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Article
Publication date: 26 June 2019

Xiufeng Cheng, Jinqing Yang, Ling Jiang and Anlei Hu

The purpose of this paper is to introduce an interpreting schema and semantic description framework for a collection of images of Xilankapu, a traditional Chinese form of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce an interpreting schema and semantic description framework for a collection of images of Xilankapu, a traditional Chinese form of embroidered fabric and brocade artwork.

Design/methodology/approach

First, the authors interpret the artwork of Xilankapu through Gillian Rose’s “four site” theory by presenting how the brocades were made, how the patterns of Xilankapu are classified and the geometrical abstraction of visual images. To further describe the images of this type of brocade, this paper presents semantic descriptions that include objective–non-objective relations and a multi-layered semantic framework. Furthermore, the authors developed corresponding methods for scanning, storage and indexing images for retrieval.

Findings

As exploratory research on describing, preserving and indexing images of Xilankapu in the context of the preservation of cultural heritage, the authors collected 1,000+ images of traditional Xilankapu, classifying and storing some of the images in a database. They developed an index schema that combines concept- and content-based approaches according to the proposed semantic description framework. They found that the framework can describe, store and preserve semantic and non-semantic information of the same image. They relate the findings of this paper to future research directions for the digital preservation of traditional cultural heritages.

Research limitations/implications

The framework has been designed especially for brocade, and it needs to be extended to other types of cultural image.

Originality/value

The semantic description framework can describe connotative semantic information on Xilankapu. It can also assist the later information retrieval work in organizing implicit information about culturally related visual materials.

Details

The Electronic Library , vol. 37 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-0473

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Book part
Publication date: 20 May 2011

Harry F. Dahms

In recent years, the concept of “reification” has virtually disappeared from debates in social theory, including critical social theory. The concept was at the center of…

Abstract

In recent years, the concept of “reification” has virtually disappeared from debates in social theory, including critical social theory. The concept was at the center of the revitalization of Marxist theory in the early twentieth century generally known as Western Marxism. Georg Lukács in particular introduced the concept to express how the process described in Marx's critique of alienation and commodification could be grasped more effectively by combining it with Max Weber's theory of rationalization (see Agger, 1979; Stedman Jones et al., 1977).1 In Lukács's use, the concept of reification captured the process by which advanced capitalist production, as opposed to earlier stages of capitalist development, assimilated processes of social, cultural, and political production and reproduction to the dynamic imperatives and logic of capitalist accumulation. It is not just interpersonal relations and forms of organization constituting the capitalist production process that are being refashioned along the lines of one specific definition of economic necessity. In addition, and more consequentially, the capitalist mode of production also assimilates to its specific requirements the ways in which human beings think the world. As a result, the continuous expansion and perfection of capitalist production and its control over the work environment impoverishes concrete social, political, and cultural forms of coexistence and cooperation, and it brings about an impoverishment of our ability to conceive of reality from a variety of social, political, and philosophical viewpoints.

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The Vitality Of Critical Theory
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-798-8

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Article
Publication date: 4 May 2008

M Garralda, Gillian Rose and Ruth Dawson

The aim of this article is to examine clinical outcomes in a child psychiatry inpatient unit using dedicated measures. Clinicians completed contextual (Paddington…

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Abstract

The aim of this article is to examine clinical outcomes in a child psychiatry inpatient unit using dedicated measures. Clinicians completed contextual (Paddington Complexity Scale - PCS) and clinical change (Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents - HoNOSCA) questionnaires on admission and discharge for consecutive admissions to the unit between 1999 and 2007 (n=167). Mean changes in HoNOSCA scores were analysed, and the predictors of HoNOSCA mean change were assessed using regression analysis. The results showed that the mean length of stay at the unit was 5.6 months (SD 3.1). PCS ratings identified high total, clinical, and environmental complexity scores. HoNOSCA ratings indicated high levels of psychological problems on admission and significant improvement at discharge (mean change 7.7 (SD 6.7)). Greater positive change was associated with higher initial HoNOSCA scores, diagnoses other than conduct disorder and schizophrenia, and a facilitative parental attitude. The authors conclude that the systematic use of standardised outcome measures in child psychiatric inpatient units is useful to document clinical features, complexity and clinical change.

