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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1996

L. Thomas Winfree, Gregory M. Bartku and George Seibel

Looks at policing in small to medium departments in nonmetropolitan areas. Describes the level and sources of support for traditional and community policing activities…

Abstract

Looks at policing in small to medium departments in nonmetropolitan areas. Describes the level and sources of support for traditional and community policing activities. Finds that highly educated and long‐serving officers had lower levels of police solidarity (social cohesiveness); conversely the higher the police solidarity, the lower the level of police professionalism. Traditional policing and CP were seen as separate but related aspects and higher expenditure on the former aspect was supported. Suggests that officers are not in favor of funding CP at the expense of traditional policing. Finds that well‐educated officers are less supportive of police solidarity and of CP. Points out that although the officers surveyed were based in relatively isolated communities they did not unequivocally support CP.

Details

American Journal of Police, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0735-8547

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2003

Brian Gran

Charitable Choice Policy, the heart of President Bush’s Faith‐Based Initiative, is the direct government funding of religious organizations for the purpose of carrying out…

Abstract

Charitable Choice Policy, the heart of President Bush’s Faith‐Based Initiative, is the direct government funding of religious organizations for the purpose of carrying out government programs. The Bush presidential administration has called for the application of Charitable Choice Policy to all kinds of social services. Advocates for child‐abuse victims contend that the Bush Charitable Choice Policy would further dismantle essential social services provided to abused children. Others have argued Charitable Choice Policy is unconstitutional because it crosses the boundary separating church and state. Rather than drastically altering the US social‐policy landscape, this paper demonstrates that the Bush Charitable Choice Policy already is in place for childabuse services across many of the fifty states. One reason this phenomenon is ignored is due to the reliance on the public‐private dichotomy for studying social policies and services. This paper contends that relying on the public‐private dichotomy leads researchers to overlook important configurations of actors and institutions that provide services to abused children. It offers an alternate framework to the public‐private dichotomy useful for the analysis of social policy in general and, in particular, Charitable Choice Policy affecting services to abused children. Employing a new methodological approach, fuzzy‐sets analysis, demonstrates the degree to which social services for abused children match ideal types. It suggests relationships between religious organizations and governments are essential to the provision of services to abused children in the United States. Given the direction in which the Bush Charitable Choice Policy will push social‐policy programs, scholars should ask whether abused children will be placed in circumstances that other social groups will not and why.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 23 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Book part
Publication date: 13 July 2020

Abstract

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Introduction to Sustainable Development Leadership and Strategies in Higher Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-648-9

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Article
Publication date: 29 November 2018

Prakash Singh and Sanjeev Kapoor

The issue of transaction cost (TC) has always been the concern of both researchers and policymakers in microfinance. This paper aims to measure the TC of borrowers across…

Abstract

Purpose

The issue of transaction cost (TC) has always been the concern of both researchers and policymakers in microfinance. This paper aims to measure the TC of borrowers across various microfinance business models in India.

Design/methodology/approach

To identify sources of the TC of the clients in the entire process of borrowing loan, the technique of process mapping has been used in this study. Using the data collected from randomly selected 700 clients under different microfinance models, the study has computed the different components of clients’ TC.

Findings

The results show that although SHG-Bank linkage model has more robust organizational design, its sluggish operational modalities has resulted in a higher client TC as compared to that in MFI lending model. The indirect TC (in terms of clients’ opportunity cost of time) occupies major share in clients’ TC, and strategies are required by MFIs/banks to reduce it substantially by using the appropriate technology.

Research limitations/implications

The client TC can become one of the important factor to evaluate efficiency of the different models of microfinance. Policymakers can use the findings to reduce the clients’ TC by benchmarking best practices across all the microfinance business models.

Originality/value

The research paper offers an insight into different components of clients’ TC across different models of microfinance. So far, not much research has been carried out on the subject in Indian context.

Details

International Journal of Development Issues, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1446-8956

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Book part
Publication date: 11 April 2019

Tammar B. Zilber, John M. Amis and Johanna Mair

In this introduction, the authors outline some critical reflections on the sociology of knowledge within management and organization theory. Based on a review of various…

Abstract

In this introduction, the authors outline some critical reflections on the sociology of knowledge within management and organization theory. Based on a review of various works that form a sociology of organizational knowledge, the authors identify three approaches that have become particularly prominent ways by which scholars explore how knowledge about organizations and management is produced: First, reflective and opinion essays that organization studies scholars offer on the basis of what can be learned from personal experience; second, descriptive craft-guides that are based on more-or-less comprehensive surveys on doing research; third, papers based on systematic research that are built upon rigorous collection and analysis of data about the production of knowledge. Whereas in the studies of organizing the authors prioritize the third approach, that is knowledge produced based on systematic empirical research, in examining our own work the authors tend to privilege the other two types, reflective articles and surveys. In what follows the authors highlight this gap, offer some explanations thereof, and call for a better appreciation of all three ways to offer rich understandings of organizations, work and management as well as a fruitful sociology of knowledge in our field.

