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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1992

Zabihollah Rezaee, Gerald H. Lander and Thomas A. Gavin

Makes the case for inclusion of forensic accounting in the 150‐houraccounting training role in the USA. Practitioner roles are as fraudexaminer, litigation consultant and…

Abstract

Makes the case for inclusion of forensic accounting in the 150‐hour accounting training role in the USA. Practitioner roles are as fraud examiner, litigation consultant and expert witness for which need is expanding and remuneration considerable and stable. Makes detailed recommendations for integrating forensic skills training into the curriculum.

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Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1991

Zabihollah Rezaee and Gerald H. Lander

Internal auditing has transformed over the past twodecades from its beginnings as a financial enforcerto a respected member of the managementdecision‐making process…

Abstract

Internal auditing has transformed over the past two decades from its beginnings as a financial enforcer to a respected member of the management decision‐making process. Internal auditors now are providing management with information of a broader range of company activities than they are used to. This transformation is far from over because of the nature of the auditor′s work and the perceptions of management and the public concerning audits. The function of internal auditors is not only to measure and evaluate the effectiveness, efficiency and economy of organisational activities and controls but also to participate with management in high‐level decision making. The partnership concept of internal auditing is needed to enhance the image and change the attitudes of management with regards to internal auditing in light of the increased demands and responsibilities of the new auditor. Students, internal auditors and management must be educated properly and trained for this partnership concept. By using the internal auditor as part of the management team and by offering more to management and assuming more risk, the goals of the organisation are more likely to be achieved effectively, efficiently and economically.

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Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1993

Zabihollah Rezaee and Gerald H. Lander

Gives examples of a number of organizations, committees, andcommissions which have promoted both internal auditing and auditcommittees during the past two decades…

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2271

Abstract

Gives examples of a number of organizations, committees, and commissions which have promoted both internal auditing and audit committees during the past two decades. Explores the need for a close working relationship between the internal auditor and the audit committee. Examines: (1) the evolution of both internal auditing and audit committees; (2) the Treadway Commission recommendations regarding the importance and role of audit committees and internal auditors; (3) ways in which internal auditors can work with audit committees; and (4) benefits gained from this relationship. Shows how, recently, internal auditors have been transformed from a financial enforcer to a respected member of the management decision‐making process, and audit committees have also assumed more oversight responsibilities in the areas of financial reporting and internal control. Thus, a close and effective working relationship between the audit committee and the internal auditor will be beneficial not only to the company which they serve but also to society as a whole.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2004

Alan Reinstein and Gerald H. Lander

The provisions of Statement of Financial Accounting Standards (SFAS) No. 144, Accounting for the Impairment or Disposal of Long‐lived Assets, have raised many…

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3159

Abstract

The provisions of Statement of Financial Accounting Standards (SFAS) No. 144, Accounting for the Impairment or Disposal of Long‐lived Assets, have raised many implementation issues for entities adhering to its increased requirements to recognize and measure the costs associated with the impairment of assets. After outlining these new requirements and some general implementation issues, the paper discusses how members of key groups view the new standard, using the responses to a mail survey. It was found that user‐oriented groups expressed significantly different viewpoints than did preparer‐oriented groups. The survey results also found many respondents stating that the new standard provides improved guidance for many complex situations, while others do not believe that the standard is cost justified.

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Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 1994

Alan Reinstein, Gerald H. Lander and Thomas A. Gavin

Statement on Auditing Standards (SAS) 65 was issued in April 1991 toclarify various aspects of the working relationship that should existbetween external and internal…

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4387

Abstract

Statement on Auditing Standards (SAS) 65 was issued in April 1991 to clarify various aspects of the working relationship that should exist between external and internal auditors. Describes the historical development of this relationship as viewed through the promulgation of authoritative literature, reports of official committees and commissions, and prior research. Presents a survey which describes various aspects and characteristics of this relationship in the light of the provisions of SAS 65.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 9 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

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Article
Publication date: 21 March 2008

Gerald H. Lander and Kathleen A. Auger

The paper's aim is to research and discuss the issue of the lack of transparency in financial reporting and how companies take advantage of accounting rules in ways that…

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11176

Abstract

Purpose

The paper's aim is to research and discuss the issue of the lack of transparency in financial reporting and how companies take advantage of accounting rules in ways that inhibit transparency.

Design/methodology/approach

A literature review was carried out to see what had been written and discussed. Various legal cases were studied as well as Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) studies of the impact of off‐balance‐sheet arrangements allowed by the FASB and SEC.

Findings

There are many ways that companies accomplish off‐balance‐sheet financing by taking advantage of rules‐based accounting. If there is not a rule to prevent an entity from handling a particular transaction a certain way, then it is difficult for the auditor to stop it from happening.

Research limitations/implications

The paper is of descriptive nature. There are many policy implications from the results of the paper for all regulatory agencies. The economic substance of transactions needs to be communicated.

