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Article
Publication date: 27 September 2011

Gilad Sharon and Donald Barker

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate modeling of the reliability characteristics of the copper (Cu) used in plated through holes (PTHs) for electrical connections…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate modeling of the reliability characteristics of the copper (Cu) used in plated through holes (PTHs) for electrical connections across printed circuit boards (PCBs).

Design/methodology/approach

Assessments of the Cu damage in the first three reflow cycles are performed using finite element analysis. A two‐dimensional axi‐symmetric model of a PTH on a laminate board is validated against a three‐dimensional full model and test cases. Stress and strain measurements in the inner ring of the PTH are obtained in numerical simulations.

Findings

Loads applied after the reflow cycles contribute to subsequent mechanical disconnects. Reliability assessments relying on undamaged circuits are less accurate than estimates incorporating Cu damage following three reflow cycles.

Originality/value

In order to increase the accuracy of PCB reliability predictions significantly, prior‐to‐use damage should be calculated. In this paper, a modification to the reliability analysis is proposed.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 May 2013

Gilad Sharon, Rachel Oberc and Donald Barker

The development of micro‐electro‐mechanical systems (MEMS) for use in military and consumer electronics necessitates an analysis of MEMS component reliability. The…

Abstract

Purpose

The development of micro‐electro‐mechanical systems (MEMS) for use in military and consumer electronics necessitates an analysis of MEMS component reliability. The understanding of the reliability characteristics of SCSi within MEMS structures should be improved to advance MEMS applications. Reliability assessments of MEMS technology may be used to conduct virtual qualification of these devices more efficiently. The purpose of this paper is to create a simple, inexpensive test methodology to use the dynamic fracture strength of a MEMS device to predict its reliability, and to verify this method through experimentation.

Design/methodology/approach

The dynamic fracture strength of single crystal silicon (SCSi) was used to model MEMS devices subjected to high shock loading. Experimentation with SCSi MEMS structures was performed following the proposed test methodology. A probabilistic distribution for bending of Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) processed SCSi around the <110> directions was generated as a tool for assessing product reliability.

Findings

Post shock test inspections revealed that failures occurred along {111} planes. Additional experiments provided preliminary estimates of the fracture strength for bending of DRIE processed SCSi around the <100> directions in excess of 1.1 GPa.

Originality/value

This paper proposes a test methodology for an efficient method to assess the reliability of processed SCSi based on dynamic fracture strength.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 30 November 2017

Micki Eisenman

The study applies a multimodal approach to position aesthetic innovation, i.e., the strategic use of aesthetic design attributes, such as color and shape, as an…

Abstract

The study applies a multimodal approach to position aesthetic innovation, i.e., the strategic use of aesthetic design attributes, such as color and shape, as an institutionalized aspect of competition, rather than as a firm-specific differentiation strategy, in settings that favor the symbolic meanings of products. Empirically, the study offers a detailed case study of the personal computer (PC) industry to examine the institutionalization of aesthetic innovation as a dimension of competition across industrial firms. The study examines the color and shape of PCs over the 1992–2003 period and situates changes to these attributes in the competitive conditions that characterized the industry, paying particular attention to the introduction of the Apple iMac in 1998. Furthermore, it examines the discursive manifestations of aesthetic innovation by content analysis of reviews of PCs and interviews with industry executives. Findings demonstrate that, in a period coinciding with a decline in demand for PCs and an overall mature market as well as with the introduction of the iMac, the majority of firms engaged in aesthetic innovation and used a greater number of aesthetic words in describing their PCs.

Details

Multimodality, Meaning, and Institutions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-330-4

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 23 September 2019

Shahar Robinstain

State leaders’ decision-making calculus is often attributed to external factors. The political arena, international community pressure and a country’s military stance all…

Abstract

State leaders’ decision-making calculus is often attributed to external factors. The political arena, international community pressure and a country’s military stance all take centre stage in the analysis of national security decisions. Little weight is given to personal aspects of a leader’s psyche in explaining these decisions; this is true to the bulk of the research regarding this topic. This study theorizes and tests a positive link between Israeli leaders’ combat military experience and their propensity to enter into ‘peacemaking’ decisions namely, peace talks, cease fires and unilateral withdrawals. This research uses a new database comprising all peacemaking decision points in Israel’s history, looking at the pressure put on a leader from outside factors and his military experience to explain the decision taken. It finds a strong significant link between combat experience and the tendency to enter in a peacemaking decision with little regard to ideological affiliation, shedding a new light on Israeli politicians from both sides of the aisle.

Details

How Do Leaders Make Decisions?
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-394-6

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 May 2012

Sharon Finzi, Jenny Bronstein, Judit Bar‐Ilan, Shifra Baruchson‐Arbib, Sheizaf Rafaeli and Gilad Ravid

Citizens Advice Bureau (SHIL in Hebrew) is an information and referral service dedicated to serving the needs of citizens by providing easy access to information about…

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Abstract

Purpose

Citizens Advice Bureau (SHIL in Hebrew) is an information and referral service dedicated to serving the needs of citizens by providing easy access to information about citizenship rights and obligations. Many people turn to the offices of SHIL either for help or to volunteer as advisors. This study seeks to examine the information seeking behavior of SHIL volunteers supplying information services to citizens.

Design/methodology/approach

The theoretical foundations of the study are based on two existing models of information searching related to everyday life problems, Foster's non‐linear model of information seeking behavior and Bates's berry‐picking approach. This research employs a qualitative method. A total of 35 advisors in different SHIL branches were interviewed and the content of the interviews was analyzed, mapped and organized into categories by using concepts and terms revealed in the data.

