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Article
Publication date: 18 October 2021

Ghulam Ali Arain, Imran Hameed, Abdul Karim Khan, Alberto Dello Strologo and Amandeep Dhir

Drawing on social learning and social cognitive theories, this study aims to examine a multi-level moderated mediation model that tests the mediating effect of moral…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on social learning and social cognitive theories, this study aims to examine a multi-level moderated mediation model that tests the mediating effect of moral disengagement (MD: Level 1) between perceived organisational politics (POP: Level 1) and employee knowledge hiding from coworkers (EKHC: Level 1). The authors further propose that supervisor knowledge hiding from employees (SKHE: Level 2) moderates this mediation effect.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors obtained multi-sourced, multi-timed and multi-level data regarding 294 employees, working under 80 supervisors, from multiple organisations operating in Pakistan. The authors analysed these data using multi-level structural equation modelling via Mplus.

Findings

The results show that employee MD significantly mediates the direct relationship between POP and EKHC. The mediation effect is further positively moderated by SKHE, which amplifies the mediation effect.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first empirical study that examines both EKHC and SKHE together in a single research model and provides a thorough understanding of why, how and when POP leads to EKHC.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 26 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 October 2019

Ghulam Ali Arain, Zeeshan Ahmed Bhatti, Imran Hameed and Yu-Hui Fang

This paper aims to examine the consequences for innovative work behavior (IWB) of top-down knowledge hiding – that is, supervisors’ knowledge hiding from supervisees…

2054

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the consequences for innovative work behavior (IWB) of top-down knowledge hiding – that is, supervisors’ knowledge hiding from supervisees (SKHS). Drawing on social learning theory, the authors test the three-way moderated-mediation model in which the direct effect of SKHS on IWB is first mediated by self-efficacy and then further moderated by supervisor and supervisee nationality (locals versus foreigners).

Design/methodology/approach

The authors collected multi-sourced data from 446 matched supervisor-supervisee pairs working in a diverse range of organizations operating in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. After initial data screening, confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to test for the factorial validity of the used measures with AMOS. The hypothesized relationships were tested in regression analysis with SPSS.

Findings

Results showed that SKHS had both direct and mediation effects, via the self-efficacy mediator, on supervisee IWB. The mediation effect was further moderated by supervisor and supervisee nationality (local versus foreigners), which highlighted that the effect was stronger for supervisor–supervisee pairs that were local-local or foreigner-foreigner than for pairs that were local-foreigner or foreigner-local.

Originality/value

This study contributes to both knowledge hiding and IWB literature and discusses the useful theoretical and practical implications of the findings.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 October 2021

Ghulam Ali Arain, Zeeshan Ahmed Bhatti, Jonathan R. Crawshaw, Imran Ali and Armando Papa

Drawing on the self-consistency theory, this study aims to test a model where employees' supervisor-based self-esteem (SBSE) is positively related to their promotive and…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on the self-consistency theory, this study aims to test a model where employees' supervisor-based self-esteem (SBSE) is positively related to their promotive and prohibitive voice and mediate the positive relationship between leader–member exchange social comparison (LMXSC) of an employee's promotive and prohibitive voice, but only for local rather than migrant workers.

Design/methodology/approach

To test the study hypotheses, multi-source data were collected from 341 matched supervisor–supervisee dyads working in a diverse range of organizations in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Findings

As predicted, employees' SBSE is positively related to their promotive and prohibitive voice and mediates a positive relationship between their LMXSC and their promotive and prohibitive voice, but only for local workers. The study findings support the self-consistency theory perspective on LMX and provide new insight into the “dark side” of migrant working – a lack of voice.

Originality/value

This study responds to calls for more research that explores the roles played by macro-environmental factors on employees' voice. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 43 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 January 2018

Hira Rani, Ghulam Ali Arain, Aneel Kumar and Iram Rani Shaikh

This study aims to examine the effect of psychological contract breach on organizational disidentification through the “affect-based” mediating mechanisms of trust and distrust.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the effect of psychological contract breach on organizational disidentification through the “affect-based” mediating mechanisms of trust and distrust.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a convenient sampling technique, cross-sectional data were collected from 281 doctors working in public sector health-care organizations in Pakistan. After initial data screening, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to test the measurement models’ validity and reliability. The hypothesized relationships were tested using structural equation modeling (SEM) with AMOS.

Findings

The results of this study showed that psychological contract breach had significant direct and indirect positive effects through the mediating mechanism of distrust on organizational identification. However, trust was not supported as a mediator in that relationship.

