrepreneurial culture for women in Pakistan.

Originality/value

This paper intends to identify the hazards, which restrain growth opportunities for women dwelling in remote parts of Pakistan. It may be termed as an exploratory survey for the future researchers to further probe the issue of women entrepreneurship in Pakistan and evolve a suitable model for development of marginalized women entrepreneurs to grow into mature entrepreneurs.

Details

Journal of Chinese Entrepreneurship, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-1396

Keywords

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Article

Richard Kofi Asravor

The increasing rate at which individuals, especially, females in Ghana are seeking higher education calls for an estimation of the returns to schooling and education in Ghana.

Abstract

Purpose

The increasing rate at which individuals, especially, females in Ghana are seeking higher education calls for an estimation of the returns to schooling and education in Ghana.

Design/methodology/approach

The study employs the Mincer equation to a representative cross-sectional micro-data from Ghana using OLS and instrumental variable (IV) methodologies. The paper uses spouse's education as instruments in the IV estimation.

Findings

Return to schooling was found to be higher for females than males, likewise, membership of an old student associations and location of the household. Returns to education increases as the level of education rises whilst the rate of returns initially increases but fall as labour market experience rises. The study also found that the rates of return to education were higher for Christian, followed by Muslim and believers of other lesser-known religion in Ghana.

Research limitations/implications

Return to schooling was found to be higher for females than males. Likewise, individuals who are members of an old student association and are in urban areas were found to have a higher return to schooling than individuals who are not members of an old student association and are in rural areas. Returns to education increases as the level of education rises whilst the rate of returns initially increases but fall as labour market experience rises. The study also found that the rates of return to education were higher for Christian, followed by Muslim and believers of other lesser-known religion in Ghana.

Practical implications

Wage determination process is different for males and females, across religion and residency. The higher returns to schooling for females imply education is a good investment for women and girls and should be a development priority.

Social implications

The higher returns to schooling for females imply an investment in girl's education should be a development priority.

Originality/value

The paper extends the existing literature by focussing on the role of religion, old student's association (alma mater) and gender on the differential earning returns to schooling.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

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Article

H. Spence

When the one year ‘off‐the‐job’ integrated course for first‐year engineering apprentices was established, it was hoped that every effort would be made to see that wherever…

Abstract

When the one year ‘off‐the‐job’ integrated course for first‐year engineering apprentices was established, it was hoped that every effort would be made to see that wherever it was held, and however it was organized, arrangements would be made to ensure that the industrial training and further education elements would progress hand in hand throughout the period of the course. In other words ‘training’ and ‘education’ taken together, and suitably inter‐linked, were to form an essential part of a boy's — or girl's — continuing education on leaving school, carried out in accordance with sound educational principles. At the same time, the whole would be an appropriate introduction to the world of work. He would not be asked to practise a basic skill, or to use a machine tool, unless he was also concurrent with it, learning about and beginning to understand the theoretical aspects of these matters. This is, we now realize, an ideal state to which all concerned with the courses should strive but it is unfortunately, one which, for various reasons, is extremely difficult to reach. The main reasons why full integration cannot be achieved at present can be summarized as follows.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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Book part

Letitia L. Reason

For decades, researchers studying female genital cutting have sought to understand why the practice continues amidst abundant evidence indicating that serious health…

Abstract

For decades, researchers studying female genital cutting have sought to understand why the practice continues amidst abundant evidence indicating that serious health consequences can result from the more aggressive forms of cutting. Behavioral ecology theory is applied to data collected among Ghana’s Kassena-Nankana to highlight the gendered cultural forces that keep FGC practice in place through successful reproductive outcomes. With its strong association to marriageability, and thus women’s status and access to resources through marriage, circumcision has long been obligatory. However, the social transformation that is currently underway in this rural population is bringing a new perspective to the value of education, which is replacing circumcision as the resource access currency.

Details

Socioeconomic Aspects of Human Behavioral Ecology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-255-9

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Book part

Jill Sperandio and Alice Kagoda

Girls’ access to education has improved in many of the world's developing countries. These countries are striving to meet the United Nations Millennium Development Goals…

Abstract

Girls’ access to education has improved in many of the world's developing countries. These countries are striving to meet the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) requiring them to provide gender equality, promote the empowerment of women, and establish universal primary education (UPE) by 2015. The success of UPE in achieving gender equality in enrollment in those countries able to institute it is encouraging. Where previously girls trailed boys in their ability to access education due to parent inability or reluctance to pay the costs, they are now entering primary schools in comparable numbers (UNESCO, 1999, 2006).

Details

Gender, Equality and Education from International and Comparative Perspectives
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-094-0

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Article

Toseef Azid and Rana Ejaz Ali Khan

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the demand side determinants of schooling of Pakistani urban children and the factors affecting boys and girls' schooling separately.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the demand side determinants of schooling of Pakistani urban children and the factors affecting boys and girls' schooling separately.

Design/methodology/approach

This is an empirical study using the non‐linear maximum likelihood probability (probit) function on primary data.

Findings

Besides other variables it has been observed that the poverty remains an important determinant of school participation. Poor households keep their children out of school due to their inability to afford the cost of schooling.

Research limitations/implications

On the basis of this study a socio‐economic policy can be formulated for a developing country like Pakistan.

Practical implications

A development policy can be formulated on the basis of this research for the enhancement of human resource development for a developing and an orthodox economy like Pakistan.

Originality/value

The paper is beneficial to the researchers, policy makers, and social scientists for the enhancement of the level of social welfare through its findings.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 37 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

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Book part

Shirley J. Miske and Alison B. Joglekar

For over a decade, the early grade reading assessment (EGRA) has been used to measure and report on students’ acquisition of five reading skills. Education development…

Abstract

For over a decade, the early grade reading assessment (EGRA) has been used to measure and report on students’ acquisition of five reading skills. Education development initiatives funded by the US Agency for International Development, the World Bank, Department for International Development (DFID), and other agencies have facilitated the use and adaptation of the EGRA into over 100 languages in more than 65 countries (Dubeck & Gove, 2015, p. 315). Guidelines for the proper use and the limitations of the EGRA have been circulated widely. An international evidence base that challenges the theoretical underpinnings and the expanded use of the EGRA is also growing (Bartlett, Dowd, & Jonason, 2015). Not yet explored to date, however, is the use of the EGRA as a measure to determine Payment by Results (PbR) in a donor agency initiative. This chapter examines the use of the EGRA oral reading fluency (ORF) subtest as a PbR learning outcomes measure in DFID’s Girls’ Education Challenge (GEC) projects, and it concludes that the way in which the EGRA ORF was used for PbR was a misuse of the EGRA, and ultimately it did not serve well the PbR project beneficiaries, the marginalized girls.

Details

Annual Review of Comparative and International Education 2017
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-765-4

Keywords

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