Details

Journal of Children's Services, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-6660

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Book part
Publication date: 22 November 2016

Justin Cruickshank

In this paper I argue that the liberal problem of religion, which defines religion in terms of dogmatism or opaque justifications based on ‘revealed truth’, needs to be…

Abstract

Purpose

In this paper I argue that the liberal problem of religion, which defines religion in terms of dogmatism or opaque justifications based on ‘revealed truth’, needs to be rethought as part of a broader problem of dialogue, which does not define religion as uniquely problematic.

Methodology/approach

Habermas argues for religious positions to be translated into ‘generally accessible language’ to incorporate religious citizens into democratic dialogue and resist the domination of instrumental rationality by enhancing ‘solidarity’. I contrast this with Rowan Williams’ and Gadamer’s work.

Findings

Williams conceptualises religion in terms of recognising the finitude of our being, rather than dogmatism or opacity. This recognition, he argues, allows people to transcend the ‘imaginative bereavement’ of seeing others as means. Using Williams, I argue that Habermas misdefines religion, and reinforces the domination of instrumental rationality by treating religion as a means. I then use Gadamer to argue that the points Williams makes about religion can apply to secular positions too by recognising them as traditions subject to finitude.

Originality/value

This is original because it argues that the liberal problem of religion misdefines both religion and secular positions, by not recognising that both are traditions defined by finitude. To reach, dialogically, a ‘fusion of horizons’, where religious and secular people are understood non-instrumentally in their own terms of reference, will take time and not trade on immediately manifest – ‘generally accessible’ – meanings.

Details

Reconstructing Social Theory, History and Practice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-469-3

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Article
Publication date: 6 March 2017

Lisa Scheibe

The purpose of this paper is to explore the persistent negative reputation of two particular types of drug users, the so-called heroin junkie and the meth head. The visual…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the persistent negative reputation of two particular types of drug users, the so-called heroin junkie and the meth head. The visual portrayal of both kinds of users in the media has been consistent in the last decades. Inspired by films and anti-drug campaigns, stereotypical ideas about heroin and meth users dominate the visual portrayals. Existing research has already shown that this standardised picture is not applicable uniformly. Nevertheless, the important role of the visual element for constituting beliefs about drug use and users is lacking in the current drug research. Therefore, this work focusses on the visual element of the drug discourse.

Design/methodology/approach

On the basis of the British movie Trainspotting, and the two American campaigns Faces of Meth and Montana Meth Project the visual representation of heroin and meth users is discussed. With the help of a visual discourse analysis this research discloses the particularities of every image.

Findings

The current visual portrayal of heroin and meth users stigmatises them as deviant and unhealthy. This single-sided perspective labels all users, without acknowledging different patterns of use. Counterexamples obtained through existing research do not support this uniformly applied stereotypical representation. The persistent negative reputation mediates inaccurate knowledge about drug use, with harmful consequences for the users, and harm-reduction work.

Originality/value

Drug research has not been focussing enough on the visual element of the drug discourse. This research intends to close the existing gap and emphasise the possible harmful consequences produced by such visuality.

Details

Drugs and Alcohol Today, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1745-9265

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Article
Publication date: 21 December 2020

Caroline Hamilton-McKenna and Theresa Rogers

In an era when engagement in public spaces and places is increasingly regulated and constrained, we argue for the use of literary analytic tools to enable younger…

Abstract

Purpose

In an era when engagement in public spaces and places is increasingly regulated and constrained, we argue for the use of literary analytic tools to enable younger generations to critically examine and reenvision everyday spatialities (Rogers, 2016; Rogers et al., 2015). The purpose of this paper is to consider how spatial analyses of contemporary young adult literature enrich interrogations of the spaces and places youth must navigate, and the consequences of participation for different bodies across those spheres.

Design/methodology/approach

In a graduate seminar of teachers and writers, we examined literary texts through a combined framework of feminist cultural geography, mobilities and critical mobilities studies. In this paper, we interweave our own spatial analyses of two selected works of young adult fiction with the reflections of our graduate student participants to explore our spatial framework and its potential to enhance critical approaches to literature instruction.