Research limitations/implications

This study uses cross-sectional data. Other researchers should use longitudinal design with two or three time lags. This study uses a sample of doctors from different cities of Pakistan, as this is a global era, so results cannot be generalized; this opens the future avenue for other scholars to select a broad sample from multiple organizations like businesses and NGOs from different countries or to use it in different context. The authors have used single source (questionnaires) and quantitative method to collect data for this study, so there is a probability of self-report bias. As future is of mixed method, so future researchers should use mixed method for deep and thorough understanding of different selected phenomena.

Practical implications

Due to the experiences of breach of psychological contract, the doctors may either lose trust or may experience distrust which may further reduce their level of identification in an organization. Their contribution toward best interest of hospital decreases and their willingness to identify with their working place declines. Practically, the authors have compared that it is either the trust or distrust which can lead to organizational disidentification among doctors.

Social implications

The findings will help employers and hospital authorities to understand that doctors are the most important strategic element of every hospital. Having sound financial, physical and informational capital is incomplete and worthless if there is no “doctor”. Because they have to deal directly with patients, so in this case, they are most important and crucial. A doctor’s identification and their loyalty with high level of trust directly on employer and indirectly on hospital all contributes toward an organization’s long-term success, and ultimately for the success of society.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the existing literature on the consequences of employees’ psychological contract breach by simultaneously testing trust and distrust as the two competing affect-based mediating mechanisms between psychological contract breach and organizational disidentification.

Details

Journal of Asia Business Studies, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1558-7894

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 March 2022

Abdul Karim Khan, Imran Hameed, Samina Quratulain, Ghulam Ali Arain and Alexander Newman

Drawing on the dual process model of ideology and prejudice, the purpose of this paper is to examine whether, how and when a supervisor's Machiavellianism leads to…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on the dual process model of ideology and prejudice, the purpose of this paper is to examine whether, how and when a supervisor's Machiavellianism leads to subordinates' perceptions of abusive supervision. In doing so, the authors also explore the mediating role of the supervisor's competitive world views and the moderating role of subordinates' performance on this relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

The theoretical model was tested using three sources of data from supervisors, their subordinates and the organization. Hierarchical linear model analysis was run on supervisor and subordinate dyadic data for testing whether subordinates' performance moderated the mediated relationships or not.

Findings

The results suggest that the supervisors' competitive worldviews explain the positive link between their Machiavellianism and subordinates' perceptions of abusive supervision. The results highlight that the mediation effect of supervisors' competitive worldviews on the link between their Machiavellianism and their subordinates' perceptions of abusive supervision is more pronounced when subordinates' performance is low than when it is high.

Research limitations/implications

This research contributes to the authors’ knowledge of the link between supervisors' Machiavellianism and abusive supervision, and how the toxic influence of their Machiavellianism is mediated by supervisors' competitive worldviews.

Originality/value

The study contributes to the literature on abusive supervision and personality by studying the role of personality as an antecedent of abusive supervision. Further, this study used subordinates' performance as a contextual variable for understanding abusive supervision.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 December 2019

Waheed Ali Umrani, Imdad Ali Siyal, Umair Ahmed, Ghulam Ali Arain, Hassan Sayed and Sumera Umrani

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the perceptions of faculty members about the influence of family motivation on their self-efficacy and organizational…

1468

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the perceptions of faculty members about the influence of family motivation on their self-efficacy and organizational citizenship behavior-individual (OCBI).

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed model was tested on a sample of 353 faculty members from different public and private universities of Pakistan. Partial least squares structural equation modeling was used to analyze data.

Findings

Surprisingly, results reveal that family motivation was not positively related to faculty members’ OCBI; instead, this relationship is fully mediated by self-efficacy. The findings suggest that it is employees’ self-efficacy belief through which their family motivation translates to their increased OCBI. This study also finds that supporting the family is a powerful source of motivation to work, offering meaningful practical and theoretical implications for policy-makers, leaders, managers and researchers on the new dynamics of work and family engagements.

Originality/value

The study contributes to human resource management (HRM) and organizational behavior (OB) literatures by providing some useful practical implications for managers and HRM and OB consultants who are interested in understanding the underlying psychological mechanisms (i.e. self-efficacy) through which employees’ family motivation results in the increased OCBI.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 49 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 June 2018

Ghulam Ali Arain, Sehrish Bukhari, Imran Hameed, Delphine M. Lacaze and Zahara Bukhari

The purpose of this paper is to examine the direct and conditional indirect effects of employees’ perception of psychological contract fulfillment on their positive voice…

1204

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the direct and conditional indirect effects of employees’ perception of psychological contract fulfillment on their positive voice, i.e., promotive voice and prohibitive voice, through the integrated framework of the social exchange theory and the group value model.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a two-source data collection from the employee and supervisor, cross-sectional data were collected from 234 participants working in one of the leading non-profit organizations in Pakistan. After initial data screening, a confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to test for the factorial validity of the employed measures with AMOS. The hypothesized relationships were tested in regression analysis with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences.

