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The limited evidence of effectiveness of existing teenage pregnancy strategies which focus on sex education, together with growing evidence that factors such as poor…
The limited evidence of effectiveness of existing teenage pregnancy strategies which focus on sex education, together with growing evidence that factors such as poor school ethos, disaffection, truancy, poor employment prospects and low expectations are associated with teenage pregnancy, has increased interest in interventions which target these “wider” social determinants. This paper aims to identify promising interventions and priorities for future research and to make recommendations for policy and practice in the UK.
This paper discusses the evidence regarding the potential of interventions which target determinants of teenage pregnancy relating to school disaffection and low expectations, drawing on recent systematic reviews and trials to consider future directions for research, policy and practice.
High‐quality research evidence illustrates the potential of two approaches to address determinants of teenage pregnancy relating to disaffection and low expectations. These are school‐ethos interventions, which aim to facilitate a positive and inclusive school‐ethos, strengthen school relationships and reduce disaffection; and targeted, intensive youth work interventions, which aim to promote positive expectations, vocational readiness and self‐esteem through vocational and life‐skills education, volunteering and work experience.
Two forms of intervention which address key social determinants of teenage pregnancy – school‐ethos interventions and targeted youth work interventions – require more attention from researchers and policy‐makers.
This paper calls for a shift in the research and policy agenda. In addition to interventions that aim to address proximal, individual factors, such as sexual health‐related knowledge, there should be a more complementary focus on socio‐environmental as well as targeted individual‐focused interventions aiming to address the wider social determinants of teenage pregnancy.
The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to further develop Paul Edwards’ concept of “data friction” by examining the socio-material forces that are shaping data movements in the cases of research data and online communications data, second, to articulate a politics of data friction, identifying the interrelated infrastructural, socio-cultural and regulatory dynamics of data friction, and how these are contributing to the constitution of social relations.
The paper develops a hermeneutic review of the literature on socio-material factors influencing the movement of digital data between social actors in the cases of research data sharing and online communications data. Parallels between the two cases are identified and used to further develop understanding of the politics of “data friction” beyond the concept’s current usage within the Science Studies literature.
A number of overarching parallels are identified relating to the ways in which new data flows and the frictions that shape them bring social actors into new forms of relation with one another, the platformisation of infrastructures for data circulation, and state action to influence the dynamics of data movement. Moments and sites of “data friction” are identified as deeply political – resulting from the collective decisions of human actors who experience significantly different levels of empowerment with regard to shaping the overall outcome.
The paper further develops Paul Edwards’ concept of “data friction” beyond its current application in Science Studies. Analysis of the broader dynamics of data friction across different cases identifies a number of parallels that require further empirical examination and theorisation.
The observation that sites of data friction are deeply political has significant implications for all engaged in the practice and management of digital data production, circulation and use.
It is argued that the concept of “data friction” can help social actors identify, examine and act upon some of the complex socio-material dynamics shaping emergent data movements across a variety of domains, and inform deliberation at all levels – from everyday practice to international regulation – about how such frictions can be collectively shaped towards the creation of more equitable and just societies.
The paper makes an original contribution to the literature on friction in the dynamics of digital data movement, arguing that in many cases data friction may be something to enable and foster, rather than overcome. It also brings together literature from diverse disciplinary fields to examine these frictional dynamics within two cases that have not previously been examined in relation to one another.