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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1993

Gerard Lynch

Outlines the development of English brickwork from 1485 to 1914,highlighting the many external influences that were underpinning thestyles and practices of the various…

Abstract

Outlines the development of English brickwork from 1485 to 1914, highlighting the many external influences that were underpinning the styles and practices of the various periods, such as developments in materials, craft skills and practices, and the change in architecture.

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Structural Survey, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1994

Gerard Lynch

Second part of a perspective of the development of the English brick andits use since the 15th century. Evaluates the many varying externalinfluences such as trade links…

Abstract

Second part of a perspective of the development of the English brick and its use since the 15th century. Evaluates the many varying external influences such as trade links, architectural fashions, industrial developments and social factors that were invariably under‐pinning the styles and practices of the brickmaker and bricklayer down the centuries. Analyses this history in a series of chronological periods, i.e. 1485‐1603; 1603‐1830 and 1830‐1914. The pattern of study remaining consistent within each period, that being – what was the significant socio‐economic and political movement in relation to construction, and what, if any, part did it play in influencing change in the making and use of bricks. Looks at how and why brick manufacture and brickwork were responding, and when within these periods, considering who were the important figures in these changes and developments. Concludes that the brickwork, which marks each period, is the result not only of developments in the brickmaking process and the craft skills of the bricklayers, but also of foreign influences, social and economic changes in the country, and the inevitable gradual influence of building control, through legislation, necessary to ensure safe and sanitary housing in the urban environment of a major industrial country.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1998

Anthony L. Poole

Abstract

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Structural Survey, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Abstract

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The Creation and Analysis of Employer-Employee Matched Data
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-44450-256-8

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Book part
Publication date: 29 August 2018

Paul A. Pautler

The Bureau of Economics in the Federal Trade Commission has a three-part role in the Agency and the strength of its functions changed over time depending on the…

Abstract

The Bureau of Economics in the Federal Trade Commission has a three-part role in the Agency and the strength of its functions changed over time depending on the preferences and ideology of the FTC’s leaders, developments in the field of economics, and the tenor of the times. The over-riding current role is to provide well considered, unbiased economic advice regarding antitrust and consumer protection law enforcement cases to the legal staff and the Commission. The second role, which long ago was primary, is to provide reports on investigations of various industries to the public and public officials. This role was more recently called research or “policy R&D”. A third role is to advocate for competition and markets both domestically and internationally. As a practical matter, the provision of economic advice to the FTC and to the legal staff has required that the economists wear “two hats,” helping the legal staff investigate cases and provide evidence to support law enforcement cases while also providing advice to the legal bureaus and to the Commission on which cases to pursue (thus providing “a second set of eyes” to evaluate cases). There is sometimes a tension in those functions because building a case is not the same as evaluating a case. Economists and the Bureau of Economics have provided such services to the FTC for over 100 years proving that a sub-organization can survive while playing roles that sometimes conflict. Such a life is not, however, always easy or fun.

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Healthcare Antitrust, Settlements, and the Federal Trade Commission
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-599-9

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Book part
Publication date: 21 November 2016

Kou Murayama, Keise Izuma, Ryuta Aoki and Kenji Matsumoto

Studies in psychology have long revealed that making personal choice involves multiple motivational consequences. It has only been recent, however, that the literature on…

Abstract

Studies in psychology have long revealed that making personal choice involves multiple motivational consequences. It has only been recent, however, that the literature on neuroscience started to examine the neural underpinnings of personal choice and motivation. This chapter reviews this sparse, but emergent, body of neuroscientific literature to address possible neural correlates underlying personal choice. By conducting the review, we encourage future systematic research programs that address this topic under the new realm of “autonomy neuroscience.” The chapter especially focused on the following motivational aspects: (i) personal choice is rewarding, (ii) personal choice shapes preference, (iii) personal choice changes the perception of outcomes, and (iv) personal choice facilitates motivation and performance. The reviewed work highlighted different aspects of personal choice, but indicated some overlapping brain areas – the striatum and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) – which may play a critical role in motivational processes elicited by personal choice.