Findings

We argue that spatial literary analysis may equip teachers and students with tools to critically examine the spaces and places of everyday life and creatively reenvision what it means to be an engaged citizen in uncertain and troubling times.

Originality/value

While we have engaged in this work for several years, we found that in light of the global pandemic, coupled with the recent antiracist demonstrations, a spatial approach to literary study emerges as a potentially even more relevant and powerful component of literature instruction.

Details

English Teaching: Practice & Critique, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1175-8708

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Book part
Publication date: 10 May 2016

Nathalie Lozano-Neira and Jen Marchbank

To explore the intersecting dynamics of gender, ethnicity, age, safety, power and sexuality in two cases of qualitative research

Abstract

Purpose

To explore the intersecting dynamics of gender, ethnicity, age, safety, power and sexuality in two cases of qualitative research

Methodology/approach

Reflexive analysis of community participatory action research.

Findings

Being an ‘insider’ is a nuanced and complex identity in social research leading to power flows that are not unidirectional. In addition, not only is gender not the only difference that makes a difference, but it is also important to consider the importance of difference within ‘sameness’.

Originality/value

In considering intersecting identities, difference and sameness this chapter adds to the assertion that research is never ‘hygienic’ and the role of self and research participants are vital considerations at all stages from design to dissemination.

Details

Gender Identity and Research Relationships
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-025-1

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Book part
Publication date: 25 October 2021

Curie Scott

Abstract

Details

Drawing
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-325-3

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Book part
Publication date: 1 March 2013

Eeva Luhtakallio

The chapter introduces a methodological approach to analyzing visual material based on Erving Goffman's frame analysis. Building on the definition of dominant frames in a…

Abstract

The chapter introduces a methodological approach to analyzing visual material based on Erving Goffman's frame analysis. Building on the definition of dominant frames in a set of visual material, and the analysis of keying within these frames, the approach provides a tangible tool to analyze contextualized visual material sociologically. To illustrate the approach, the chapter analyzes visual representations of social movement contention in two local contexts, the cities of Lyon, France, and Helsinki, Finland. The material was collected during ethnographic fieldwork and consists of 505 images from local activist websites. The analysis asks how femininity, masculinity, and gender/sex ambiguity key visual representations of different aspects of contentious action, such as mass gatherings, violence, protest policing, and performativity. Strong converging features are found in the contents of the frames in the two contexts, yet differences also abound, in particular in the ways femininity keys different frames of contention in visual representations. The results show, first, that the visual frame analysis approach is a functioning tool for analyzing large sets of visual material with a qualitative emphasis, and second, that a comparison of local activism through visual representations calls into question many general assumptions of political cultures, repertoires of contention, and cultural gender systems, and highlights the importance for sociologists of looking closely enough for both differences and similarities.

Details

Advances in the Visual Analysis of Social Movements
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-636-1

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Book part
Publication date: 26 August 2019

Sarah Turnbull

Purpose – This chapter critically reflects on the author’s failed attempt to incorporate visual methods in follow-up research on immigration detention and deportation in…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter critically reflects on the author’s failed attempt to incorporate visual methods in follow-up research on immigration detention and deportation in Britain. In particular, it considers the uses and limits of participant-generated visuals, and the specific method of photovoice, which were originally conceived as a means to explore themes of home, identity, and belonging in and through practices of detention and release or expulsion.

Methodology/approach – This chapter discusses the visual method of photovoice to consider the uses and limits of participant-generated visuals.

Findings – Drawing on the notion of research “failure,” this chapter highlights the challenges and limitations of photovoice in follow-up research with individuals who were detained and/or deported, pointing to various methodological, logistical, ethical, and political issues pertaining to the method itself and the use of the visual in criminological research.

Originality/value – Criminologists are increasingly considering the visual and the power of photographic images within criminological research, both as objects of study and through the use of visual methodologies. This shift toward the examination, as well as integration, of images raises a number of important methodological, ethical, and political questions worthy of consideration, including instances where visual methods like photovoice are unsuccessful in a research project.

Details

Methods of Criminology and Criminal Justice Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-865-9

Keywords

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