Search results1 – 8 of 8
This chapter summarizes findings and conclusions from recent studies exploring the role of motivation-readiness factors in drug abuse treatment. The research focuses on…
This chapter summarizes findings and conclusions from recent studies exploring the role of motivation-readiness factors in drug abuse treatment. The research focuses on populations entering drug treatment, particularly therapeutic community programs in community- and prison-based settings. However, findings from studies in other modalities and from samples not entering treatment are also discussed. Issues addressed include (1) the nature of the motivational concept in recovery, (2) motivation as a variable affecting treatment retention and outcomes, (3) motivation in the treatment process, (4) differences in motivation across treatment populations and modalities, (5) client correlates of motivation, and (6) motivational enhancement. Conclusions highlight the critical role of motivation-readiness factors in understanding treatment-seeking, retention, and outcomes. Key implications are discussed for research, theory, treatment practice, and health care policy. These implications underscore issues relating to the interaction of motivation and treatment processes, the interaction of motivation and treatment demands, differences in motivation among special populations, client correlates of motivation, and self-selection and study designs.
This chapter provides readers with a summary of sport sociology in the United States. It begins with a brief overview of sport in the United States before describing the…
This chapter provides readers with a summary of sport sociology in the United States. It begins with a brief overview of sport in the United States before describing the development of the sociology of sport in the United States and some of the major contemporary patterns in sport research. They key movement in US sport sociology was the critical-cultural turn that took place during the 1980s and 1990s when critical theory and feminism became dominant approaches to research. Scholarship in the 21st century has largely developed upon that turn and is generally qualitative and cultural. Contemporary US sport sociology is a critical endeavor heavily influenced by cultural studies, post-structuralism, feminism, queer theory, critical race theory, post-colonial theory, and theories of globalization. Despite a fairly consistent approach to sport research in the United States, sport sociology remains contentious and in disunity. This chapter argues that the contention and disunity results from broader structural patterns that guide sport sociologists’ social actions.
The chapter intervenes in the debate among scholars of legal impact about the extent to which law can change society. Reformers, aims are frustrated when targets of law…
The chapter intervenes in the debate among scholars of legal impact about the extent to which law can change society. Reformers, aims are frustrated when targets of law respond with resistance to court decisions, especially where mechanisms to enforce case law are weak (Hall, 2010; Klarman, 2006; Rosenberg, 1991). Even when law’s targets abide by a law, however, other important studies have demonstrated that organizations can leverage ambiguous language to craft policies in compliance that further their aims (Barnes & Burke, 2006; Edelman, 2016; Lipson, 2001). This chapter examines a case in which a state constitutional provision banning affirmative action was written in relatively unambiguous language and one of its targets announced its intention to comply. Through extensive interviews with University officials, this chapter examines the University of Michigan’s use of financial, technological, and political resources to follow the language of the law while still blunting its impact. These findings suggest that to understand law’s impact on society, we need to reconceive compliance and not only take the clarity of the law and its enforcement mechanisms into account but also attend to the goals, resources, and practices of the groups it targets.
The empirical literature that attempts to study rights is at an impasse. It can demonstrate that big claims about how some rights structure politics are overblown, but it…
The empirical literature that attempts to study rights is at an impasse. It can demonstrate that big claims about how some rights structure politics are overblown, but it has struggled to go beyond this step. This is in large part because studying rights is much more difficult than is commonly appreciated. A study of rights promises implicitly to be a study of how rights politics differs from other kinds of politics. But rights are so ubiquitous and so diverse in form that it is often unclear what the excluded other is. We examine three books on rights that we admire: two by political scientists, Gerald Rosenberg's The Hollow Hope and Michael McCann's Rights at Work, and one by an anthropologist, Sally Merry's Human Rights and Gender Violence. These books conceptualize rights in diverse ways, in diverse settings, using diverse methodologies; yet they run up against similar difficulties in trying to think beyond the cases they study. At the conclusion, we make some humble suggestions for how researchers might try to overcome these problems.
This chapter derives from the movieDr. Strangelovecues for exploring questions about the quest for methodological insularity and purity in socio-legal research. Steven…
This chapter derives from the movieDr. Strangelovecues for exploring questions about the quest for methodological insularity and purity in socio-legal research. Steven Lukes’ classic three-dimensional model of power provides an intellectual focus for the core exploration of relations between epistemology and data generation, the two key elements that we usually identify with methodology. The discussion culminates in an affirmative argument for the value of approaching methodology as jazz, the creative popular music that grounds reliable, humane sense in Kubrick's movie and provides an apt analogy for much of the leading scholarship in the LSA tradition.
Reputation is conceptualised as the believed effects that any social agent (ranging from a person to a company to a country) can have. Food reputation is beliefs about the…
Reputation is conceptualised as the believed effects that any social agent (ranging from a person to a company to a country) can have. Food reputation is beliefs about the effects of food on its consumers. On the basis of a multidimensional construct for food reputation derived from qualitative and correlational studies, this paper aims to test four hypotheses about food reputation dimensions' effects on consumers' food choices.
A multi‐attribute, multi‐step choice experiment was carried out using a “phased narrowing” procedure. The procedure is based on eight product choices, using four reputation dimensions as manipulated attributes (duration, identity‐territoriality, social and environmental responsibility, psycho‐physiological well‐being); this is replicated on one drink and one food product.
A pilot study (n=50) checked the manipulation of the four reputation dimensions. ANOVA (n=118) showed the impact of the manipulated reputation features in the food choice process, especially in the final decision‐making phase.
The results confirm that food reputation features impact consumer choice, detailing the relative importance of different reputation features according to choice phase, product category, and individual characteristics.