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The Production of Managerial Knowledge and Organizational Theory: New Approaches to Writing, Producing and Consuming Theory
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-183-4

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1944

Alexander Klemin

IT was very gratifying to see that in spile of the pressure of the times and the difficulties of travel, the Twelfth Annual Meeting of the Institute was as well attended…

Abstract

IT was very gratifying to see that in spile of the pressure of the times and the difficulties of travel, the Twelfth Annual Meeting of the Institute was as well attended as ever with as wide a representation as in previous years. Nor was there any lack of excellent papers, although, of course, it was perfectly clear that some of the very best development work in aerodynamics, power plant, and similar fields could not be discussed because of military restrictions. Note‐worthy was the perfectly tremendous attendance at the rotating wing aircraft session at which, after some excellent papers, films were shown of the Piasecki, Sikorsky and Bell helicopters. This session was so. crowded that the audience had to be moved to another hall where standing in the aisles could be avoided. This is another confirmation of the importance which is attached to helicopter development by American aeronautical engineers.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 16 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Book part
Publication date: 4 December 2009

George Steinmetz

Anthropologists have long discussed the ways in which their discipline has been entangled, consciously and unconsciously, with the colonized populations they study. A…

Abstract

Anthropologists have long discussed the ways in which their discipline has been entangled, consciously and unconsciously, with the colonized populations they study. A foundational text in this regard was Michel Leiris' Phantom Africa (L'Afrique fantôme; Leiris, 1934), which described an African ethnographic expedition led by Marcel Griaule as a form of colonial plunder. Leiris criticized anthropologists' focus on the most isolated, rural, and traditional cultures, which could more easily be described as untouched by European influences, and he saw this as a way of disavowing the very existence of colonialism. In 1950, Leiris challenged Europeans' ability even to understand the colonized, writing that “ethnography is closely linked to the colonial fact, whether ethnographers like it or not. In general they work in the colonial or semi-colonial territories dependent on their country of origin, and even if they receive no direct support from the local representatives of their government, they are tolerated by them and more or less identified, by the people they study, as agents of the administration” (Leiris, 1950, p. 358). Similar ideas were discussed by French social scientists throughout the 1950s. Maxime Rodinson argued in the Année sociologique that “colonial conditions make even the most technically sophisticated sociological research singularly unsatisfying, from the standpoint of the desiderata of a scientific sociology” (Rodinson, 1955, p. 373). In a rejoinder to Leiris, Pierre Bourdieu acknowledged in Work and Workers in Algeria (Travail et travailleurs en Algérie) that “no behavior, attitude or ideology can be explained objectively without reference to the existential situation of the colonized as it is determined by the action of economic and social forces characteristic of the colonial system,” but he insisted that the “problems of science” needed to be separated from “the anxieties of conscience” (2003, pp. 13–14). Since Bourdieu had been involved in a study of an incredibly violent redistribution of Algerians by the French colonial army at the height of the anticolonial revolutionary war, he had good reason to be sensitive to Leiris' criticisms (Bourdieu & Sayad, 1964). Rodinson called Bourdieu's critique of Leiris' thesis “excellent’ (1965, p. 360), but Bourdieu later revised his views, noting that the works that had been available to him at the time of his research in Algeria tended “to justify the colonial order” (1990, p. 3). At the 1974 colloquium that gave rise to a book on the connections between anthropology and colonialism, Le mal de voir, Bourdieu called for an analysis of the relatively autonomous field of colonial science (1993a, p. 51). A parallel discussion took place in American anthropology somewhat later, during the 1960s. At the 1965 meetings of the American Anthropological Association, Marshall Sahlins criticized the “enlistment of scholars” in “cold war projects such as Camelot” as “servants of power in a gendarmerie relationship to the Third World.” This constituted a “sycophantic relation to the state unbefitting science or citizenship” (Sahlins, 1967, pp. 72, 76). Sahlins underscored the connections between “scientific functionalism and the natural interest of a leading world power in the status quo” and called attention to the language of contagion and disease in the documents of “Project Camelot,” adding that “waiting on call is the doctor, the US Army, fully prepared for its self-appointed ‘important mission in the positive and constructive aspects of nation-building’” a mission accompanied by “insurgency prophylaxis” (1967, pp. 77–78). At the end of the decade, Current Anthropology published a series of articles on anthropologists’ “social responsibilities,” and Human Organization published a symposium entitled “Decolonizing Applied Social Sciences.” British anthropologists followed suit, as evidenced by Talal Asad's 1973 collection Anthropology and the Colonial Encounter. During the 1980s, authors such as Gothsch (1983) began to address the question of German anthropology's involvement in colonialism. The most recent revival of this discussion was in response to the Pentagon's deployment of “embedded anthropologists” in Afghanistan and elsewhere in the Middle East. The “Network of Concerned Anthropologists” in the AAA asked “researchers to sign an online pledge not to work with the military,” arguing that they “are not all necessarily opposed to other forms of anthropological consulting for the state, or for the military, especially when such cooperation contributes to generally accepted humanitarian objectives … However, work that is covert, work that breaches relations of openness and trust with studied populations, and work that enables the occupation of one country by another violates professional standards” (“Embedded Anthropologists” 2007).3 Other disciplines, notably geography, economics, area studies, and political science, have also started to examine the involvement of their fields with empire.4

