Senior managers are continually required to manage the challengesbrought about by the waves of rapid and dynamic change. Researchundertaken by Henley Management College…
Senior managers are continually required to manage the challenges brought about by the waves of rapid and dynamic change. Research undertaken by Henley Management College into the development of standards of competence for senior management can contribute much in helping managers develop to meet such demands. Examines how the standards of competence were developed, and the outcomes from the research.
In these times—aptly described as the age of dehydration—few food products appear to have aroused as much technical interest as has dried egg. Upon this point we have the criterion of the galaxy of papers and communications in the various trade and scientific journals. Admittedly, much of the interest is doubtless due to the painfully rare appearance of the goods in the form delivered by the hen. However, there is little doubt that some of the developments in our knowledge and usage of a convenient form of an otherwise highly perishable commodity may have wide repercussions in food‐preparation in the future, both in industry and in the household. It would appear that the attaining and maintaining of hygienic conditions in the dehydrating plants has received the attention it warrants. Naturally, unless reasonable care in the storage or usage of the finished product is exercised, conditions will occur under which rapid contamination with and multiplication of bacteria will occur. The intention of the Dried Egg (Control of Use) Order, 1945 (S.R. & O. No. 627), which forbids the use of dried egg in certain foods and in materials sold in the wet state, is to provide against such conditions. Of the desirable properties which a dehydrated product should possess, ease of reconstitution is one of the most important. In the bakery and allied trades the difficulty, or, more correctly, the variability, of solubility of various deliveries of dried egg has occasioned some complaint. It is interesting to note that, with a view to assisting wetting, and hence reconstitution, addition of surface‐active agents, either to the egg pulp before dehydration, or to the dried product, has been the subject of several patents. As regards keeping properties, dried egg offers no exception to the general rule that the rate of deterioration on storage decreases progressively with reduction in the moisture content. It is reported that a product containing as little as 2 per cent. of moisture is being manufactured in U.S.A. Apparently, the only satisfactory packing for such a highly‐dehydrated product is a sealed metal container. The deterioration of dried egg powder, with the production of the peculiar and characteristic off‐flavour, has been shown to be connected with a small amount of glucose originally present. This decreases during storage, and the development of unpalatability may be correlated with the amount of glucose remaining. At the same time, the solubility of the powder decreases, rendering reconstitution more difficult, and the whipping or beating properties, so vital in the making of cakes, become impaired. Initial removal of the glucose, such as De‐controlled fermentation, markedly improves the stability of the product; re‐addition of glucose to an egg pulp from which the natural carbohydrate has been removed yields on dehydration a powder showing the same effects of deterioration as ordinary dried egg. Addition of reducing monosaecharoses other than glucose has a similar effect. Recently‐published reports of work carried out at the Cambridge Low Temperature Research Station provide strong evidence that the reaction mechanism resulting in the loss in solubility of dried egg powder is a two‐stage process. In the first stage, which does not in itself result in a decrease in solubility, the reducing group of the glucose molecule condenses with the free amino groups of the protein components; a further reaction then occurs which causes the protein to become insoluble. It had been previously discovered that addition to the egg pulp before drying of a simple amino‐acid such as glycine or alanine retarded the loss of solubility, although other forms of deterioration, such as the darkening of the colour of the powder, were not inhibited. Presumably, the glucose reacts preferentially with the added amino‐acid, instead of attacking the egg‐proteins. Another method of overcoming the loss of solubility is by the addition of substantial amounts of sucrose (or lactose) to the egg pulp before drying. How the protective action operates does not appear to be known, and it is peculiar that lactose, itself a reducing sugar, does not cause loss in solubility in the same manner as glucose. The “sugar‐dried egg” obtained on dehydration is readily soluble, and, since it possesses all, or nearly all, of the aerating properties of fresh egg, is claimed to be as good as frozen egg, or even shell egg, for cake‐making. Allocations of sugar‐dried egg are now being made to the bakery trade, and, should no difficulty be encountered in large‐scale production, it is to be presumed that in due course its use will become much more general. In the form now being supplied, sugar‐dried egg has an egg solids to sugar ratio of 2 to 1, thus allowing existing trade recipes to be rebalanced without recourse to awkward calculations. When reconstituted, 3 pounds of liquid egg contain approximately 5 ounces of sugar; this high sugar content of course restricts the use of this product to food preparations of a sweet nature. The mixture aerates rapidly, and, since it possesses a good oven spring, underbeating rather than full development of the batter gives the most satisfactory result. Additionally, the use of sugar‐dried egg lowers the amount of baking powder required; in some mixes baking powder may be omitted altogether. Sponges and similar goods of superior texture, flavour and keeping qualities may thus be made. Obviously, developments in other forms of dried egg and allied products are to be expected. Thus the previously‐mentioned protective action of lactose suggests the preparation of dehydrated mixtures of egg and milk or milk products, and in fact interesting experiments have been carried out involving the use of whey powder as a protective agent.