Findings

Findings show that volunteers at SHIL search information in a way that integrates the two models mentioned above, the berry‐picking model and the non‐linear model. In addition, findings point to difficulties that the advisors face in solving problems of the clients. These difficulties are connected with the different aspects relating to the flow of information both within and outside the organization and with organizational and administrative aspects at SHIL.

Originality/value

The information seeking behavior of volunteers acting as providers of information services has yet to be investigated at length and the understanding of their information behavior can be of value, since volunteering carries great importance in a democracy.

Article
Publication date: 9 August 2011

Tuija Mainela, Elina Pernu and Vesa Puhakka

The purpose of this research is to analyze the development of high‐tech international new ventures as an acting process by individuals in relationship networks.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to analyze the development of high‐tech international new ventures as an acting process by individuals in relationship networks.

Design/methodology/approach

The study cross‐fertilizes research on internationalization of international new ventures, opportunity development of entrepreneurs and innovation development in technology‐based firms. A longitudinal case study on the development process of an international new venture operating in the software business is used as a base for analytical generalization and theory development.

Findings

The study illustrates events at three intertwined levels of acting on the development of an international new venture. It defines internal problem solving, external solution creation, opportunity selling and opportunity organizing as the behaviors driving the emergent, multi‐level process and embedding the venture in various networks.

Research limitations/implications

Statistical generalization based on common patterns experienced by several firms was not sought in this study. Using the process research approach with event‐based analysis, the study, however, provides an in‐depth analysis of international new venture development through the actions of individuals at the level of key events. The methods for examining a complex development process over time can be utilized by other process researchers.

Practical implications

The complexity of building high‐tech international new ventures is, to a great extent, due to the necessity of handling the process at three levels simultaneously and in connection with one another. Since international new ventures are often based on business opportunities that have a short window of opportunity, the timeline creates further challenges. Embedding the business into various resourcing, legitimizing and otherwise assisting networks is crucial.

Originality/value

The study provides an insight into the ways of acting in networks that intertwines the internationalization, opportunity and technology development with development of a high‐tech international new venture. The study follows the development process in real time, something that is quite rare in previous international entrepreneurship research.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 6 February 2007

Sharon Topping, Jon C. Carr, Beth Woodard, Michael R. Burcham and Kina Johnson

In this paper, we argue that the opportunities created from the recent transformational change in the health care industry have provided the environment for…

Abstract

In this paper, we argue that the opportunities created from the recent transformational change in the health care industry have provided the environment for entrepreneurship to thrive. As a result, new and innovative organizational forms have flourished particularly when embedded in communities of entrepreneurial activity where networks of experience, access, and social/work relationships exist. The major purpose of this paper is to initiate a theoretical dialogue in which entrepreneurship is introduced as a field of research that can be used to explain how and why health care organizations have emerged and changed into their present forms. First, we present the basic elements for understanding the process of entrepreneurship and how entrepreneurial activity is important to the innovation of new organizational forms. Second, we relate this to the field of health care by focusing on the three stages in the entrepreneurial model: creation, discovery, and exploitation of entrepreneurial opportunities. Third, we argue that the degree of entrepreneurial activity within a given community is the outcome of a dynamic process involving social networks along with positive economic and legal activities that reduce transaction costs and encourage entrepreneurship. To demonstrate this, we focus on the area known as the “health care business capital” in the U.S. – Nashville, Tennessee – and describe the entrepreneurial activity in that city beginning in the 1960s and relate this to the existing theory. We believe this research represents a juxtaposition of the practical and theoretical, so critical in understanding entrepreneurial activity and new organizational forms in health care.

Details

Strategic Thinking and Entrepreneurial Action in the Health Care Industry
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-427-0

Book part
Publication date: 23 September 2019

Noa Katzir

This chapter uses the poliheuristic theory of decision-making to analyze the decisions of Israeli prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu. The study examines a series of…

Abstract

This chapter uses the poliheuristic theory of decision-making to analyze the decisions of Israeli prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu. The study examines a series of Netanyahu’s decisions regarding the peace process during 1996–2014. Using Applied Decision Analysis (ADA), this study demonstrates that Netanyahu ruled out alternatives that failed to satisfy alternatives on the non-compensatory decision dimension – his political survivability. The prime minister’s final choices were made from the remaining options according to their ability to maximize net benefits with respect to Netanyahu’s ideological concerns.

Details

How Do Leaders Make Decisions?
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-394-6

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 2 July 2020

Nadera Shalhoub-Kevorkian

To better understand states’ technologies of violence, colonisation, and military occupation, this chapter shares Jerusalemite children’s written and spoken opposition to…

Abstract

To better understand states’ technologies of violence, colonisation, and military occupation, this chapter shares Jerusalemite children’s written and spoken opposition to the mundane yet intimate governance of Israel’s ‘combat proven’ politics over their lives. ‘Combat proven’ politics are forms of surveillance, strategies of control, imprisonment, torture, murder, and techniques of managing colonised populations that are mobilised in service of the state. Combat proven politics turn children’s everyday spaces into a ‘show room’ – a living laboratory – for states, arms companies, and security agencies (both private and public) to market their technologies as ‘tested positively’. As sites of violence proliferate in these contexts, children are folded into the testing ground of ‘combat proven’ politics, intensifying and incentivising infrastructural warfare. Occupied East Jerusalem, where the children in this study live, acutely illustrates how combat proven politics is driven by a concentration of biopolitics, geopolitics (including the topography of settlement and colonial architecture), and necropolitics. At the same time, children’s language of life subverts the logic of the death machines.

Details

The Emerald Handbook of Feminism, Criminology and Social Change
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-956-4

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 2 May 2006

Abstract

Details

Human Factors of Remotely Operated Vehicles
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-247-4

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