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Article

Giridharan R., Raatan V.S. and Jenarthanan M.P.

The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of fiber length and content on properties of E-glass and bamboo fiber reinforced epoxy resin matrices. Experiments are…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of fiber length and content on properties of E-glass and bamboo fiber reinforced epoxy resin matrices. Experiments are carried out as per ASTM standards to find the mechanical properties. Further, fractured surface of the specimen is subjected to morphological study.

Design/methodology/approach

Composite samples were prepared according to ASTM standards and were subjected to tensile and flexural loads. The fractured surfaces of the specimens were examined directly under scanning electron microscope.

Findings

From the experiment, it was found that the main factors that influence the properties of composite are fiber length and content. The optimum fiber length and weight ratio are 15 mm and 16 percent, respectively, for bamboo fiber/epoxy composite. Hence, the prediction of optimum fiber length and content becomes important, so that composite can be prepared with best mechanical properties. The investigation revealed the suitability of bamboo fiber as an effective reinforcement in epoxy matrix.

Practical implications

As bamboo fibers are biodegradable, recyclable, light weight and so on, their applications are numerous. They are widely used in automotive components, aerospace parts, sporting goods and building industry. With this scenario, the obtained result of bamboo fiber reinforced composites is not ignorable and could be of potential use, since it leads to harnessing of available natural fibers and their composites rather than synthetic fibers.

Originality/value

This work enlists the effect of fiber length and fiber content on tensile and flexural properties of bamboo fiber/epoxy composite, which has not been attempted so far.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 15 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

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Article

Giridharan R. and Jenarthanan M.P.

Natural fiber composites have been proven an alternative to conventional composites in many applications such as automotive and transportation industries owing to their…

Abstract

Purpose

Natural fiber composites have been proven an alternative to conventional composites in many applications such as automotive and transportation industries owing to their eco-friendliness and abundant availability. Also, they are recyclable and biodegradable. Therefore, the need for composites having superior performance is increasing consistently, which has prompted the research reported in this paper. This paper aims to fabricate and evaluate the properties of hybrid composites using glass and cotton fiber with epoxy resin.

Design/methodology/approach

They were prepared by hand lay-up method, using e-glass and cotton fibers. Epoxy resin used in the preparation of composites. The composites were hybridized at two weight percentages (20 and 30 Wt.%). The prepared samples were tested to evaluate its properties, such as tensile strength, flexural strength, impact strength and scanning electron microscope .

Findings

Microscopic examination revealed the morphological features. Hybrid fiber reinforced epoxy composite (HFREC) exhibited better mechanical properties than the individual samples. It is clear that 30 Wt.% fraction of fiber is better in mechanical properties than 20 Wt.% fraction of fiber reinforcement in both glass fiber and cotton fiber as reinforcement. Also, the hybridization of fibers resulted in increase in properties.

Research limitations/implications

As cotton fibers are biodegradable, recyclable and lightweight, it has many applications and is mainly used as automotive components, aerospace parts, sporting goods and building industry when reinforced with glass and epoxy. With this scenario, the obtained results of cotton fiber reinforced composites are not ignorable, which could be of potential use, as it leads to better use of available natural fibers.

Originality/value

This work discovered the properties of e-glass and cotton fiber reinforced epoxy resin hybrid composites (hybridized at different weight percentages), which has not been attempted so far.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 48 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article

Alagappan K M, Vijayaraghavan S, Jenarthanan M P and Giridharan R

The purpose of this paper is to identify the ideal process parameters to be set for the drilling of hybrid fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) (kenaf and banana) composite…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the ideal process parameters to be set for the drilling of hybrid fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) (kenaf and banana) composite using High-Speed Steel drill bits (5, 10, 15 mm) coated with tungsten carbide by means of statistical reproduction of the delamination factor and machining force using Taguchi–Grey Relational Analysis.

Design/methodology/approach

The contemplated process parameters are Feed, Speed and Drill Diameter. The trials were carried out by taking advantage of the L-27 factorial design by Taguchi. Three factors, the three level Taguchi Orthogonal Array design in Grey Relational Analysis was used to carry out the trial study. Video Measuring System was used to identify the damage around the drill region. “Minitab 18” was used to examine the data collected by taking advantage of the various statistical and graphical tools available. Examination of variance is used to legitimize the model in identifying the most notable parameter.

Findings

The optimised set of input parameters were found out successfully which are as follows: Feed Rate: 450 mm/min, Cutting Speed: 3,000 rpm and Drill Diameter of 5 mm. When these values are fed in as input the optimised output is being obtained. From ANOVA analysis, it is apparent that the Speed (contribution of 92.6%) is the most influencing parameter on the delamination factor and machining force of the FRP material.

Originality/value

Optimization of process parameters on drilling of natural fibres reinforced in epoxy resin matrices using Taguchi–Grey Relational Analysis has not been previously explored.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 16 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

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Article

Jenarthanan M.P., Karthikeyan Marappan and Giridharan R.