Practical implications

Financial managers and financial consultants need to refocus the structuring of financial transactions so that they comply with generally accepted accounting principles and that the economic substance of financial transactions is communicated. More accountability and ethical awareness needs to be instilled in the individuals who deceitfully structure financial transactions. Regulatory bodies need to ensure more transparency by closing loopholes and better enforcement of accounting standards. Boards of directors, especially the audit committees, need to be sure that a company is communicating the true economic reality of the financial transactions and financial position of the business entity. Off‐balance‐sheet financing is one of the most significant ways, among others, that the user of financial statements can be misled. It is time for regulatory bodies to eliminate overly rules‐based standards, clearly state the economic objective of each standard, and require firms to disclose the economic motivations for the accounting practices they adopt.

Originality/value

The value of the paper is that it studies the problems of the lack of transparency in financial reporting. It then suggests that if what is currently being done, (i.e. rules‐based accounting), is not working, then a new approach, principles‐based accounting needs to be implemented by the regulatory agencies. This paper provides an overview of the lack of financial statement transparency.

Details

Journal of Accounting & Organizational Change, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1832-5912

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1995

Thomas A. Gavin, Barry J. Cooper, Philomena Leung, Gerald H. Lander and Alan Reinstein

The second of two articles dealing with a survey of health careinternal auditing in the United States. The first article appeared inVol. 7 No. 6, 1992. The second article…

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538

Abstract

The second of two articles dealing with a survey of health care internal auditing in the United States. The first article appeared in Vol. 7 No. 6, 1992. The second article builds on the first and deals with: the allocation of time to various internal audit activities and the rationale employed to determine such allocations; the structure of the board of directors and the relationship of the board to the internal audit function; the power, conflict and risks associated with health care entities; and finally the working relationship that exists between the internal and external auditors.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

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Book part
Publication date: 30 September 2021

Alex Brayson

The experimental parliamentary subsidy on knights' fees and freehold incomes from lands and rents of 1431 was the only English direct lay tax of the Middle Ages which…

Abstract

The experimental parliamentary subsidy on knights' fees and freehold incomes from lands and rents of 1431 was the only English direct lay tax of the Middle Ages which broke down. As such, this subsidy has a clear historiographical significance, yet previous scholars have tended to overlook it on the grounds that parliament's annulment act of 1432 mandated the destruction of all fiscal administrative evidence. Many county assessments from 1431–1432 do, however, survive and are examined for the first time in this article as part of a detailed assessment of the fiscal and administrative context of the knights' fees and incomes tax. This impost constituted a royal response to excess expenditures associated with Henry VI's “Coronation Expedition” of 1429–1431, the scale of which marked a decisive break from the fiscal-military strategy of the 1420s. Widespread confusion regarding whether taxpayers ought to pay the feudal or the non-feudal component of the 1431 subsidy characterized its botched administration. Industrial scale under-assessment, moreover, emerged as a serious problem. Officials' attempts to provide a measure of fiscal compensation by unlawfully double-assessing many taxpayers served to increase administrative confusion and resulted in parliament's annulment act of 1432. This had serious consequences for the crown's finances, since the regime was saddled with budgetary and debt problems which would ultimately undermine the solvency of the Lancastrian state.

Details

Research in Economic History
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-880-7

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Book part
Publication date: 11 November 2015

Rhiannon A. Leebrick

This chapter provides theoretical conceptualizations to (1) better understand the phenomenon of rural gentrification and (2) the links between rural gentrification and…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter provides theoretical conceptualizations to (1) better understand the phenomenon of rural gentrification and (2) the links between rural gentrification and regional tourism development, using a case study in south central Appalachia.

Methodology/approach

This ethnographic study relies on the results of a series of interviews and instances of participant observation.

Findings

Affluent newcomers often implement development projects through the injection of private capital into public-seeming projects like community-based organizations (CBOs). These projects offer partial solutions to the problem of failing local economies. However, they also have the potential to reinforce class structures and push narrowly perceived development processes.

Practical implications

A critical evaluation of rural gentrification may be useful to CBOs and local governments leading development projects in rural areas.

Originality/value

The phenomenon of rural gentrification warrants critical examination of current development agendas being proposed or implemented.

Details

States and Citizens: Accommodation, Facilitation and Resistance to Globalization
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-180-4

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1976

H.L. Theuns

Nowadays it is — to a certain extent — popular to criticize international tourism to third world countries. These criticisms may base on widely divergent aspects of the…

Abstract

Nowadays it is — to a certain extent — popular to criticize international tourism to third world countries. These criticisms may base on widely divergent aspects of the phenomenon, ranging from for instance the economic impact to the environmental impact or the psychological impact. Without implicitly suggesting that the non‐economic effects of international tourism in developing countries are unimportant we will concentrate in the following on the economic impact. The reason for this is twofold:

Details

The Tourist Review, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0251-3102

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