Findings

The results of this study supported the integration of the social exchange theory with the group value model in explaining the direct and indirect positive effects of employees’ perception of psychological contract fulfillment on their promotive and prohibitive voices through the mediation of organizational identification (OID). Furthermore, it was also recorded that the indirect effect was conditional on the employees’ perception of the relative psychological contract fulfillment which significantly moderated the direct relationship between psychological contract fulfillment and OID. However, no such effect was recorded for the moderating effect of power distance orientation between OID and the both voices.

Originality/value

In addressing the recently published research calls, this study broadens the horizon of existing research on psychological contract and employee positive voice by investigating the mediating and the moderating factors that influence this relationship.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 47 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 March 2017

Muhammad Ali Asadullah, Ahmad Nabeel Siddiquei, Arshial Hussain and Ghulam Ali Arain

The purpose of this paper is to determine the mediating role of “moral clarity” and the moderating role of “hypocrisy” in the relationship between sense of power and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the mediating role of “moral clarity” and the moderating role of “hypocrisy” in the relationship between sense of power and punishment severity.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were collected using purposive sampling from 250 government officials serving at a responsible and authoritative position in different public sector organizations operating in Pakistan.

Findings

The study has found a significant indirect effect of sense of power on punishment severity through moral clarity. This study has also found that this indirect effect is significant at higher levels of hypocrisy but insignificant at lower or moderate level of hypocrisy.

Practical implications

The study offers serious practical implications by highlighting the role of hypocrisy in powerful individuals’ moral judgements and their decisions to exercise power and administer punishments.

Originality/value

The study is the first to develop and test a mediated-moderation model of the relationship between sense of power, moral clarity, hypocrisy and punishment severity.

Details

South Asian Journal of Business Studies, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-628X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 September 2020

Zeeshan Ahmed Bhatti, Ghulam Ali Arain, Hina Mahboob Yasin, Muhammad Asif Khan and Muhammad Shakaib Akram

Drawing on social identity theory and prosocial behaviour research, this study explores how people's integration of their offline and online social activities through…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on social identity theory and prosocial behaviour research, this study explores how people's integration of their offline and online social activities through Facebook cultivates their Facebook citizenship behaviour (FCB). It also offers further insight into the underlying mechanism of offline and online social activity integration - FCB relation by investigating people's social identification with their offline and online social groups as possible mediators.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on social identity theory (SIT) literature, community citizenship behaviour and offline-online social activity integration through Facebook, we developed a conceptual model, which was empirically tested using data from 308 Facebook users

Findings

The results confirm that the participants' offline-online social activity integration via Facebook is positively linked to their FCB. Further, the integration of offline and online social activity through Facebook positively affects how a person identifies with their offline and online social groups, which in turn causes them to display FCB. In addition, offline/online social identification mediates the integration – FCB relation.

Practical implications

In practice, it is interesting to see people's tendency towards altruistic behaviours within groups they like to associate themselves with. Those who share their Facebook network with their offline friends can use such network to seek help and support.

Originality/value

From a theoretical perspective, unlike past research, this study examines how individuals' offline-online social activity integration via Facebook helps them associate with groups. In addition, this study investigates social identification from an offline and online perspective.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. 34 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 May 2020

Rana Muhammad Naeem, Khalil Ahmed Channa, Zahid Hameed, Ghulam Ali Arain and Zia Ul Islam

In this study, the authors aim to explain the mechanism between transformational leadership and job crafting. They predict that job-based psychological ownership…

Abstract

Purpose

In this study, the authors aim to explain the mechanism between transformational leadership and job crafting. They predict that job-based psychological ownership (job-based PO) mediates the relationship between transformational leadership and job crafting. Furthermore, job-based PO is more effective when employees have a high level of affective organizational commitment.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors collected time-lagged data through a paper–pencil survey from the sales department of large pharmaceutical companies in Pakistan.

Findings

The findings of this study suggest that job-based PO mediates the positive relationship between transformational leadership and job crafting. Moreover, the relationship of job-based PO with job crafting is moderated by affective organizational commitment such that the relationship was stronger at the high levels of affective organizational commitment than that of the low levels of affective organizational commitment.

Practical implications

On practical grounds, job crafting can be useful for individuals and organizations. On individuals’ side, it helps them to balance their job demands and resource; on organizations’ side, it provides a solution to the ongoing problem of disengaged employees and suggests managers identify new ways to support employees with their job redesign.

Originality/value

This study suggests that job-based PO and affective organizational commitment are important factors that influence the relationship between transformational leadership and job crafting.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 50 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

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