Details

Political Power and Social Theory
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-667-0

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Article
Publication date: 15 September 2020

Courtney L. McCluney, Danielle D. King, Courtney M. Bryant and Abdifatah A. Ali

The purpose of this essay is to highlight the urgent need for antiracism resource generation in organizations today.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this essay is to highlight the urgent need for antiracism resource generation in organizations today.

Design/methodology/approach

This essay weaves together popular press articles, academic writings and the authors' lived experiences to summarize, clarify and extend the work needed inside of organizations and academia to dismantle systemic racism.

Findings

We define antiracist resources as personal and material assets that counteract systemic racism through informing and equipping antiracist actions, and identify three resources—adopting a long-term view for learning the history of racism, embracing discomfort to acknowledge racist mistakes and systematically assess how organizational structures maintain white supremacy—for organizations to address systemic racism.

Research limitations/implications

While there is a critical need for more antiracism research, there are standards and guidelines that should be followed to conduct that research responsibly with antiracism enacted in research design, methodology decisions and publication practices.

Practical implications

The authors call for organizations to directly counter-racism via antiracism resources and offer examples for how these resources can inform and equip companies to create equitable workplaces.

Originality/value

This essay offers: (a) an updated, timely perspective on effective responses to systemic racism (e.g. police brutality and COVID-19), (b) a detailed discussion of antiracism resources and (c) specific implications for antiracism work in organizational research.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 40 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 3 August 2018

Scott C. Hewitson, Jonathan D. Ritschel, Edward White and Gregory Brown

Recent legislation resulted in an elevation of operating and support (O&S) costs’ relative importance for decision-making in Department of Defense programs. However, a…

Abstract

Purpose

Recent legislation resulted in an elevation of operating and support (O&S) costs’ relative importance for decision-making in Department of Defense programs. However, a lack of research in O&S hinders a cost analyst’s abilities to provide accurate sustainment estimates. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to investigate when Air Force aircraft O&S costs stabilize and to what degree. Next, a parametric O&S model is developed to predict median O&S costs for use as a new tool for cost analyst practitioners.

Design/methodology/approach

Utilizing the Air Force total ownership cost database, 44 programs consisting of 765 observations from 1996 to 2016 are analyzed. First, stability is examined in three areas: total O&S costs, the six O&S cost element structures and by aircraft type. Next, stepwise regression is used to predict median O&S costs per total active inventory (CPTAI) and identify influential variables.

Findings

Stability results vary by category but generally are found to occur approximately five years from initial operating capability. The regression model explains 89.01 per cent of the variance in the data set when predicting median O&S CPTAI. Aircraft type, location of lead logistics center and unit cost are the three largest contributing factors.

Originality/value

Results from this research provide insight to cost analysts on when to start using actual O&S costs as a baseline for estimates in lieu of analogous cost program data and also derives a new parametric O&S estimating tool designed as a cross-check to current estimating methodologies.

Details

Journal of Defense Analytics and Logistics, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2399-6439

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Article
Publication date: 12 October 2012

Ellen Ernst Kossek, Thomas Kalliath and Parveen Kalliath

The purpose of this expert commentary is to provide an overview of current scholarship on changes occurring in the work environment and its impact on employee wellbeing…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this expert commentary is to provide an overview of current scholarship on changes occurring in the work environment and its impact on employee wellbeing. The commentary touches on frontier issues such as measurement of healthy work environment, positive and negative changes in work environment influencing employee wellbeing, link between employee productivity and wellbeing, challenges in converting theory into practice, sustainable organizational behavior, workplace wellness, and several other issues germane to the special issue.

Design/methodology/approach

The expert commentary explicates the current state of scholarship in relation to the theme of the special issue. The design of the expert commentary, a scholarly conversation between the Guest Editors and University Distinguished Professor Ellen Ernst Kossek, provides an easy to access summary of the current knowledge in the area. This format is intended to inform readers of IJM and to stimulate further scholarship in the area.

Findings

The expert commentary provides a gist of key findings in the extant area of research, serving to inform readers about what we know, do not know, and fruitful areas for further enquiry.

Originality/value

It provides an overview of current knowledge in the area.

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