The need for seeking alternate materials with increased performance in the field of composites revived this research, to prepare and evaluate the mechanical properties of…

Abstract

Purpose

The need for seeking alternate materials with increased performance in the field of composites revived this research, to prepare and evaluate the mechanical properties of e-glass and aloe vera fiber-reinforced with polyester and epoxy resin matrices.

Design/methodology/approach

The composites are prepared by hand layup method using E-glass and aloe vera fibers with length 5-6 mm. The resin used in the preparation of composites was epoxy and polyester. Fiber-reinforced composites were synthesized at 18:82 fiber–resin weight percentages. Samples prepared were tested to evaluate its mechanical and physical properties, such as tensile strength, flexural strength, impact strength, hardness and scanning electron microscope (SEM).

Findings

SEM analysis revealed the morphological features. E-glass fiber-reinforced epoxy composite exhibited better mechanical properties than other composite samples. The cross-linking density of monomers of the epoxy resin and addition of the short chopped E-glass fibers enhanced the properties of E-glass epoxy fiber-reinforced composite.

Originality/value

This research work enlists the properties of e-glass and aloe vera fiber-reinforced with polyester and epoxy resin matrices which has not been attempted so far.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 48 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article

A. Mavrogianni, M. Davies, P. Wilkinson and A. Pathan

Climate change presents potential increased threats to the comfort and health of urban populations as a result of higher summer temperatures. This paper reviews recent…

Abstract

Climate change presents potential increased threats to the comfort and health of urban populations as a result of higher summer temperatures. This paper reviews recent research on the climate change adaptation potential of urban environments and focuses on a major conurbation, London. Recent work relating to the impact of exposure to heat on population health is also noted. Data obtained from a pilot monitoring study carried out in a subset of 36 dwellings (from a total of 110 dwellings in the overall study) across London during the summer of 2009 is then discussed. Preliminary results illustrate the need to quantify the net impacts of individual building characteristics and the location of each dwelling within the London heat island. During a hot period, more than 40% of the monitored bedrooms failed the recommended overheating criteria during the night time. There was some indication of purpose built flats being more prone to overheating. The potential use of such data as the basis of a heat-related health risk epidemiological model for London is discussed. Such a tool would help health policy makers to target the most vulnerable building types and areas.

Details

Open House International, vol. 35 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

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Article

Shariful Shikder, Monjur Mourshed and Andrew Price

Recent climate change projections estimate that the average summertime temperature in the southern part of Great Britain may increase by up to 5.4°C by the end of the…

Abstract

Recent climate change projections estimate that the average summertime temperature in the southern part of Great Britain may increase by up to 5.4°C by the end of the century. The general consensus is that projected increases in temperature will render British dwellings vulnerable to summer overheating and by the middle of this century it may become difficult to maintain a comfortable indoor environment, if adaptation measures are not well integrated in the design and operation of new dwellings, which are likely to remain in use beyond the 2050s. The challenge is to reduce overheating risks by integrating building and user adaptation measures, to avoid energy intensive mechanical cooling. Developing guidelines and updating building regulations for adaptation, therefore, requires an understanding of the baseline scenario; i.e. the performance of existing buildings in future climates.

This paper aims to investigate the performance of new-build multi-occupancy British dwellings for human thermal comfort in the present-day and projected future climates in four regional cities: Birmingham, Edinburgh, London and Manchester. Evaluations are carried out by a series of dynamic thermal simulations using widely adopted threshold temperature for overheating, as well as adaptive thermal comfort standards. This study thus offers a unique perspective on regional variations of performance and provides a clearer snapshot because of the use of more appropriate adaptive comfort standards in the evaluations. Finally, the paper sheds light on possible personal and building adaptation measures to alleviate overheating risks.

Details

Open House International, vol. 37 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

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Article

Alan Adiel Velasco-Aquino, Jose Adan Espuna-Mujica, Josue Francisco Perez-Sanchez, Carlos Zuñiga-Leal, Arturo Palacio-Perez and Edgardo Jonathan Suarez-Dominguez

In recent years, the use of earth as a material applied to construction has been adapted as an attractive alternative to modern concepts. The earth construction technique…

Abstract

Purpose

In recent years, the use of earth as a material applied to construction has been adapted as an attractive alternative to modern concepts. The earth construction technique takes advantage of regional natural resources, among which are earth bricks. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effect of the addition of coconut fibers and aloe vera on the mechanical properties of compressed earth blocks (CEB).

Design/methodology/approach

CEBs were manufactured from silty and clay soil (Altamira, Tamaulipas, Mexico) with biodegradable stabilizers of aloe vera and short coconut mesocarp fibers, which were compared with the conventional mixture with lime as stabilizer. The samples were subjected to compression tests (Mexican Standard NMX-C-404-ONNCC3-205), flexion (NMX-C083-ONNCCE.), abrasion (NTC-5324 3.4.3), water absorption (NMX-C-37-ONNCE-205), surface morphology and thermal properties (ASTM D5334-14).