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Recent Developments in Neuroscience Research on Human Motivation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-474-7

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Article
Publication date: 6 December 2018

Gerard A. Athaide, Jason Q. Zhang and Richard R. Klink

The purpose of the paper is to develop and test a contingency model of buyer involvement when developing new products in technology-based industrial markets. Information…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to develop and test a contingency model of buyer involvement when developing new products in technology-based industrial markets. Information Dissemination and degree of product co-development are identified as two behavioral dimensions of seller–buyer relationships. Further, the paper proposes that perceived buyer knowledge, innovation discontinuity, product customization and technological uncertainty moderate the impact of the behavioral dimensions on sellers’ relationship satisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses moderated regression on a data set of 296 small and mid-sized firms in a variety of high-tech industries to test relevant hypotheses.

Findings

The authors find that sellers can enhance relationship satisfaction by engaging in either unilateral or bilateral relationships. This is important because sellers have to be judicious in expending their relationship resources. While information dissemination is more satisfying when targeting less knowledgeable buyers, product co-development enhances satisfaction when targeting more knowledgeable buyers. Similarly, information dissemination can enhance satisfaction for discontinuous innovations; in contrast, product co-development has a similar outcome for customized products. However, when technological uncertainty is high, such co-development leads to reduced satisfaction.

Originality/value

Extant literature provides useful insights on the behavioral dimensions of seller–buyer relationships, the antecedents and consequences of such relationships and the stages of the new product development process when such relationships are more valuable. Despite this progress, important gaps remain in current understanding of seller–buyer relationships. In particular, findings regarding the contribution of relationships to desired outcomes are inconsistent. This suggests that important moderators of the relationship–outcomes link are being overlooked and warrant greater attention. This paper addresses this deficiency.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Book part
Publication date: 6 September 2021

Line Ettrich and Torben Juul Andersen

The world in which companies operate today is volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous, thus subjecting contemporary forms to an array of risks that challenge their…

Abstract

The world in which companies operate today is volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous, thus subjecting contemporary forms to an array of risks that challenge their viability in an increasingly competitive landscape. Organizations that cling to their traditional ways of operating impede their ability to survive while those able to embrace evolving changes and lever their strategic response capabilities (SRCs) will thrive against the odds. The possession of such capabilities has become a prominent explanation for effective adaptation to the impending changes but is rarely analyzed and tested empirically. Strategic adaptation typically assumes innovation as an important component, but we know little about how the innovative processes interact with the firm’s SRCs. Hence, this study investigates these implied relationships to discern their effects on organizational performance and risk outcomes. It explores the effects of SRCs and the role of innovation as intertwined adaptive mechanisms supporting strategic renewal that can attain superior performance and risk effects. The relationships are analyzed based on a large sample of US manufacturing firms over the decade 2010–2019. The study reveals that firms possessing effective SRCs have the ability to exploit opportunities and deflect risky situations to gain favorable performance and risk outcomes. While innovation indeed plays a role, the precise nature and dynamic effect thereof remain inconclusive.

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Strategic Responses for a Sustainable Future: New Research in International Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-929-3

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Hannelore B. Rader

To report on the Coalition for Networked Information (CNI) held the Fall 2005 Task Force Meeting for its Task Force representatives and other participants in Phoenix…

Abstract

Purpose

To report on the Coalition for Networked Information (CNI) held the Fall 2005 Task Force Meeting for its Task Force representatives and other participants in Phoenix, Arizona on December 5‐6, 2005.

Design/methodology/approach

Provides a concise review of the conference.

Findings

The meeting offered a wide variety of timely presentations that advanced and reported on CNI’s programs, projects and issues from Task Force member institutions and emphasized significant activities on the national and international arenas.

Originality/value

This paper is a useful summary of a conference of interest to library and information management professionals.

Details

Library Hi Tech News, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0741-9058

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1992

Clifford A. Lynch and Cecilia M. Preston

The need for effective directories of networked information resources becomes more critical as these resources—online library catalogs, file archives, online journal…

Abstract

The need for effective directories of networked information resources becomes more critical as these resources—online library catalogs, file archives, online journal article repositories, and information servers—proliferate, and as demand grows for intelligent tools to navigate and use such information resources. The existing approaches are based primarily on print‐oriented directories, but print‐oriented directories will not scale to support the future services that will help network users navigate tens of thousands of resources. The paper first explores the “user” perspective in various usage scenarios for employing a database of descriptive information to navigate or access networked information resources. It then considers specific data elements that will be required in a description of these networked information resources. Classification of networked information resources will ultimately rely on large‐scale prototypes, coupled with a new generation of advanced information‐seeking tools, and within the reality of economics.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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