INTRODUCTION This paper examines some of the issues which arise from management research which develops theory from case studies. It first raises some fundamental questions which arise when case material is used in management research. For example, confusion surrounds the distinctions between qualitative data, inductive logic and case study research. Further, the processes of building theory from case studies lacks clarity. To help clear up some of these matters several research programmes are described in which the author has been personally involved and which developed theory from case studies. These case studies are used as illustrations of the multiple ways that case material might be used. Although every researcher has his/her preferred approach, it is concluded that case studies may be built up in a number of ways from, on the one hand, deep single case studies to multiple case studies using comparative logic, on the other. Between these two extremes are a number of hybrid methods which use both approaches.
Decision makers and authorities largely ignore cycling when conceptualising and developing programmes to support older mobility and therefore, unsurprisingly, levels of…
Decision makers and authorities largely ignore cycling when conceptualising and developing programmes to support older mobility and therefore, unsurprisingly, levels of cycling in the United Kingdom are low compared to other northern European nations. Cycling has the potential to play an important role in the active ageing agenda and provide older citizens with a form of independent mobility that enhances personal health and wellbeing. The chapter provides evidence of the important role cycling does and could play in older people’s mobility and outlines ways in which older cycling could be supported and promoted.
A point repeatedly brought forward for the defence, or at all events for the purpose of mitigating the fine, in adulteration cases, is the statement that defendant's goods have been analysed on former occasions and have been found genuine. As illustrating the slight value of analyses of previous samples may be taken the average laudatory analyses on patent or proprietary foods, drinks, or medicine. The manufacturer calculates—and calculates rightly—that the general public will believe that the published analysis of a particular specimen which had been submitted to the analytical expert by the manufacturer himself, guarantees all the samples on the market to be equally pure. History has repeatedly proved that in 99 cases out of 100 the goods found on the market fall below the quality indicated by the published analyses. Not long ago a case bearing on this matter was tried in court, where samples of cocoa supplied by the wholesale firm were distributed; but, when the retailer tried to sell the bulk of the consignment, he had repeated complaints from his customers that the samples were a very much better article than what he was then supplying. He summoned the wholesale dealer and won his case. But what guarantee have the general public of the quality of any manufacturer's goods—unless the Control System as instituted in Great Britain is accepted and applied ? Inasmuch as any manufacturer who joins the firms under the British Analytical Control thereby undertakes to keep all his samples up to the requisite standard; as his goods thenceforth bear the Control stamp; and as any purchaser can at any time submit a sample bought on the open market to the analytical experts of the British Analytical Control, free of any charge, to ascertain if the sample is up to the published and requisite standard, it is plain that a condition of things is created which not only protects the public from being cheated, but also acts most beneficially for these firms which are not afraid to supply a genuine article. The public are much more willing to buy an absolutely guaranteed article, of which each sample must be kept up to the previous high quality, rather than one which was good while it was being introduced, but as soon as it became well known fell off in quality and continued to live on its reputation alone.
It is now forty years since there appeared H. R. Plomer's first volume Dictionary of the booksellers and printers who were at work in England, Scotland and Ireland from…
It is now forty years since there appeared H. R. Plomer's first volume Dictionary of the booksellers and printers who were at work in England, Scotland and Ireland from 1641 to 1667. This has been followed by additional Bibliographical Society publications covering similarly the years up to 1775. From the short sketches given in this series, indicating changes of imprint and type of work undertaken, scholars working with English books issued before the closing years of the eighteenth century have had great assistance in dating the undated and in determining the colour and calibre of any work before it is consulted.
In addressing the future trajectory of knowledge management systems, this paper uses the psycho-social notion of generativity which recently stimulated contributions in…
In addressing the future trajectory of knowledge management systems, this paper uses the psycho-social notion of generativity which recently stimulated contributions in technology and innovation for a holistic systemic knowledge management (KM) review. The purpose of this study is to identify current shortcomings and fixations together with their ramifying affordances, all enveloped within a novel KM concept and prototype-system-under-development.
It follows up on prior publications using design science research (DSR) methodologies in compliance with theory effectiveness, a principle expecting system designs to be purposeful in terms of utility and communication. The KM perspective taken prioritizes a decentralizing agenda benefiting knowledge workers while also aiming to foster a fruitful co-evolution with traditional organizational KM approaches.
The notions of generative fit and capacities in their technical, informational and social interpretations prove able to accommodate diverse KM models and to cumulatively synthesize a wide range of related concepts and perspectives. In the process, Nonaka’s renowned socialize, externalize, combine, internalize and Ba model is repurposed and extended to suggest a corresponding complementing seize, imbed, collate, encompass, effectuate workflow embedded in distinct digital ecosystems fully aligned to the diversity of the generative attributes introduced.
Although the prototype development is still in progress, the study conforms to the DSR practice to report on early visions of technology impact on users, organizations and society and also refers to and reflects on aspects of feasibility, suitability, acceptability and the system’s prospect as a general-purpose technology or disruptive innovation.
The paper transdisciplinarily integrates the well-established psychological notions of generativity into its newer digital and systemic KM dimensions. The resulting new insights transparently inform the concept and prototype design, present a holistic framework for individuals and organizations and suggest avenues for new KM applications and KM research directions inspired by the adopted and adapted novel generativity contexts.