This articles provides a managerial framework to examine and analyse factors that may influence government decision making in less developed countries. In order to market successfully to these buyers, a series of hurdles has to be cleared. These include meeting eligibility, following procedures, establishing critical linkages, developing competitive offers and exerting appropriate influence. International firms can enhance their success and profits by taking a serious, long‐term approach to these markets.
This article tests a number of channel behaviour hypotheses in aunique structural arrangement – the joint venture. The resultsindicate that goal disparity is a significant…
This article tests a number of channel behaviour hypotheses in a unique structural arrangement – the joint venture. The results indicate that goal disparity is a significant predictor of conflict and that perceived conflict is related to member satisfaction, manifest conflict, and desire for change. Managerial and theoretical implications are discussed.
Examines the determinants of International Joint Venture marketing performance in Thailand. Uses the results from a survey of 1047 Thai‐foreign IJVs in Thailand from firms…
Examines the determinants of International Joint Venture marketing performance in Thailand. Uses the results from a survey of 1047 Thai‐foreign IJVs in Thailand from firms that were mainly engaged in agriculture, metal working, electrical and chemical industries. Applies exploratory factor analysis and discriminant analysis to identify these critical determinants as market characteristics, conflict, commitment, marketing orientation and organisational control.
Management writings in the Middle East region are scarce and scattered. This is due to the lack of doctorate programmes offered by educational institutions, the weak links between academia and the business world, limited formal and informal networks, the lack of status given to the field of management by national bodies and the lack of a publication culture. A bibliography of management‐related writings in the Middle East is presented, which includes other functional areas such as marketing, finance and accounting. It aims to draw the students' attention to a variety of sources. In compiling the bibliography a review of the literature in Arabic, English and Turkish was undertaken, followed by a survey of the top officials of academic institutions offering management/commerce, business administration degree programmes in the region.
This paper explores attractiveness of stocks on Karachi Stock Exchange using event study methodology. The main findings of this paper are KSE 100 has included small share…
This paper explores attractiveness of stocks on Karachi Stock Exchange using event study methodology. The main findings of this paper are KSE 100 has included small share capital base manufacturing companies during 2000‐2002. There is no significant difference in pre tax profitability of companies included (excluded) except for their capital structures. The results from event study seem to suggest that KSE100 stocks would be more attractive to passive investors. The passive investors tracking moderate beta stocks on KSE100 index are better off until beta of the stocks climbs up.
Recent literature in marketing reveals a substantial growth of interest in behavioural issues relating to channels of distribution. It appears that research in behavioural…
Recent literature in marketing reveals a substantial growth of interest in behavioural issues relating to channels of distribution. It appears that research in behavioural aspects of channels has come of age in the 1980s and the interest is likely to continue. Behavioural constructs such as conflict, co‐operation, power, performance, channel‐member satisfaction, and the interrelationships among these have been the focal point of an increasing number of conceptual and theoretical writings. The primary intent of this literature is to augment a better understanding and management of channel behaviour.
The macro‐environment of the banking industry in Saudi Arabia is considered, the development of commercial banking is discussed, and present banking activities with regard to branches, services and promotion are examined. This comprehensive look at the Saudi bank marketing scene draws on the work of published writers, interviews with banking officials and the authors' own observations and experiences.
A sample of 217 Saudi children was surveyed to determine the impactof television commercials on their purchase behaviour. Reports theresults of this survey, broken down by…
A sample of 217 Saudi children was surveyed to determine the impact of television commercials on their purchase behaviour. Reports the results of this survey, broken down by gender and discusses their implications. Offers suggestions for future research.
Gastric cancer is the fourth most common cancer and the leading cause of death after lung cancer in the world. Considering the economic burden of cancers and their impact…
Gastric cancer is the fourth most common cancer and the leading cause of death after lung cancer in the world. Considering the economic burden of cancers and their impact on household welfare, this study aims to estimate the cost of gastric cancer in Tabriz (Northwest city of Iran) in 2017.
This was an incidence-based cost of illness study which was conducted from the perspective of society with a bottom-up costing approach. The inclusion criteria for the study were all patients (n = 118) with gastric cancer at the period of the first six months after diagnosis that 102 patients participated. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 22.
The mean medical direct cost was US$3288.02, 18.19 per cent paid by the patient and 81.81 per cent paid by insurance organizations and governmental subsidies. The estimated out of pocket rate was 18.19 per cent. The mean non-medical direct cost estimated at US$377.54. The mean total direct cost was US$3665.56, 26.61 per cent paid by the patient. The mean indirect cost estimated at US$505.41 and the mean total cost was US$4170.97, 35.5 per cent which imposed on the patient. The mean total cost of gastric cancer within the first six months after diagnosis was equivalent to 0.81 GDP per capita.
Based on the findings, gastric cancer is a highly costly disease that despite insurance coverage imposes a high economic burden on the patients and their families.
This paper aims to enhance the existing literature on adaptive market hypothesis (AMH) as this study first time links the month of Ramadan with AMH that permits the…
This paper aims to enhance the existing literature on adaptive market hypothesis (AMH) as this study first time links the month of Ramadan with AMH that permits the performance of well-known Ramadan effect to fluctuate over time.
To fulfill the purpose, the authors inspect the daily returns of 107 individual firms listed at Pakistan Stock Exchange over the period of 20 years. To explore the varying degree of return predictability during Ramadan, the authors use four different subsamples comprising equal length of observations of five years each. The authors use a GARCH (1,1) regression model which facilitates for time varying nature of volatility in equity returns. To facilitate the non-normal nature of stock return data, the authors use Kruskal–Wallis test statistic.
The authors find that behavior of Ramadan effect evolves over time, as performance of this effect varies from time to time and consistent with AMH. Finally, the paper proposes that AMH is well elucidation of behavior of Ramadan effect than traditional efficient market hypothesis.
First limitation is related to the choice of sub-sample as the study uses a sub-sample of five years. Second, the authors ignore transection cost (commissions, fee and taxes) as it is freely negotiated and varies between 4 and 10% (Khan, 2013). Due to such varying information we ignore the transaction cost. It is suggested that a sub-sample analysis of long period may be a more appropriate method to elucidate the idea of AMH in future research and suggest the current method could be adapted and helpful to examine other calendar and market anomalies in different equity markets.
The paper includes implications for investors to choose a better model for investment. Investors can exploit greater returns in future month of Ramadan periods. Furthermore, the researchers can easily extend the methodology used in the study to address multiple issues like adaptive behavior of returns from bonds, real estate investment trusts, cryptocurrencies and trading rules of strategies.
Study confirms from sample t-test and GARCH (1,1) model that Ramadan effect is present in the full and in certain sub-samples; therefore, based on these discrepancies investors can earn abnormal returns by developing specific investment strategies as investors usually make investments in share according to the religious context of Islamic Calendar. The results provide good references for suitable time of investment in stock market. The findings of this study will be helpful to investors and brokers as well as portfolio managers to capture favorable returns across the Islamic calendar.
The paper identified need to study why behavior of Ramadan effect varies over time. The data set comprises daily returns of 107 individual companies over the period of 20 years to better investigate the varying nature of anomalous effect of month of Ramadan. The findings are valuable for international investors and portfolio managers.