Findings

It was found that the addition of coconut fibers has a 12% difference in flexural strength. The addition of 0.5% of coconut fibers decreases swelling by 2% with water and reduces the thermal conductivity of the material by 12%. Likewise, this mixture increases the abrasion resistance of CEB by 30%. When there is a pressure greater than 1,700 psi in the CEB, the addition of coconut fibers does increase the compressive strength of the material, showing a 34% improvement over the CEB without adding coconut fibers.

Originality/value

The authors show a new sustainable CEB production with aloe vera and coconut fiber that is possible for self-production with better mechanical properties than others, commonly produced in Mexico.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Article

Pavana Kumara Bellairu, Shreeranga Bhat and E.V. Gijo

The aim of this article is to demonstrate the development of environment friendly, low cost natural fibre composites by robust engineering approach. More specifically, the…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this article is to demonstrate the development of environment friendly, low cost natural fibre composites by robust engineering approach. More specifically, the prime objective of the study is to optimise the composition of natural fibre reinforced polymer nanocomposites using a robust statistical approach.

Design/methodology/approach

In this research, the material is prepared using multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), Cantala fibres and Epoxy Resin in accordance with the ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) standards. Further, the composition is prepared and optimised using the mixture-design approach for the flexural strength of the material.

Findings

The results of the study indicate that MWCNT plays a vital role in increasing the flexural strength of the composite. Moreover, it is observed that interactions between second order and third order parameters in the composition are statistically significant. This leads to proposing a special cubic model for the novel composite material with residual analysis. Moreover, the methodology assists in optimising the mixture component values to maximise the flexural strength of the novel composite material.

Originality/value

This article attempts to include both MWCNT and Cantala fibres to develop a novel composite material. In addition, it employs the mixture-design technique to optimise the composition and predict the model of the study in a step-by-step manner, which will act as a guideline for academicians and practitioners to optimise the material composition with specific reference to natural fibre reinforced nanocomposites.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

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Article

P.F.G. Banfill, D.P. Jenkins, S. Patidar, M. Gul, G.F. Menzies and G.J. Gibson

The work set out to design and develop an overheating risk tool using the UKCP09 climate projections that is compatible with building performance simulation software. The…

Abstract

Purpose

The work set out to design and develop an overheating risk tool using the UKCP09 climate projections that is compatible with building performance simulation software. The aim of the tool is to exploit the Weather Generator and give a reasonably accurate assessment of a building's performance in future climates, without adding significant time, cost or complexity to the design team's work.

Methodology/approach

Because simulating every possible future climate is impracticable, the approach adopted was to use principal component analysis to give a statistically rigorous simplification of the climate projections. The perceptions and requirements of potential users were assessed through surveys, interviews and focus groups.

Findings

It is possible to convert a single dynamic simulation output into many hundreds of simulation results at hourly resolution for equally probable climates, giving a population of outcomes for the performance of a specific building in a future climate, thus helping the user choose adaptations that might reduce the risk of overheating. The tool outputs can be delivered as a probabilistic overheating curve and feed into a risk management matrix. Professionals recognized the need to quantify overheating risk, particularly for non‐domestic buildings, and were concerned about the ease of incorporating the UKCP09 projections into this process. The new tool has the potential to meet these concerns.

Originality/value

The paper is the first attempt to link UKCP09 climate projections and building performance simulation software in this way and the work offers the potential for design practitioners to use the tool to quickly assess the risk of overheating in their designs and adapt them accordingly.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

Keywords

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Article

Erika A. Parn, David Edwards, Zainab Riaz, Fahad Mehmood and Joseph Lai

This paper aims to report upon the further development of a hybrid application programming interface (API) plug-in to building information modelling (BIM) entitled…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to report upon the further development of a hybrid application programming interface (API) plug-in to building information modelling (BIM) entitled confined spaces safety monitoring system “CoSMoS”. Originally designed to engineer-out environmental hazards associated with working in a building’s confined spaces (during the construction phase of a building’s life-cycle), this second generation version is expanded upon to use archival records to proactively learn from data generated within a sensor network during the building’s operations and maintenance (O&M) phase of asset management (AM).

Design/methodology/approach

An applied research methodological approach adopted used a two-phase process. In phase one, a conceptual model was created to provide a “blueprint map” to integrate BIM, sensor-based networks and data analytics (DA) into one integral system. A literature review provided the basis for the conceptual model’s further development. In phase two, the conceptual model was transposed into the prototype’s development environment as a proof of concept using primary data accrued from a large educational building.

Findings

An amalgamation of BIM, historical sensor data accrued and the application of DA demonstrate that CoSMoS provides an opportunity for the facilities management (FM) team to monitor pertinent environmental conditions and human behaviour within buildings that may impact upon occupant/worker safety. Although working in confined spaces is used to demonstrate the inherent potential of CoSMoS, the system could readily be expanded to analyse sensor-based network’s historical data of other areas of building performance, maintenance and safety.

Originality/value

This novel prototype has automated safety applications for FM during the asset lifecycle and maintenance phase of a building’s O&M phase of AM. Future work is proposed in several key areas, namely, develop instantaneous indicators of current safety performance within a building; and develop lead indicators of future safety performance of buildings.

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